Catalonia and the Catalan Countries
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Catalonia and the Catalan Countries

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Did you know that the language of Barcelona is not Spanish but Catalan? Did you know that Catalonia is a nation? Did you know that the Catalans had the first Parliament? Discover this rich culture.

Did you know that the language of Barcelona is not Spanish but Catalan? Did you know that Catalonia is a nation? Did you know that the Catalans had the first Parliament? Discover this rich culture.

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Catalonia and the Catalan Countries Catalonia and the Catalan Countries Presentation Transcript

  • Catalonia
    & the Catalan Countries
    This work is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • The forgotten country
    There’s a millenary country in Europe that was conquered by another country less than 300 years ago. Most of the time since then, their language and culture have been forbidden and persecuted with the explicit objective of erasing from their memories their national identity so they also forget their rights, ancient laws and constitutions and can be easily dominated.
    Whenever this country tried to recover its independence or even some rights, the only response from their oppressor was a military one, including a 40-years long fascist dictatorship that wanted to totally exterminate any hint of this millenary culture.
  • The forgotten country
    This country is Catalonia. The only reason why Portugal is not part of the Spanish Kingdom and Catalonia is, is that the latest lost when it tried to regain its rights in a war, whereas Portugal benefited of the confusion in that war to start one itself and won its independence. Same happened with Holland and others.
    Today, Spain is the only country in Europe in which constitution the menace of military attack against any democratic attempt to create a new state is present, directly contradicting the UN Charter and many international treaties. Referendums of any kind cannot be held in Spain without the explicit approval of the Spanish government.
  • Catalan self-government
    In 1977, after the Spanish fascist, catholic, nationalist Franco dictator died, the President of the Government of Catalonia in exile returned to Catalonia and restored the Catalan government, called “Generalitat”. Spain, trying to peacefully evolve into a democracy, gave some self-government to Catalonia in the form of an Autonomous Community within Spain, a status that Catalonia accepted hoping to later expand its self-government through democratic methods, though it never renounced to its right to self-determination.
    After the refusal of Spain to accept the new statute of autonomy for Catalonia in 2006 as it was voted by the Catalan people, not a single Catalan political party regards the autonomy as sufficient.
  • Youalready know Catalonia
    Futbol Club Barcelona, or Barça is one of the best football clubs in the world. Based in the capital city of Catalonia, it was founded in 1899 by the Swiss Hans Kamper (known as Joan Gamper in Catalonia) to promote sports and the catalanist movement. This is why its more than 170.000 members say that it is “more than just a club”. Its history is directly linked to the defense of the Catalan nation.
  • You already know Catalonia
    Barcelona, the capital city of Catalonia, is recognised as a Global City due to its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, education, tourism and is well known for having hold major international events such as the Olympic Games in 1992.
  • You already know Catalonia
    Gaudí, Pau Casals, Dalí, Miró… they were all Catalans (you could tell because of their obviously not Spanish names). Most of them were strong supporters of the rights of the Catalan people.
    Gaudí, for example, was arrested because he spoke Catalan.
    Pau Casals exiled himself until there was peace in his country, and spoke about Catalonia when he presented the UN hymn and when he received the UN Peace Medal.
  • About this presentation
    All the facts and information about Catalonia, its culture, history and economy are but a fraction of what would be necessary to properly present this country.
    However, the fact that its very existence is probably completely new to you, the goal of this presentation is to give you a glimpse of what has been hidden from you: a country, a culture that is not of the Catalans alone but, just as any other culture, a precious heritage of all humankind.
    For the sake of briefness, but with the compromise of giving a realistic information, some historical facts are simplified in this presentation.
  • The Catalan Countries
    Andorra
    NorthernCatalonia
    The so-called Catalan Countries are the different territories that share the Catalan culture and language.
    Catalonia is just one of these territories, but has been itself long divided by the border between France and Spain in Northern an Southern Catalonia.
    Andorra is the only independent state in the world were Catalan is the only official language.
    The .cat is the first TLD (Top Level Domain Name) for a cultural community: that of the Catalan Countries.
    Southern Catalonia
    (Autonomous Community of Catalonia)
    Alguer(Sardinia, Italy)
    BalearicIslands
    Valencia
  • Symbols of Catalonia
    The Catalan flag, known as “la Senyera” is one of the oldest in Europe, based on the coat of arms of the Counts of Barcelona and later Kings of Aragon. It consists of four red stripes on a golden background.
    It’s the official flag of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia and the basis for the flags or coats of arms of the other territories in the Catalan Countries, as seen in the previous slide.
