Andrew Ordover, Ed.D.
Diane Rymer
STRATEGIES FOR STRUGGLING
READERS
Agenda
 How expectations around literacy are changing
 Why some students struggle with reading
 The explicit skills of ...
CHANGING EXPECTATIONS
3
Balancing Types of Literacy
 Content-area teachers are
not being asked to be
English teachers
 Each discipline requires
...
Increasing Text Complexity
We are expected to expose students to increasingly complex texts.
Text Complexity Grade
Band in...
Williamson, Gary L. "A Text Readability Continuum for Postsecondary Readiness." Journal of Advanced Academics19.4 (2008): ...
WHY SOME STUDENTS STRUGGLE
7
Learning to Read Means
 Learning how to decode written language:
– Phonemic Awareness
– Phonics
– Vocabulary
– Fluency
8
Reading to Learn Means…
 Reading to gain knowledge:
– Learn specific content in math, science and social
studies
– Utiliz...
Why Do Struggling Readers Struggle?
 For some, it’s a lack of basic decoding skills
 But for many others, it’s an inabil...
Lack of Background Knowledge
 “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a
long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where...
Lack of Background Knowledge
 “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a
long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where...
Tier 3 Words
Tier 2 Words
Tier 1 Words
Domain-specific
words
General academic
words
Words of everyday
speech
Lack of Acade...
Lack of Background Knowledge
 “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a
long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where...
Lack of Background Knowledge
 “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a
long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where...
Lack of Background Knowledge
 “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a
long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where...
Lack of Practice
 What kinds of “practice” do students need?
1. Being read to regularly at home
2. Having many books and ...
Where They Come From Matters
Professional
Families
Working Class
Families
Welfare
Families
Parent Utterances Per Hour 487 ...
COMPREHENSION SKILLS
19
The Essentials
Essentials skills of reading comprehension:
Main Idea and Details
Predicting and Inferring
Questioning
Clar...
Summarizing is the most important
comprehension skill because it leads
to a deeper understanding and
retention of the info...
Summarizing
1
• Identify the main idea from the topic sentence
or from the use of basic signal words.
2
• Identify details...
Summarizing
4
• Analyze redundant information to determine
importance.
5
• Categorize, collapse, and label important
infor...
Clarifying Clarifying is the
awareness that the
text being read is not
making sense.
24
Clarifying
• Does this make sense?
• What does not make sense?
• Do I know what is going on in the text?
• Am I getting th...
Predicting
Predicting is the use of
prior knowledge and
information in the text to
suggest or make an
educated guess about...
Predicting
• Prior knowledge - Predicting requires you to
use your prior knowledge about the topic.
• Patterns - Predictin...
TEACHING STRATEGIES
28
Use but confuse
Scaffolding
Correct level of difficulty
Established
ACQUAINTED
Unknown
Enough knowledge to be dangerous
Ca...
 Systematic & explicit instruction based on formative assessment
data.
 Small group instruction at their zone of proxima...
Gradual Release of Responsibility
31
e
TeacherControl
StudentControl
Show
Model
Guide
Think Aloud Scaffold
Support
Collabo...
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
TWO
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
35
Scaffold for Struggling Students
Designed specifically for students who
need the material to be presented in a
more concre...
Scaffold for Struggling Students
Each activity focuses on providing the content of
the lesson in a format where the skill ...
Agenda
 How expectations around literacy are changing
 Why some students struggle with reading
 The explicit skills of ...
Andrew Ordover, Ed.D.
Diane Rymer
STRATEGIES FOR STRUGGLING
READERS
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Strategies to Build Comprehension for Struggling Readers

532

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
532
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Strategies to Build Comprehension for Struggling Readers

