Jessica Bianculli
BUILDING THE FOUNDATION FOR
RIGOROUS ELA INSTRUCTION
Poll
 Where are you joining from?
• NE
• SE
• South
• Mid-West
• NW
• SW
• Other?
 What’s your role?
• Teacher
• Princip...
Agenda
Discuss 3 building blocks for rigorous ELA instruction:
1. A consistent instructional model across all content area...
What Works in Schools
Marzano, 2003
Average student - 50th percentile
2 years highly ineffective teaching
Performance drop...
Poll
 What are these “highly effective” teachers doing?
5
Consider This Question
Walk through the hallways of any school and you
will see there is teaching going on … but, how do
w...
Which time is most prevalent in
your classroom?
• Allocated Time
• Engaged Time
• Academic Learning Time
Recipe for Student Success
1. Allocated Time – how much time will you spend on
a lesson?
2. Engaged Time –are students pay...
Academic Learning Time (ALT) Critical Attributes
1. Students know and understand the lesson objective.
2. Students activel...
ARK
TIP
SAP
ISS
Anatomy of a Lesson
10
ARK
TIP
SAP
ISS
Activate Relevant Knowledge
Anatomy of a Lesson
11
ARK
TIP
SAP
ISS
Teacher Input
Anatomy of a Lesson
12
ARK
TIP
SAP
ISS
Student Active Participation
Anatomy of a Lesson
13
ARK
TIP
SAP
ISS
Independent Student Success
Anatomy of a Lesson
14
ARK
TIP
SAP
ISS
Anatomy of Lesson
15
ARK
Understand Lesson Objective
•Activate and Assess Relevant Knowledge.
•Augment if necessary.
•Show relevance through an...
ARK
TIP
SAP
ISS
Student Active
Participation
45%
Anatomy of a Lesson
Teacher Input:
20%
17
Gradual Release of Responsibility
TO WITH BY
Modeled
Share
d
Guided
Independe
ntTeacher
Student
Mooney, 1990Pearson and Ga...
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
19
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
ME
 What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?
 During Mo...
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
21
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
 What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?
 Shared Readi...
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
TWO
23
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
TWO
 What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?
 Guided R...
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
25
A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility
 What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?
 Independent ...
Identify Student
Success
Students:
• Identify what they
have learned
• Explain process they
used to learn
• Discuss how th...
Reflection Question
 How can a consistent school-wide instructional model like
Anatomy of a Lesson help increase Academic...
RIGOROUS ELA INSTRUCTION:
COMPLEX, INFORMATIONAL TEXT
29
Reading Emphasis
Grade Literary Informational
4 50% 50%
8 45% 55%
12 30% 70%
Distribution of Literary and Informational Pa...
The Importance of Complex Text
According to ACT’s Reading Between
the Lines, “what appears to
differentiate those who are ...
The Challenge of Challenging Text
 “When teachers understand what makes texts complex,
they can better support their stud...
Text Complexity
Consider Text Complexity:
Choosing the Right Texts to Read!
1. Can students read the text? (Quantitative)
...
1. Can students read the text?
Measures such as:
• Word length
• Word frequency
• Word difficulty
• Sentence length
• Text...
A Cautionary Note
 While knowing the Lexile score for the books you intend to use in your
classroom, you should understan...
Qualitative Measures
Measures such as:
• Levels of meaning
• Levels of purpose
• Structure
• Organization
• Language conve...
3. Do students want to read the text?
37
Reader and Task
Considerations such as:
• Motivation
• Knowledge and experience
•...
Points of Entry
 “Teachers need to help students find access points that
enable them to gain entry to complex information...
Points of Entry
 “Teachers need to help students find access points that
enable them to gain entry to complex information...
William Faulkner was once asked to give
his advice to readers of his fiction who
couldn’t understand it even after reading...
RIGOROUS ELA INSTRUCTION:
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
41
Vocabulary Quiz
1. How many words does the average student have in his/her spoken
vocabulary at the start of 1st grade?
6,...
Reflect
 How do you decide which words to teach?
 What criteria do you use for selection?
43
Tiered Vocabulary Model
Tier 3 Words
Tier 2 Words
Tier 1 Words
Domain-specific
words
General academic
words
Words of every...
Word Sort
Sort the following words into three tiers.
melancholy school antiderivative
osmosis endothermic benevolent
happy...
Word Sort
melancholy
school
osmosis
endothermic
benevolent
antiderivative
happy
inevitable
Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3
Repeatability
Important Considerations for Choosing Words
47
Representative
Careful. . .
48
Key Findings from Vocabulary Research
 Vocabulary instruction has the greatest effect when it focuses
on a reasonable num...
Reflection Question
How does this vocabulary research connect to Anatomy of a
Lesson?
How does this vocabulary research su...
Agenda
Discuss 3 building blocks for rigorous ELA instruction:
 A consistent instructional model across all content areas...
52
Thank you for your participation!
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Building the Foundation for Rigorous ELA Instruction

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This webinar presented by Jessica Bianculli, will discuss how to build a foundation for rigorous instruction—specifically, what systems need to be in place to support student academic success.