    The “estelada” is the Catalan flag with a star, symbol of freedom or independence. There are two different “estelades” coming from different ideological and political backgrounds, but they are nowadays used indistinctly.
  • Symbols of Catalonia
    Catalonia triumphant,
    May again be rich and bountiful.
    Shall that people leave away,
    So conceited and so superb.
    [Refrain]
    Strike though the sickle!
    Strike though the sickle, defenders of the land!
    Strike though the sickle!
    It’s the time now, land reapers.
    It’s the time now to stand alert.
    For when another June comes,
    Let’s sharpen swell our reap hooks.
    ->[Refrain]
    Shall the enemy tremble,
    On beholding our ensign.
    Just as we cut gold wheat ears,
    When the time’s come shall we reap off chains.
    ->[Refrain]
    “Elssegadors” (The Reapers) is the anthem of Catalonia, and it’s official in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia.
    The modern lyrics were written by EmiliGuanyavents, who won a competition on 1899, although they are based on a popular song from the Reapers’ War in 1640’s, when the President of the Generalitat of Catalonia proclaimed the Republic of Catalonia to protect the Catalan laws and Constitutions against the attacks of the Spanish king Philip IV. The music was composed by FrancescAlió in 1892.
  • The national day
    On September 11 of 1714, Catalans commemorate the lost of their independence, their institutions, laws, constitutions and civil rights, after the siege of Barcelona in the War of Spanish Succession.
    It’s the official National day and holiday in the Autonomous Community of Catalonia, were the Catalan authorities pay their respects to the heroes of that war and to the symbols of the Catalan nation.
  • Generalitat of Catalonia
    The Generalitat of Catalonia is the institutional system of government in Catalonia, and includes institutions such as the Parliament of Catalonia, the President of the Generalitat and the Government of Catalonia.
    The Parliament of Catalonia has its roots in the Assemblies of Peace and Truce of God in Catalonia in the XI century, which are considered the first, although premature, parliament in the world.
    These Assemblies were the origin of the Catalan Courts, which in 1364 created the Generalitat to collect the taxes. Later on it was given more political power and eventually became the main Catalan power.
  • Generalitat of Catalonia
    In September 1714 Catalonia is conquered by Spain and all its laws, constitutions and institutions are abolished.
    In April 1931, after winning the Spanish municipal elections in Catalonia, FrancescMacià proclaims the Catalan Republic. The Spanish government, in transition to a Republic, negotiates and finally reincorporates Catalonia to Spain, but yields and allows the Generalitat to be restored.
    In 1938 the Spanish dictator Franco abolishes the Generalitat, but it continues existing in exile.
    In September 1977 the Generalitat is restored.
    Artur Mas i Gavarró is its 129th President.
  • Catalan culture
    Catalonia is a millenary nation with a very rich and diverse culture shared with the rest of the Catalan Countries. Its culture is the heritage of many cultures an civilizations that either lived in the same territory or had commercial relations with the Catalans. The Catalan culture is alive and part of the daily life of millions of people, but it has been severely wounded after almost 300 years of persecution.
    The Catalans think of themselves as a peaceful, hardworking people, very inclined to commerce, pacts, deals, treaties and the federal way of government (even in Middle Ages); as a people with “seny” (common sense, responsibility) combined with “rauxa” (fervor, party, energy) when necessary.
  • Catalan language
    The Catalan language evolved directly from Latin and is spoken by about 12 million people in the world, as much as Greek or Portuguese in the European Union. It’s the only official language in Andorra, co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, Valencia and Balearic Islands and has some grade of official recognition in Franja de Ponent(Spain), Northern Catalonia (France) and l’Alguer (Italy).
    It has two major dialects (occidental and oriental) with a high rate of similarity (90-95%).
    Catalan is also the language of education in school, high school and university in Catalonia.
  • Catalan language
    English words of Catalan origin:
    • Aioli, from allioli, a typical sauce made by mixing olive oil and garlic with a mortar and pestle.
    • Aubergine, from Catalan albergínia, through French.
    • Barracks, from Catalan barraca (hut), through French baraque, and Barracoonthrough Spanish barracón.
    • Surge, from Middle French, which took it from Catalan sorgir.
    • Paella, from Valencian Catalan.
  • Aranese language
    The Val d’Aran is an Occitan region administratively part of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia. They speak Aranese, a dialect of Occitan, which is the closest relative to Catalan.
