Culturally & Linguistically Responsive Intervention

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This is the handout for my TESOL institute in Philadelphia this week.

This is the handout for my TESOL institute in Philadelphia this week.

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  • 1. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Culturally & Linguistically Responsive Intervention for EL Students Dr. Catherine Collier catherine@crosscultured.com What’s Up, Doc? Write down and pass forward @AskDrCollier catherine@crosscultured.com www.crosscultured.com http://www.facebook.com/Ask DrCollier © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved The Bottom Line CLD/LEP must be able to participate effectively (at or near peer) in all programs and content areas. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 1
  • 2. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Growth in Native Born LEP First Generation Second Generation Third + Generation 20% 40% 40% © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Definitions Culture Learning Disability Cognition The concept of Difficulty in perceiving The process by which things that and manipulating individuals perceive, particular people patterns in the relate to, and interpret use as models of environment, whether their environment. perceiving, patterns of sounds, relating, and symbols, numbers, or interpreting their behaviors. environment. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, Ways we are less insights, personal like other people. reflections. ACCULTURATION Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). Ways we are ENCULTURATION more like other Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, people. language, values, etc. learned from caregivers. THE BASICS OF BEING HUMAN Sensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic heritage, innate abilities, etc.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 2
  • 3. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 National Disproportionality in Sped 2006 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hispanic Black Asian/PI American Indian Total Enrollment 18.51 14.91 4.2 0.97 Emotional Disturbance 15.9 28.79 1.12 1.56 Learning Disability 21.23 20.52 1.7 1.74 Intellectual Disability 16.27 20.6 2.19 1.53© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Disproportionality for ELL 2010 • Underrepresented in special education overall • Overrepresented in specific categories: – Speech/language Impairments (SI) – Learning Disabilities (LD) – LD/SI combination © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Disproportionality WA 2011 NonELL ELL 12.90% 5.80% .60% 4.40% 2.50% .10% LD EBD AS © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 3
  • 4. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 ELL Representation Patterns • Students in English • ELLs who are “parent immersion programs denials” are the most are referred at higher likely to be referred and rates than those in placed. bilingual programs. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Policy Driving Practice • The evaluation team may not identify a student as disabled if the discrepancy is primarily the result of an environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. • Tests must be selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; • A child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is-- » lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of reading instruction » lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of instruction in math; or » limited English proficiency. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved RTI & RTII Tier 3 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 4
  • 5. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Problem Solving with Progress Monitoring Identify Problem Analyze Measure response the patterns Is there a discrepancy problem between current & excepted performance? Did it work? What do we do next? Why & to what extent is there a problem? Monitor By how much should response to Set goals intervention the student grow? By how much should the student grow? How & when will the intervention strategy be implemented? What will be done to resolve the problem? Implement Brainstorm intervention interventions Plan intervention setting © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved RTI & RTII© 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier © 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved All Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 5
  • 6. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Intervention & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Step 7 Step 6 Step 5 Literacy Readiness Skills Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Oral Proficiency L1 Step 1 © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Is RTI the answer to disproportionate representation of ELL? Only if approaches are culturally and linguistically responsive and address both system and student issues.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved RTI is more than reading! © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 6
  • 7. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL 1. Difficulties with policy guidelines. 2. Different stakeholder views about timing for referral of students who are English language learners. 3. Insufficient knowledge among personnel involved in identification. 4. Difficulties providing consistent, adequate services to students who are English language learners.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL 5. Difficulty obtaining students’ previous school records. 6. Lack of collaborative structures before referral. 7. Lack of access to assessments that differentiate between second language development and learning disabilities. 8. Lack of consistent monitoring for struggling students who are English language learners.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Potential Sources of Cultural mismatch All students do not share the • Experience experiences and background • Language knowledge that teachers, textbooks, and curriculum standards may • Culture assume. • Child-rearing history Children from culturally and • Religion linguistically different backgrounds • Socioeconomic status have different experiences and • Urban-rural context knowledge than mainstream teachers and children. • Risk factors (number/severity) © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 7