Participants will discuss:

The need for a consistent, school-wide instructional model
The emphasis on building knowledge across disciplines with a focus on informational text
How direct instruction of academic vocabulary can increase student comprehension of rigorous text

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Building the Foundation for Rigorous ELA Instruction

  1. 1. Jessica Bianculli BUILDING THE FOUNDATION FOR RIGOROUS ELA INSTRUCTION
  2. 2. Poll  Where are you joining from? • NE • SE • South • Mid-West • NW • SW • Other?  What’s your role? • Teacher • Principal • “District” Administration • Instructional Coach • Other? 2
  3. 3. Agenda Discuss 3 building blocks for rigorous ELA instruction: 1. A consistent instructional model across all content areas and grade levels 2. The inclusion of complex, informational text 3. Explicit and systematic academic vocabulary instruction 3
  4. 4. What Works in Schools Marzano, 2003 Average student - 50th percentile 2 years highly ineffective teaching Performance drops to 3rd percentile Average student - 50th percentile 2 years highly effective teaching Performance rises to 96th percentile 4
  5. 5. Poll  What are these “highly effective” teachers doing? 5
  6. 6. Consider This Question Walk through the hallways of any school and you will see there is teaching going on … but, how do we know if there is learning going on?
  7. 7. Which time is most prevalent in your classroom? • Allocated Time • Engaged Time • Academic Learning Time
  8. 8. Recipe for Student Success 1. Allocated Time – how much time will you spend on a lesson? 2. Engaged Time –are students paying attention to teacher input and/or participating in a learning activity? 3. Academic Learning Time – 1,2 and is the student successfully completing the task at hand? Improve Teaching By Increasing Academic Learning Time (1979) Fisher, Marliave,& Filby Education Leardership - ASCD
  9. 9. Academic Learning Time (ALT) Critical Attributes 1. Students know and understand the lesson objective. 2. Students actively manipulate content in relation to lesson objective. 3. During this active manipulation, students are experiencing a 75–95% success rate.  Because of the time allocated for actual teaching in a school day, teachers must utilize time most efficiently by ensuring Academic Learning Time is always present.  This applies in all grade levels and content areas. 9
  10. 10. ARK TIP SAP ISS Anatomy of a Lesson 10
  11. 11. ARK TIP SAP ISS Activate Relevant Knowledge Anatomy of a Lesson 11
  12. 12. ARK TIP SAP ISS Teacher Input Anatomy of a Lesson 12
  13. 13. ARK TIP SAP ISS Student Active Participation Anatomy of a Lesson 13
  14. 14. ARK TIP SAP ISS Independent Student Success Anatomy of a Lesson 14
  15. 15. ARK TIP SAP ISS Anatomy of Lesson 15
  16. 16. ARK Understand Lesson Objective •Activate and Assess Relevant Knowledge. •Augment if necessary. •Show relevance through an essential question. 16
  17. 17. ARK TIP SAP ISS Student Active Participation 45% Anatomy of a Lesson Teacher Input: 20% 17
  18. 18. Gradual Release of Responsibility TO WITH BY Modeled Share d Guided Independe ntTeacher Student Mooney, 1990Pearson and Gallagher, 1983 (I do, you watch) (I do, you help) (You do, I help) (You do, I watch) Model Shared Guided Independent 18
  19. 19. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility 19
  20. 20. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility ME  What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?  During Modeled reading, the teacher does all reading. She models good reading while periodically stopping to “think aloud” and model good strategies/skills 20
  21. 21. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility 21
  22. 22. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility  What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?  Shared Reading (I do, you help) – The teacher reads the text and provides instruction in skills/strategies, but also ask students to try these strategies/skills on the shared reading text. 22
  23. 23. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility TWO 23
  24. 24. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility TWO  What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?  Guided Reading/ Writing (You do , I help) – Students are now asked to practice strategies/skills learned in a “coaching” setting. The child does most of the work and the teacher sits back and coaches when necessary 24
  25. 25. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility 25
  26. 26. A Dance . . . Gradual Release of Responsibility  What does this look like, sound like in an ELA classroom?  Independent Reading/ Writing (You do, I watch) – The students show us what they can do and control independently. They read the entire selection on their own and use skills and strategies on their own without assistance from the teacher 26
  27. 27. Identify Student Success Students: • Identify what they have learned • Explain process they used to learn • Discuss how they can use what they learned • Identify what they want more information about •Show evidence of learning 27
  28. 28. Reflection Question  How can a consistent school-wide instructional model like Anatomy of a Lesson help increase Academic Learning Time? 28
  29. 29. RIGOROUS ELA INSTRUCTION: COMPLEX, INFORMATIONAL TEXT 29
  30. 30. Reading Emphasis Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70% Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade in the 2011 NAEP Reading Framework Source: http://www.nagb.org/content/nagb/assets/documents/publications/frameworks/reading-2011- framework.pdf
  31. 31. The Importance of Complex Text According to ACT’s Reading Between the Lines, “what appears to differentiate those who are more likely to be ready from those who are less likely is their proficiency in understanding complex texts.” 31