    Aranese is official in all the Autonomous Community of Catalonia, just like Spanish and Catalan, and is the education language at school in the Val d’Aran. Occitan is spoken by above 500,000 people in Val D’aran, France, Italy and Monaco.
    Interesting fact: Val d’Aran could be translated as “Valley of Aran”, but both “Val” and “Aran” mean valley. Val is an Aranese word whereas Aran is a Basque word. Basque is a pre-latin language that was spoken in a larger area in the past.
  • Castellers
    Declared in 2010 Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, “Castells” (castles) are human towers made in Catalonia.
    There are different types of towers up to 10 levels, each type with different values in points depending on whether the tower is successfully built and unbuilt or just built. Although very competitive, there is no official championship except the one held in Tarragona every two years.
    Castells represent the value of unity, cooperation and effort, even between different teams or “colles”.
  • Sardana
    Sardana is a popular Catalan dance and the national dance of Catalonia. The dancers gather in a circle following the music played by a “cobla”. The name “saradana”refers to both the dance and its music. The “cobla” consists of 12 instruments played by 11 musicians.
    There are different types of sardana. It is sometimes played in concerts and weddings, often accompanied with a chorus, and danced in exhibitions and popular festivities and gatherings, sometimes in a single huge circle.
    It represents the values of unity and peace, and brings together everyone in times of conflict.
  • El ball de bastons
    “Ball de bastons” (stick dance) is a popular Catalan dance descendant of an antique Catalan sword dance and probably related to similar dance traditions common in Europe and the Mediterranean that most likely originated in the pre-history.
    The first written reference to the ball de bastons is a chronicle of a wedding in 1151.
  • Sports
    In the last years of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century, the practice of sports in Catalonia experimented a huge growth as they were associated to the strong network of associations for culture, education, science and community life, all closely related to Catalanism and its ideology against discrimination. Sports were seen as an opportunity for people of different social classes and origins to create bounds of friendship.
    The International Olympic Committee never recognized the Catalan Olympic Committee, but awarded Catalonia with the Olympic Cup for its merits in the promotion of sports.
    After that, Spain created an Olympic Committee that was recognized by the IOC and that forced the Catalans to participate in Spanish national teams.
  • Sports
    The different Catalan sports federations cofounded many international federations, but in 1938 the Spanish dictator Franco forbid any Catalan national team in his effort to exterminate any sign of the Catalan culture and national identity.
    Despite the massive support of Catalans for the Catalan sports federations to compete in all official international championships, the Spanish government keeps trying to ban them in all international federations –even those cofounded by Catalonia– using all kind of methods including diplomatic menace and coercion, as some national managers from South America publicly denounced and was obvious after the expulsion of the Catalans from the International Roller Sports Federation after they competed for first time in the Word Cup B –and won.
    The Catalan population in Spain is only 15.67%
    Catalonia would be ranked 9th in the list of countries by medals per capita.
  • Catalan Nationalism
    In English, nationalism often means “national prejudice”, often related to extreme wing-right parties or those political ideologies that have caused so many wars and pain in the XX century, far from the romantic nationalism that emerged in the XIX century.
    This extreme nationalism is very small in Catalonia. Although most Catalan political parties regard themselves as nationalists, their most extreme ideology is that all the peoples of the world, Catalonia, France and Spain included, are equal and should be free to exercise their right to self-determination and relate in foot of equality one to another, just as the UN Charter says.
    In fact, Catalan nationalism has often been linked to peace and cultural movements. Catalan identity is not linked to race or ethnicity but to citizenship and will.
  • Catalan Nationalism
    The 1931 Catalan Statute of Autonomy
    In 1931, few years before the Spanish Civil War, which was the prelude to the World War II, the first Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia in Spain was approved in referendum with a 99.4% of support. The contents of this law are remarkable still today:
    • Catalonia is autonomous state in the Spanish Republic, and its power emanates from the Catalan People
    • The only official language in Catalonia is Catalan
    • Armies shouldn’t be used offensively, but only for defense
    • Love for people of all classes should be taught in schools, and education is the most important matter
    • It expresses the desire for peace
    All these articles were, as expected, removed by the Spanish government.
    Barcelona, 1932, after Spain rejectedthe new Catalan statute
    Barcelona, 2010, after Spain rejectedthe new Catalan statute
  • Catalan Nationalism
    In the Catalan elections in 2010, the political parties that identify themselves with Catalanism obtained 84.4% of the representation in the Parliament.
    The support for independence in the Catalan society is not clear, since referendums are forbidden, but different studies reveal that the affirmative vote would win in a referendum of independence and that the number of supporters of independence is rapidly growing.
