History SUMMARY 1° TERM TESTLong term causes of WW1Napoleon’s defeatAn Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by the armiesof the Seventh Coalition, comprising an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke ofWellingtoncombined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher. It was theculminating battle of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleons last. The defeat at Waterloo endedhis rule as Emperor of the French, marking the end of his Hundred Days return from exile.Congress of ViennaThe Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states that was heldin Vienna . The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the FrenchRevolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.Unification of ItalyItalian unification was the political and social movement that agglomerated different statesof the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century.Reign of TerrorThe Reign of Terror also known simply as The Terror , was a period of violence that occurred afterthe onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions,the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 inParis),andanother 25,000in summaryexecutions acrossFrance.19° CENTURY 18° CENTURYAbolition of slavery Industrial RevolutionNapoleon’s defeat American RevolutionOur independence French RevolutionUnification of Germany Reign of terrorCongress of ViennaUnification of Italy
Plans for warGermanySchlieffen Plan: Under this plan they would quickly attack and defeat France, then turn their forcéon Russiawhich (the Germans were sure) would be slow to get its troops ready for war.Austria – HungaryAustria – Hungary knew it needed the help of Germany to hold back Russia. It too relied on thesuccess of the Schlieffen Plan so that Germany could help it to defeat Russia.RussiaThe Russian army was badly equipped but it was huge. Given enough time Russia could eventuallyput millions of soldiers into the field. The Russian plan was to overwhelm (sobrepasar) Germany’sand Austria’s armies by sheer weight of numbers.FrancePlan 17: French troops would charge across the frontier and attack deep into Germany forcing tosurrenderBritainBritain’s military planners had been closely but secretly involved in collaboration with Frenchcommanders. This le d to Britain setting up the BEF, consisting of 150,000 highly trained soldiers.The BEF could go to France and fight alongside the French at short notice.Chronology of the war1914War started after the murder of Franz FerdinandWar plans were activatedA-H gave an ultimatum to SerbiaA-H declared war on SerbiaRussia stood for SerbiaGermany stood for A-HFrance stood for russiaGreat Britain stood for franceItaly stood for GermanyRESULT: WORLD WAR
1915Trenches were builtStalemate continued1° use of poison gasNumerous casualties1916Stalemate went on2 important battles: “Verdun” & “Somme”Germans tried to defeat france through attrition “bleed france white”1917Crucial year / Turning pointUSA entered the war (ships, mexico)Russia left the war (REVOLUTION)Russian revolutionTSAR (monarchists) vs BLOSHEVIKS (communists)1918Stalemate is broken (thanks to USA intervention)Germany surrendersGlossaryStalemate: was the time when nobody could win in chess, in this case it was when neitherGermany nor France could win. It happened because the weapons that both countries had, werebetter to defend than to attack, so neither could move from their trenches.BEF: The british expeditionary force (BEF), were the sldiers that Britain sent to france, when theywere fighting with Germany, so they could support the military forces. They were professionalsoldiers.Cavalry: The part of the military force of troops that serve on horseback.Infantry: Is the group of soldiers that fight on foot.Casualties: Dead or injured man.EssaywritingDid the assessination of F.Ferdinand make European war inevitable?
In this essay I’m going to analyse what other causes made the assassination of F.Ferdinand ‘thespark that lit the bonfire’. Because it wasn’t the only thing that made the war inevitable.Firstly, the French Revolution was one of the many causes as the French rebelled against theirking, the democratic government appeared, there was a political change. This encouraged othercountries or estates to become independent, to rule themselves; like Italy and Germany. Theirunification was very important, but specially Germany’s as she was growing very rapidly, mostly,thanks to the economic change of the Industrial Revolution. As there were factories, there wasmore production and more consumption, which meant, more money. She wanted to become apowerful and important empire so she needed a stronger navy to have overseas colonies. This wasa threat to other countries, like Britain as she was ‘the Queen of the Seas’ so they startedcompeting for a better navy. This was called ‘The Naval Race’.Secondly, alliances were formed. The Triple Alliance, made up of: Austria-Hungary, Italy andGermany; and the Triple Entente made up of: France, Russia and Britain. At first, Britain didn’twant to get involved but with the threat of the growing power of Germany, and them competingto see who was better, she joined. This alliances were formed by old rivalries like France andGermany, Austria-Hungary and Russia, Austria-Hungary and Serbia which wasn’t part of thealliances but was friends with Russia and they helped one another.Third of all, the two Morrococrisis were also causes. As in the first one France wanted to take overMorroco but Germany interfered and that made her furious. Later a conference was held in whichthe Kaiser wanted Germany to be seen as a major power in Africa but he was treated as if he hadno right to speak in such matters, he was humiliated. Britain and France stuck together to opposehim, this confirmed their alliance. In the second crisis, the French wanted to take over Morrocoagain and as compensation, Germany was given land in central Africa. As she had sent a gunboatto Agadir the British and the French made a deal to patrol the Mediterranean and defend France’sAtlantic and North Sea coasts.Finally, ‘the spark that lit the bonfire’. As Germany made it clear that she supported Austria-Hungary, she was now confident to make trouble with Russia and Serbia. Serbia was the mostpowerful country in the Balkans so she thought that she had to dealt with. Austria-Hungary waslooking for a good excuse to crush Serbia, and the opportunity came with the murder ofF.Ferdinand which she blamed Serbia of. The Serbians could not accept being part of the AustrianEmpire so they asked for some time to consider, Austria didn’t agree and declared war.In conclusion, there were many causes that made the war inevitable and that made F.Ferdiand’smurder ‘the straw that broke the camel’s back’.