  • 8. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Culture & Child Rearing • Vertical vs horizontal • Instruct vs allow • Indulgent vs strict • Adult vs peers • Inward vs outward • Nuclear vs communal But avoid stereotyping! • Sometimes it is easier to understand culturally diverse families in terms of group attributes. But individual families are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Common Side-Effects Of the Acculturation Process Heightened Anxiety Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors© 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier © 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved All Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 8
  • 9. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase PhaseHighlyEngagedLevel Families as well as studentsModeratelyEngagedLevelNormalIntensity ofEmotionsModeratelyDepressedLevelGreatlyDepressedLevel Why do they do that? Error in English Possessive forms Non English language • No marker for possessive • Khmer, Vietnamese forms: “my friend’s house” – A noun’s owner comes after – “house my friend” the object • Avoid use of ‘s to describe • Navajo, Apache possession: “my sister’s – Only specific things can be children” “possessed” or “owned” – “the children of my sister” • Hmong, Spanish, Tagalog – Use of a prepositional phrase to express possession reflects a more common structure © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability • Step 1 Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning • Step 2 Establishing & Supporting Resiliency • Step 3 Instructional Intervention & Differentiated Instruction • Step 4 Intensive Intervention with Progress Monitoring • Step 5 Resolution or Referral • Step 6 Integrated Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Cross- • Step 7 Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 9
  • 10. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 PRISIM Step 1: Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning Systems & policies promote and sustain: •Access to safety, food, clothing, & shelter •Quality preparation of effective education professionals & support staff •Adequacy of school facilities & resources •Consistent use of culturally & linguistically responsive, evidence- based practices •Supportive responsive relationships •Other effective practices & procedures© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved PRISIM Application Step 1 Building & Sustaining a What will you have in Foundation for Learning your foundation? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes PRISIM Step 2: Establishing & Supporting Resiliency Building Literacy foundation Facilitating Readiness Skills TPR Facilitating & Sustaining Readiness to Learn Bilingual Sustaining Oral Proficiency L1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 10
  • 11. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Five Standards for Effective Instruction • Joint Productive Activity • Language & Literacy Development • Contextualize to Make Meaning • Challenging Activities • Instructional Conversation © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Look at the Home Language Survey on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 11
  • 12. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation at enrollment 1. What is the student’s current level of acculturation? 2. What is the caregiver’s current level of acculturation?© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Look at José’s profile and his baseline AQS.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Look at the Resiliency Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 12
  • 13. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Look at the 1st Classroom Language Interaction Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Strategy Fitness!© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved What We Recommend For Step 2 1. Identify student’s home language proficiency & use to support academic interventions. 2. Measure student’s level of acculturation to school and use to implement appropriate instruction & intervention. 3. Measure the student’s ‘classroom language’ in all communication modes & use to design appropriate instruction & intervention. 4. Develop a resiliency & cognitive learning profile useful in implementing effective instruction & intervention. 5. Implement strength based instruction & language support. 6. Monitor effectiveness of instruction & intervention. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 13
  • 14. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 PRISIM Application Step 2 Establishing & Supporting How will you facilitate Resiliency resiliency in your students? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes PRISIM Step 3: Instructional Intervention & Differentiated Instruction Self monitoring Literacy Readiness Skills Visualization Analogies Expanded TPR Transitional Bilingual Oral Proficiency L1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Specific Needs = Specific Strategies Doesn’t get work in _____________ = Self checklist _____________ time to think Does not take = “STOP” strategies _____________ tasks Cannot organize = Graphic organizers _____________to distract Makes noises = Guided practice _____________ to do work Says it’s no use = Self concept activities ____________ Does not initiate work = Active processing _____________ & Confuses English = Compare & contrast, Spanish phonemes rhymes, games © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 14
  • 15. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation when planning intervention. 1. What is the current level of acculturation? 2. Is the rate of acculturation normal?© 201 2 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Look at the 2nd AQS on José.© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Calculating Rate of Acculturation _______ x _______ = __________ Years btwn AQS Minimum Gain Normal Gain Expected _______ Current Score - _______ = __________ Baseline Score Point Gain Achieved Normal is a ratio of 1 < Achieved divided by Expected > 1 = Normal Above 1 Below 1 5 / 8 = .625 10 / 8 = 1.24© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 15