    In 2011 the Parliament of Catalonia proclaimed that it is the seat of the sovereignty of the Catalan people.
  • Catalan Nationalism
    «Do you agree that Catalonia becomes a social, democratic and independent state of right, member of the European Union?»
    c Yes c No
    In September 2009, a town near Barcelona held a non-official, and thus non-binding, referendum about the independence of Catalonia. The Spanish government tried to judicially stop it, but the judge only banned the use of municipal public rooms.
    The day after the referendum, hundreds of towns across Catalonia set out to organize similar polls. Each town holding a referendum formed a local platform where local inhabitants, NGO’s and members of political parties work hand by hand to achieve good participation results in their poll, with no economic or logistic help from anyone other than the volunteers, including international observers.
    On 10th April 2011 the referendum will take place in the city of Barcelona, after which the organizations behind these polls will constitute the Catalan National Assembly as a basis for a new Catalan State.
    More than a hundred localities in Catalonia have also proclaimed that they are morally excluded of the Spanish Constitution.
  • Spanish Nationalism
    On the other hand, there is a strong Spanish nationalism. This is the nationalism that caused the Spanish Civil War and one of the pillars of Franco’s 40-years-long fascist dictatorship, which ended only after he died.
    The very Spanish constitution states that the army is the guarantee of the “indissoluble unity” of the only and unique Spanish nation, a direct threat to both the aspirations of the Basque Country and Catalonia and the basic principles of international law.
    This hatred against those who, they think, should be and speak Spanish, can be traced back many centuries. The following are not just mere anecdotes but examples of the nationalist message that for so many years has reached the Spanish population.
  • Spanish Nationalism
    “Now that we have assimilated you and you won’t need to spend money fighting us back, it seems reasonable that you pay us taxes”. –Spanish Prime Minister, 1625, after military occupation of Catalonia
    “The Catalans are monstrous abortion of politics. [...] These people, naturally so contagious, this plague-stricken province with these people; this maze of privilege, this chaos called county jurisdictions...”
    “For as long as there is a single Catalan left in Catalonia, and stones in the empty fields, we will have enemy and war”. –Francisco de Quevedo, prominent writer in the Golden Century of Spanish literature 1640
    “Is well known the obstinacy and barbarism of this criminal people (Catalonia)”. –Spanish Prime Minister, 1715, just after conquering Catalonia and abolishing its institutions, Constitutions, customs, language, culture...
  • Spanish Nationalism
    “We should not choose weak and less effective means, but the most robust and likely to delete from the memory of the Catalans anything that might conform to their old and abolished constitutions, laws, rights and customs”. –Spanish Council, 1715.
    “Each of them (viceroys) must observe, obey and execute, and make observe, enforce and implement timely and effectively my Real Resolution [...] that once and for all, all the languages are to be extinguished [..] and only Spanish is to be spoken, as is commanded by repeated royal decrees and issued orders”. –Charles III, King of Spain, 1770.
    In 1816, after the Spanish War of Independence against Napoleon –French War for the Catalans–, The Spanish Congress refuses, by 120 against 13, the proposition to allow the Catalan language to be spoken in Catalonia. “Unacceptable”, they argued.
  • Spanish Nationalism
    Lots of successive laws and royal edicts forbidding Catalan in schools and establishing despicable punishments for students who say a “single word that is not Spanish”.–1821, 25, 37, 38…
    Laws to specifically forbid speaking Catalan on the phone and using it in telegrams. –1896
    Military command forbids the celebration of the “JocsFlorals” (literary contests in Catalan) in Barcelona and Balearic Islands. –1902
    “We must spanishiate Catalonia… Make them think in Spanish, speak Spanish, behave as Spanish, whether they want or by force. […] From rough, unruly, coarse and rude –that’s how a Catalan usually is–, they will become kind […] and well-mannered. […] We will maintain the State of War”. –A military magazine, 1906
    Map by the Spanish authorities in 1854 showing what they then still called “Assimilated Spain”.