  32. 32. The Challenge of Challenging Text  “When teachers understand what makes texts complex, they can better support their students in reading them.”  What Makes Text Complex? 1. Vocabulary 2. Sentence Structure 3. Coherence 4. Organization 5. Background Knowledge Timothy Shanahan, Douglas Fisher and Nancy Frey 2012 32
  33. 33. Text Complexity Consider Text Complexity: Choosing the Right Texts to Read! 1. Can students read the text? (Quantitative) 2. Should students read the text? (Qualitative) 3. Do students want to read the text (Reader) and does the text contribute to coherence of knowledge and understanding (Task)?
  34. 34. 1. Can students read the text? Measures such as: • Word length • Word frequency • Word difficulty • Sentence length • Text length • Text cohesion Quantitative Measures Adapted from Kansas Common Core Standards BEST MEASURED BY COMPUTER SOFTWARE
  35. 35. A Cautionary Note  While knowing the Lexile score for the books you intend to use in your classroom, you should understand that Lexiles (or other readability measures) don’t really tell us everything about a book.  Diary of a Wimpy Kid, by Jeff Kinney and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury occupy the same Lexile band. • The Lexile scores are 950 and 890.  The MetaMetrics website offers this disclaimer which we should heed: "Many other factors affect the relationship between a reader and a book, including its content, the age and interests of the reader, and the design of the actual book. The Lexile text measure is a good starting point in the book-selection process, with these other factors then being considered."
  36. 36. Qualitative Measures Measures such as: • Levels of meaning • Levels of purpose • Structure • Organization • Language conventionality • Language clarity • Prior knowledge demands Adapted from Kansas Common Core Standards 2. Should students read the text?
  37. 37. 3. Do students want to read the text? 37 Reader and Task Considerations such as: • Motivation • Knowledge and experience • Purpose for reading • Complexity of task assigned regarding text • Complexity of questions asked regarding text Adapted from Kansas Common Core Standards BEST MEASURED BY EDUCATORS’ PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT
  38. 38. Points of Entry  “Teachers need to help students find access points that enable them to gain entry to complex informational text and then trek their way through to a successful conclusion.” Four access points are: 1. Establishment of the purpose by modeling and thinking aloud. 2. Close reading instruction. 3. Collaborative conversations. 4. Independent reading. November 2013 | Volume 71 | Number 3 Tackling Informational Text Pages 34-38 Points of Entry Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher 38
  39. 39. Points of Entry  “Teachers need to help students find access points that enable them to gain entry to complex informational text and then trek their way through to a successful conclusion. Four access points are: 1. Establishment of the purpose by modeling and thinking aloud. ARK/TIP 2. Close reading instruction. TIP/SAP 1. Collaborative conversations. SAP 1. Independent reading. SAP/ISS 39
  40. 40. William Faulkner was once asked to give his advice to readers of his fiction who couldn’t understand it even after reading it three times. Faulkner’s advice: “Read it four times.”
  41. 41. RIGOROUS ELA INSTRUCTION: ACADEMIC VOCABULARY 41
  42. 42. Vocabulary Quiz 1. How many words does the average student have in his/her spoken vocabulary at the start of 1st grade? 6,000 2. True or False: Direct vocabulary instruction focused on essential academic terms leads to an average improvement of 33 percentile points on subject area tests. True 3. Students need to have a vocabulary of approximately __ words by the time they graduate from high school. 84,000 42
  43. 43. Reflect  How do you decide which words to teach?  What criteria do you use for selection? 43
  44. 44. Tiered Vocabulary Model Tier 3 Words Tier 2 Words Tier 1 Words Domain-specific words General academic words Words of everyday speech Bringing Words to Life, Second Edition: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. (2013) Beck, Isabel L., McKeown, Margaret G., Kucan, Linda.
  45. 45. Word Sort Sort the following words into three tiers. melancholy school antiderivative osmosis endothermic benevolent happy inevitable
  46. 46. Word Sort melancholy school osmosis endothermic benevolent antiderivative happy inevitable Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3
  47. 47. Repeatability Important Considerations for Choosing Words 47 Representative
  48. 48. Careful. . . 48
  49. 49. Key Findings from Vocabulary Research  Vocabulary instruction has the greatest effect when it focuses on a reasonable number or important academic terms rather than on high-frequency word lists (Marzano, 2004).  Developing anything more than a superficial understanding of new terms requires multiple exposures to the terms (Jenkins, Stein, & Wysocki, 1984).  Understanding and retention improve when students interact with words in a variety of ways ( Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002).  Students need opportunities to think deeply about new words using thinking strategies like comparison, metaphors, and nonlinguistic representation (Marzano, 2004). From The Core Six: Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence with the Common Core (2012) by Silver, Dewing, & Perini 49
  50. 50. Reflection Question How does this vocabulary research connect to Anatomy of a Lesson? How does this vocabulary research support student success with informational text? 50
  51. 51. Agenda Discuss 3 building blocks for rigorous ELA instruction:  A consistent instructional model across all content areas and grade levels  The inclusion of complex, informational text  Explicit and systematic academic vocabulary instruction 51
  52. 52. 52 Thank you for your participation!

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