  • 16. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Five questions you should be able to answer about instructional needs 1. What are the student’s instructional needs? 2. What interventions are needed? 3. In what order should the interventions be implemented? 4. For how long should the interventions be implemented? 5. How will I monitor their effectiveness?© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Look at the 1st Sociocultural Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Models of Progress Monitoring • RTI Standard Protocol • RTI Continuous • Response to Instruction and Intervention • Problem Solving with Progress Monitoring© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 16
  • 17. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 What we recommend for Step 3 1. Implement specific strength & need based interventions that facilitate learning. 2. Monitor effectiveness of instruction & intervention strategies. Modify based upon student’s response to the strategy. 3. Monitor effectiveness of instruction and intervention in relation to student’s home language proficiency. 4. Monitor student’s level & rate of acculturation to school & the effectiveness of instruction & intervention to facilitate. 5. Monitor the student’s ‘classroom language’ in all communication modes & the appropriateness of instruction & intervention to expand. 6. Monitor resiliency & cognitive learning & effectiveness of instruction & intervention. PRISIM Application Step 3 Instructional Intervention & How will you differentiate Differentiated Instruction instruction & intervention? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes PRISIM Step 4: Intensive Intervention with Progress Monitoring 3D pie charts Stepped proximics Literacy Readiness Skills Miscue analysis© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 17
  • 18. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Strategy Fitness!© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Four questions you should be able to answer about language 1. What is the student’s current social language proficiency in both languages? 2. What is the student’s current academic language proficiency in both languages? 3. Is the rate of development & acquisition normal? 4. What are the most effective instructional strategies to use?© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Look at José’s 2nd language proficiency information.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 18
  • 19. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Look at the 2nd Sociocultural Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Order of Intervention Duration of Outcomes of Concern Selected Intervention Intervention Academic Prioritization of RTI Area(s) Order of Intervention Duration of Outcomes of Concern Selected Intervention Intervention Sociocultural Area Acculturation Cognitive Learning Culture & Language Experiential Background Sociolinguistic Development© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved •Preview, do, review Initiate •Stop if no response after 5 days, review strategy •Make minor revisions •Preview, do, review Modify strategy •Stop if no response after 3 days, review •Preview, do, review Start new •Stop if no response after 5 days, review. strategy •Measure and analyze Monitor •Identify what worked and what didn’t process •Preview, do, review Initiate •Stop if no response after 5 days, review. strategy© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 19
  • 20. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 What we recommend for Step 4 1. Determine if the rate & level of acculturation to school is normal & analyze pattern of response to intervention & instruction. 2. Determine if language gains are normal & analyze pattern of language acquisition. 3. Determine if student response to interventions & modification patterns resolve problems & are sustainable. 4. Implement & monitor short cycle tightly focused “unanswered” needs based intervention. 5. Monitor the response & effectiveness of intervention.PRISIM Application Step 4 Intensive Intervention & How will you monitor Progress Monitoring student progress? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes PRISIM Step 5: Resolution or Referral© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 20
  • 21. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 First Things First • There is no such thing as a nonbiased test. • Assessment is more than testing. • Prevention is better than failure. • Measure progress, not ‘achievement.’© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Prior to Formal Evaluation 1. Screen standardized instruments for cultural and linguistic bias. 2. Review administration options for accommodation of language and culture issues. 3. Document how you have accounted for linguistic and cultural differences, and in regard to procedures and instrument selection.© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Evaluation Procedures Each public agency must ensure that tests and other evaluation materials used to assess a child under Part B of IDEA: • are selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; and • are provided and administered in the child’s native language or other mode of communication, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so.© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 21
