Internet

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Internet

  1. 1. Internet Social network
  2. 2. Social network  A social network is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as values, visions, ideas, financial exchange, friendship, sexual relationships, kinship, dislike, conflict or trade.
  3. 3. Social network  Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of nodes and ties.  Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are the relationships between the actors. The resulting graph-based structures are often very complex.  There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes.
  4. 4. Social network  Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals.
  5. 5. Social network  In its simplest form, a social network is a map of all of the relevant ties between the nodes being studied. The network can also be used to determine the social capital of individual actors. These concepts are often displayed in a social network diagram, where nodes are the points and ties are the lines.
  6. 6. Internet History of social network analysis
  7. 7. History of social network analysis  Precursors of social networks in the late 1800s include Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies.
  8. 8. History of social network analysis  Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (gemeinschaft) or impersonal, formal, and instrumental social links (gesellschaft). Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors.
  9. 9. History of social network analysis  He distinguished between a traditional society – "mechanical solidarity" – which prevails if individual differences are minimized, and the modern society – "organic solidarity" – that develops out of cooperation between differentiated individuals with independent roles.
  10. 10. History of social network analysis  Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, was the first scholar to think directly in social network terms. His essays pointed to the nature of network size on interaction and to the likelihood of interaction in ramified, loosely-knit networks rather than groups (Simmel, 1908/1971).
  11. 11. History of social network analysis  Social network analysis developed with the kinship studies of Elizabeth Bott in England in the 1950s and the 1950s-1960s urbanization studies of the University of Manchester group of anthropologists (centered around Max Gluckman and later J. Clyde Mitchell) investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom. Concomitantly, British anthropologist S.F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure that was influential in later network analysis.
  12. 12. History of social network analysis  In the 1960s-1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions.  One large group was centered around Harrison White and his students at Harvard University: Ivan Chase, Bonnie Erickson, Harriet Friedmann, Mark Granovetter, Nancy Howell, Joel Levine, Nicholas Mullins, John Padgett, Michael Schwartz and Barry Wellman.
  13. 13. History of social network analysis  Also important in this early group were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political sociology and social movements, and Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis.

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