  • Spanish Nationalism
    “The Catalan problem won’t be solved by freedom, but by restriction; not by palliatives and deals, but by iron and fire”. –A military magazine, 1906
    “The Military Courts will from now on judge all crimes against the security and unity of Spain and anything that could tend to bend it, underestimate its strength or its concept, either spoke or written, either by printing or any other […] means, events or manifestations”. –Royal decree, 1923
    Barça is ordered to stop any activities after a match in which the supporters hooted at the Spanish hymn. –1925
    “Forcing Catalans to speak Spanish is making them a paternal favor, just like forcing a short-sighted child to wear glasses”.–Article in a Spanish newspaper, 1927
  • Spanish Nationalism
    “Rather Civil War than the [Catalan] Statute”.–Headline in a Spanish newspaper, 1932, 4 years before the Spanish Civil War
    The President of the Generalitat (recently reestablished after a failed declaration of independence) proclaims the Catalan Republic. The Spanish army forces him to capitulate, suspends the autonomy indefinitely and imprisons the Catalan government and thousands of people from Catalan political parties, syndicates and cultural organizations. –1934
    “Is a law of Spanish history the need of bombing Barcelona every 50 years. […] If this people is going to dismember Spain, I prefer Franco [the fascist dictatorship]”. –President of the Spanish Republic, during the Spanish Civil War
    The members of the Catalan government in prison. President LluísCompanys, in the center, would be later executed by Franco. Is the only elected president in Europe executed in the context of the World Ward II. Spain hasn’t apologized yet to the Catalan people.
  • Spanish Nationalism
    “I’m not fighting Franco to keep having in Barcelona a stupid and provincial separatism […] There is but one nation: Spain! […] I’d yield to Franco […] rather than consent nationalist campaigns leading to inadmissible dismemberments”. –Spanish Prime Minister, during the Spanish Civil War
    In 1936 any publication in Catalan is forbidden. Catalan is forbidden at school, phone, radio, names of streets and towns… In 1937 there are massive detentions in the street for speaking Catalan.
    “We’d prefer to crush this lands rather than seeing them again acting against the sacred destiny of Spain”.–Declaration of the political party of the regime.
    “Catalan, Jew and renegade, you’ll pay for the damage you’ve caused. Go, army, to conquer, it’s the dawn of Spain.“ –Lyrics of a song sang during the military campaigns in the Civil War
    Franco and Hitler
  • Spanish Nationalism
    Franco’s army enters into the Catalan city Lleida and destroys the graveyard because the epitaphs were written in Catalan. Usage of Catalan names is forbidden. –1938
    “The Spanish unity must be absolute, with a single language, Spanish, and a single personality, Spanish”–Franco, 1939
    The Institute of Catalan Studies (including the department that constitutes the normative institution for the Catalan language) becomes the Institute of Hispanity of Barcelona. –1939
    “Barcelona will still be the black sheep of the nation, at least for a few generations. […] A Biblical punishment is needed to purify the red city, seat of anarchy and separatism, as the only remedy to extirpate both cancers…” –Article in a Spanish newspaper, 1939
  • Spanish Nationalism
    “Catalan dogs! You are not worthy of the sun that shines on you!”. –Military Governor, 1939
    “Catalonia was occupied by Philip IV, occupied again by Philip V, who defeated it, it was bombed by commander Espartero […], we occupied it in 1939 and we are willing to occupy it as many times as necessary, and for that I’m willing to get my rifle again. Thus, you know what to expect, and here I have my rifle to use it again”. –Ministry at that time (1968); founder of the Popular Party in the democracy
    “I like Catalonia despite Catalans”–Santiago Bernabéu, President of the Real Madrid Football Club (its current stadium is named after him), 1968
    “We must promote the migration of Spanish speaking people to Catalonia and Valencia in order to ensure the maintenance of the Spanish feeling” –Prime Minister of Spain, 1983
  • Spanish Nationalism
    “I think that Basques and Catalans are no longer dedicated to anything else in this world but to walk as beggars or beagles with their nose, day and night in the crotch of the pants of friends and strangers alike: they have exercised so much in such sniffing that are capable of recognizing even one-sixteenth of bastard blood”. –Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio, prominent Spanish writer, awarded with the important Cervantes Award of Literature, 1984
    “Catalans are only important when they write in Spanish”. –a Senator, 1984
    “The terrorism in the Basque Country is a matter of public order, but the real danger is the Catalan question”. –Felipe González, Spanish Prime Minister, 1984
    “To guarantee the constitutional primacy of the Spanish language in all the national territory”. –José Maria Aznar, Spanish Prime Minister, 1995
    Attention, dear customers: for more variety in champagnes, gift boxes and non-Catalan champagne, visit our special exhibition located at the back of the frozen aisle. Thanks and happy holidays.
  • Spanish Nationalism
    The ABC is one of the most read Spanish newspapers. As you can see, much of its cover (19 January 2011) is about Catalans, although Catalans are less than 16% of the Spanish population and this newspaper is obviously not one of the most read in Catalonia.