  • 22. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Clarifications from the Discussion Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964: • In order to properly evaluate a child who may be limited English proficient, a public agency should assess the child’s proficiency in English as well as in his or her native language to distinguish language proficiency from disability needs; and • An accurate assessment of the child’s language proficiency should include objective assessment of reading, writing, speaking, and understanding.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Clarifications (cont.): In some situations, there may be no one on the staff of the public agency who is able to administer a test or other evaluation in the child’s native language, but an appropriate individual is available in the surrounding area. In that case, a public agency could identify an individual in the surrounding area who is able to administer a test or other evaluation in the child’s native language, including contacting neighboring school districts, local universities, and professional organizations.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved What we recommend for Step 5 After a formal referral: 1. Crosscultural evaluation based upon the outcomes of the instructional intervention 2. Test Evaluation Checklist 3. CrossCultural Administration of Standardized Tests If the student is eligible for SE & ESL services: 1. Integrated plan of services. 2. Cross-cultural IEP. 3. Continued language and acculturation support. If the student is not eligible for SE services: 1. Integrated plan of services within the general education program. 2. Continued language and acculturation support. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 22
  • 23. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 PRISIM Application Step 5 Resolution or Referral How will you decide? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes PRISIM Step 6: Integrated Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Electronic eye piece Accessibility aids 504 Cochlear implant IEP Kurtzweil reader Literacy Readiness Skills Oral Proficiency L1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved IEP Development The steps involved in IEP development for ELL students with special needs include the development of objectives related to: (a) native language development and English language acquisition, (b) the facilitation of acculturation, (c) special education, (d) the integration of specific culture/language interventions which address special education needs, (e) identification of service providers responsible for implementing and monitoring the integration of these services, and (f) the time limits and scheduled specific re-evaluation formats, dates, and meetings.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 23
  • 24. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Including Diverse Issues on the IEP • A. Does the student have behavior, which impedes his/her learning or the learning of others? Yes No • If yes, consider, if appropriate, strategies including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address that behavior. • Check here if a behavior management plan is developed and attached. • B. Does the student have limited English proficiency? Yes No • If yes, consider the language needs as related to the IEP and describe below.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Integrated Services Intermediate PreProduction Early Speech Intermediate Advanced Advanced Production Emergence Fluency Fluency Fluency Needs total assistance Needs a great Pull out for deal of assistance targeted assistance Needs a lot of assistance Pull out/Push in for Has a moderate targeted assistance level of needs Has moderate but specific Total needs Push in for José Has specific need to be targeted assistance Inclusion addressed Needs minimal assistance © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved PRISIM Application Step 6 Integrated Services How will you integrate & Cross-cultural IEPs services? Cross- 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 24
  • 25. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 PRISIM Step 7 : Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE & Families Literacy Readiness Skills Oral Proficiency L1© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved PRISIM Application Step 7 Maintaining Staff & How will you maintain Programs Serving CLDE personnel readiness? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 25
  • 26. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Intervention & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Step 7 Step 6 Step 5 Literacy Readiness Skills Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Oral Proficiency L1 Step 1 © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 10 Questions to Consider 1. How have I honored the referring teacher’s concern? 2. Do we have a clear problem solving process in place? 3. Who is the gatekeeper within the ELL program who is contacted for every intervention cycle? 4. To what extent does everyone understand language development? 5. Is the ELL exhibiting atypical performance? 6. To whom is the ELL being compared? 7. What data should I look at for the peer comparison? 8. What role does Response-To-Intervention (RTI) play in the problem solving process? 9. To what extent are parents involved? 10. To what extent are district ELL/Special Ed trends being scrutinized? OSPI, Migrant, and Bilingual Staff 2009© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 1. How have I honored the referring teacher’s concern? Do’s Don’t • Respect that the teacher • Dismiss the teacher’s concerns wants the child to succeed. as unimportant or foolish (this • Respect that the teacher is leads to stealth referrals and a probably doing the best she competition to qualify an ELL can with what she knows. just out of spite). • Respect the teacher’s • Make the teacher feel ignorant understanding of pedagogy. because she doesn’t have a • Offer immediate assistance – background in ELL issues. observations, co-planning, • Promise something that you modifications. can’t/won’t deliver on.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 26
  • 27. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 2. Do we have a clear problem solving process in place? • Create a process with a multi-disciplinary team: Special Ed “best friend”, content and/or grade-level teacher, administrator, ELL staff. • Get approval for the process and communicate it often to all staff. • Avoid an overwhelmingly complex process if the majority of referrals are based on simple misinformation.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 3. Who is the gatekeeper within ELL who is contacted for every intervention cycle? • No one has all the knowledge about ELL/Special Ed referrals, but … • When a Special Ed or ELL staff person suggests that “Yes, this kid probably is Special Ed” before knowing all the facts, it is difficult to bring any contradictory information to the table. • Many ELLs are referred because they were referred at an earlier grade.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 4. To what extent does everyone understand language development? Avoid these common fallacies: • No English = No intelligence/learning • Social, oral language (BICS) = academic language (CALPs) • Judging GLEs without ELD standards • Ignoring time as a crucial factor in language development • Ignoring the role of dominant language© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 27