  1. 1. Andrew Ordover, Ed.D. Diane Rymer STRATEGIES FOR STRUGGLING READERS
  2. 2. Agenda  How expectations around literacy are changing  Why some students struggle with reading  The explicit skills of comprehension  Strategies to help provide scaffolded, effective instruction 2
  3. 3. CHANGING EXPECTATIONS 3
  4. 4. Balancing Types of Literacy  Content-area teachers are not being asked to be English teachers  Each discipline requires unique forms of reading and writing  The way knowledge is acquired, developed, and shared in a given field often requires discipline-specific skills Literature Science History/ Social Studies Mathematics Visual/ Performing Arts Technical Arts Literacy Skills 4
  5. 5. Increasing Text Complexity We are expected to expose students to increasingly complex texts. Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile Ranges Lexile Ranges Aligned to CCR Expectations K-1 N/A N/A 2-3 450-725 450-790 4-5 645-845 770-980 6-8 860-1010 955-1155 9-10 960-1115 1080-1305 11-CCR 1070-1220 1215-1355 Figure 3: Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges (in Lexiles) The Common Core State Standards require students to meet more rigorous expectations regarding text complexity. 5
  6. 6. Williamson, Gary L. "A Text Readability Continuum for Postsecondary Readiness." Journal of Advanced Academics19.4 (2008): 602-632. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 29 Mar. 2011. The Gap © 2013 CATAPULT LEARNING, LLC – ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6
  7. 7. WHY SOME STUDENTS STRUGGLE 7
  8. 8. Learning to Read Means  Learning how to decode written language: – Phonemic Awareness – Phonics – Vocabulary – Fluency 8
  9. 9. Reading to Learn Means…  Reading to gain knowledge: – Learn specific content in math, science and social studies – Utilize academic and content specific vocabulary – Understand and solve problems – Think critically about information presented – Access information and develop understanding from multiple sources – Create and innovate – Communicate to a global audience through 21st century tools 9
  10. 10. Why Do Struggling Readers Struggle?  For some, it’s a lack of basic decoding skills  But for many others, it’s an inability to learn efficiently from what is being read  Why? • Lack of background knowledge • Lack of academic vocabulary • Lack of practice 10
  11. 11. Lack of Background Knowledge  “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where serve- and-volley is so dominant when the men play. There was a lot of play form the back court. The match went back and forth in terms of who was in control. It looked as if Roddick was going to take command just before there was the inevitable rain delay in third set, and then Federer stormed back to take over again.” (NPR) 11
  12. 12. Lack of Background Knowledge  “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where serve- and-volley is so dominant when the men play. There was a lot of play form the back court. The match went back and forth in terms of who was in control. It looked as if Roddick was going to take command just before there was the inevitable rain delay in third set, and then Federer stormed back to take over again.” (NPR) 12
  13. 13. Tier 3 Words Tier 2 Words Tier 1 Words Domain-specific words General academic words Words of everyday speech Lack of Academic Vocabulary 13
  14. 14. Lack of Background Knowledge  “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where serve- and-volley is so dominant when the men play. There was a lot of play form the back court. The match went back and forth in terms of who was in control. It looked as if Roddick was going to take command just before there was the inevitable rain delay in third set, and then Federer stormed back to take over again.” (NPR) 14
  15. 15. Lack of Background Knowledge  “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where serve- and-volley is so dominant when the men play. There was a lot of play form the back court. The match went back and forth in terms of who was in control. It looked as if Roddick was going to take command just before there was the inevitable rain delay in third set, and then Federer stormed back to take over again.” (NPR) 15
  16. 16. Lack of Background Knowledge  “It was the best men’s tennis match I’ve seen in a long time, certainly at Wimbledon, where serve- and-volley is so dominant when the men play. There was a lot of play form the back court. The match went back and forth in terms of who was in control. It looked as if Roddick was going to take command just before there was the inevitable rain delay in third set, and then Federer stormed back to take over again.” (NPR) 16
  17. 17. Lack of Practice  What kinds of “practice” do students need? 1. Being read to regularly at home 2. Having many books and magazines at home 3. Seeing their parents and siblings reading as a regular part of their life 4. Having exposure to a variety of types and genres of text 5. Engaging in sustained reading during the school day 6. Engaging in conversation with adults who have rich vocabularies 17
  18. 18. Where They Come From Matters Professional Families Working Class Families Welfare Families Parent Utterances Per Hour 487 301 176 Child’s Recorded Vocabulary Size 1,116 749 525 IQ at Age 3 117 107 79 18 From Vocabulary for the Common Core (2013) by Robert J. Marzano & Julia A. Simms
  19. 19. COMPREHENSION SKILLS 19
  20. 20. The Essentials Essentials skills of reading comprehension: Main Idea and Details Predicting and Inferring Questioning Clarifying Retelling Summarizing 20
  21. 21. Summarizing is the most important comprehension skill because it leads to a deeper understanding and retention of the information. 21
  22. 22. Summarizing 1 • Identify the main idea from the topic sentence or from the use of basic signal words. 2 • Identify details that support the main idea. 3 • Delete less important information.  Summarizing 22
  23. 23. Summarizing 4 • Analyze redundant information to determine importance. 5 • Categorize, collapse, and label important information. 6 • Create a summary.  Summarizing 23
  24. 24. Clarifying Clarifying is the awareness that the text being read is not making sense. 24
  25. 25. Clarifying • Does this make sense? • What does not make sense? • Do I know what is going on in the text? • Am I getting the main idea? • Is there anything that I don’t understand— vocabulary, sentence, paragraph, page, concept? 25
  26. 26. Predicting Predicting is the use of prior knowledge and information in the text to suggest or make an educated guess about what might come next. 26
  27. 27. Predicting • Prior knowledge - Predicting requires you to use your prior knowledge about the topic. • Patterns - Predicting is based on noticing patterns in text. • Pictures - Important information revealed in pictures and other text features can be utilized for predictions. • Proving - Confirm or change a prediction by returning to text. 27
  28. 28. TEACHING STRATEGIES 28
  29. 29. Use but confuse Scaffolding Correct level of difficulty Established ACQUAINTED Unknown Enough knowledge to be dangerous Can do on my own Can’t do Frustration Level Independent Level Instructional Level 29
  30. 30.  Systematic & explicit instruction based on formative assessment data.  Small group instruction at their zone of proximal development.  Lessons / activities that are engaging / motivating.  Repetition.  Instruction that is presented in a variety of ways.  Activities that rely heavily on the use of prior learning and make connections to new skills. What Struggling Readers Need 30
  31. 31. Gradual Release of Responsibility 31 e TeacherControl StudentControl Show Model Guide Think Aloud Scaffold Support Collaborate Partner Work Independent Transfer Application Modeled (I do, you watch) Shared (I do, you help) Guided (You do, I help) Independent (You do, I watch) 31
  32. 32. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
  33. 33. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
  34. 34. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility TWO
  35. 35. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility 35
  36. 36. Scaffold for Struggling Students Designed specifically for students who need the material to be presented in a more concrete format in order for mastery to occur 36
  37. 37. Scaffold for Struggling Students Each activity focuses on providing the content of the lesson in a format where the skill is taught in a more explicit and systematic manner. The activities rely heavily on the use of prior learning to help make connections to the new skill. Scaffolds include:  Pictures  Props  Manipulatives  Graphic organizers 37
  38. 38. Agenda  How expectations around literacy are changing  Why some students struggle with reading  The explicit skills of comprehension  Strategies to help provide scaffolded, effective instruction 38
  39. 39. Andrew Ordover, Ed.D. Diane Rymer STRATEGIES FOR STRUGGLING READERS
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×