  • 28. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 5. Is the ELL exhibiting atypical performance? • Franklin Bender “Difference vs. Disability: The Continuum of Working with English Language Learners” from National CEU. www.NationalCEU.com • Catherine Collier “Separating Difference from Disability” www.crosscultured.com • Evaluation and Assessment in Early Childhood Special Education: Children Who Are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse www.k12.wa.us/SpecialEd/pubdocs/CLD.doc© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 6. To whom is the ELL student being compared? • A peer analysis is critical in determining if the student’s performance is atypical. • The ideal peer group are ELLs, same language background, same time in program, same grade of entry in school. • Scour district longitudinal data and find as large a peer group as possible© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 7. What data should I look at for the peer comparison? • Years in program • Entry grade • Language proficiency levels • State benchmark test scores • Mobility • Parent input • There is always more to find out…© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 28
  • 29. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 8. What role does Response-To-Intervention (RTI) play in the problem solving process? There is great promise […] in using an RTI approach for many reasons. First, the universal screening and progress monitoring called for in the RTI process allow for comparison of students to other similar or “true” peers in their local cohort rather than to national norms. Second, an effective RTI model requires collaboration among all educators (e.g. speech and language therapists, school psychologists, counselors, English as a second language/Bilingual specialist) thereby providing increased opportunities for professional dialogue, peer coaching, and the creation of instructional models integrating best practices of the various fields of education and related services. Source: “A Cultural, Linguistic, and Ecological Framework for Response to Intervention with English Language Learners” Julie Esparza Brown, Portland State University, 2008.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 9. To what extent are parents involved? • Parents need to be contacted early in a language they understand regarding the teacher’s concerns. • Parents need to be educated about language development and differences between siblings, the role of 1st language literacy, etc.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 10. To what extent are district ELL/Special Ed trends being scrutinized? Sometimes individual schools and staff are unable to notice trends in referrals across the district.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 29
  • 30. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Five Things that Work in RTI for ELL 1. Adequate Professional Knowledge 2. Effective Instruction 3. Valid Assessments & Interventions 4. Collaboration Between District Departments 5. Clear Policies© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved Indicators that validate the need for SPED evaluation • Poor communicative proficiency in the home as compared to siblings and age peers in bilingual environments, especially when this lack is noticed by the parents. • English language development that appears to be significantly different than that of peers who are also learning English as a additional language. • Documentation that student’s acquisition of English is within normal range for his peer group, age, culture/language population, length of time in ESL, etc. but there are specific learning and/or behavior problems unrelated to culture shock or language transition. • Specific sensory, neurological, organic, motor, or other conditions that impact learning and behavior when having reliable documentation that culture shock or language transition contributes but is not the determining factor for the learning and behavior problems. • Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages indicating that she has not acquired morphologic structures by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance • Student’s response to specific structured interventions addressing his presenting problem is documented to be more than 40% below ELL/CLD peers within individualized instructional intervention. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Recommendations Achievement Progress Monitoring 1. Modify format 1. Clear begin/end criteria – Selection Taxonomy for ELL 2. Peer appropriate Accommodations (STELLA) performance outcomes – Bilingual dictionaries 3. Local norms & – Expand time benchmarks – Open book 4. Discrete steps 2. Administer in dual/multiple languages 5. Strategy fitness 3. Task analysis 6. Consistent & regular 4. Local norms & monitoring benchmarks 7. Short cycles© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 30
  • 31. CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 3/15/2012 Best Practice Educators 1. Remain informed 2. Use differentiation 3. Facilitate resiliencyBe Prepared for anything and keep a Initiate of humor! 4. sense communication 5. Monitor adaptation & response 6. Facilitate interaction! © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Contact Information Catherine Collier, Ph.D. @AskDrCollier (Twitter) catherine@crosscultured.com www.crosscultured.com http://www.facebook.com/AskDrCollier A cool new resource: World Customs and Cultures app! Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.com • Over 45 years experience. • Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students. • Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners. • Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator. • Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 31