    The big picture is from the Spanish Senate, that had just decided, after a decades-long claim by Catalans, Basques and others, to allow senators to speak in official languages other than Spanish. “REGIONAL WASTE. Co-official languages: The Senate is now the new Tower of Babel. Debts in Catalonia: the Government warns they can’t borrow more. Regional TV networks: Jáuregui invites regions to shut them down”.
    2nd most important news in the cover: a producer rigged Catalan Film Awards. Later on this same newspaper complained when a Catalan film won the Spanish Goya Awards for the first time ever.
  • No, Iniesta, don’t you speak to me in Catalan […] A pure Spanish speaking Catalan is like a Muslim worshiping Jesus Christ. And I support the Barça!
    Spanish, French, English, German... But not dialects of regions. This way we can all understand each other. Dialects are only for natives of the regions, not for a nation!
    It bothers us, ‘cause you are in Spain. Learning and speaking English is OK because it’s culture.
    Spanish Nationalism
    I support the Barça […] but can’t take that they insult me by speaking to me in Catalan. They should respect their non-Catalan supporters. I wish I supported another team, but I like Barça too much. Respect, thanks.
    You shouldn’t speak in Catalan because it’s not your language. Up to now I thought you were Spanish and I was proud [...] but you are selling yourself. Iniesta, one thing is to work in this... team, but a very different one is to speak like a nationalist. [...] If you want to learn languages, concentrate on English or choose those that open more doors than Catalan. –A teacher.
    This may specially seem just an anecdote, but it’s an example of how this nationalism is present not only in the Spanish power and media, but also in the society.
    On Thursday 10th March 2011, Andrés Iniesta, one of the best football players in the world who plays in the Barça team, posted the following message in Facebook in Spanish, English and Catalan:
    “I am doing english class, so I have decided to practise with you. And now I will write in Catalan too. I hope to do a press conf in catalan in the future. Please think that I am learning... be patient :)”
    These are some samples of the thousands of comments posted. Grammar errors and strong language suppressed.
    I hope you don’t write only in Catalan, ‘cause I don’t understand this dialect.
    Stop it with Catalan! Go Spain and the Barça! And you all remember you are Spanish even if it pisses you off!
    I’m willing to forgive this because you made me so happy (World Cup 2010). Go Spain!
    We don’t want Catalans, Iniesta. Spain, Spain!
    Catalans are nasty! I can see your respect.
    You will loose all your followers if you continue like this. [...] Barça and politics shouldn’t be mixed. [...] Barça supporters are not only from Catalonia but from all over the world.
    Learning languages is good. But you are Spanish! Stop it with Catalan! Don’t loose your roots.
    This has gone too far. This wasn’t necessary, since you are Spanish…
    After this stupid decision, I’m going to block you. At the end, the cancer of Barcelona has infected you.
    I’m going to be honest: I don’t like Catalan.
    You’ve gone to far! More Spanish and less Catalan!
  • Spanish Nationalism
    What happens if you start searching for the Catalans in the Spanish version of Google?
    Suggested queries:
    • Catalans suck
    • Catalans train
    • Catalans
    • Catalans, from stones they get bread
    • Catalans are stingy
    • Catalans in the Spanish war
    • Catalans are racists
    • Catalans are Polish [derogatory way of referring to Catalans]
    • Catalans of Franco
    • Catalans feel Spanish
    Thanks to Twitter user @CalDirHo for the screenshot.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
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    Newspapers closed down
    The daily newspaper Egunkariawas closed down on February 20, 2003 by the Spanish authorities, due to allegations of an illegal association with ETA, the armed Basque separatist group. After 7 years, on 15 April 2010 the defendants were acquitted on all charges related to ties to ETA. It remains open the issue of the damages for the shut down newspaper (not operative any more) and alleged tortures on detention to the members of the newspaper's executive board.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
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    2011
    Self-determination democratically approved, then refused by Spain
    The Basque Parliament approved a new political statute for the Basque Country based on its free association with Spain on an equal footing, and that including a right to self-determination, in a way similar to Puerto Rico within the United States or the approach of the Parti Québécois regarding Canada.
    The decision was refused by the Spanish Parliament.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
    2004
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    2006
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    2009
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    2011
    New Catalan Statute of Autonomy modified by Spain
    Although the Spanish Government promised, prior to the elections, that it would support the new Statute of Autonomy approved by the Catalan Parliament, the new statute was substantially modified in matters such as economy, justice and recognition of Catalonia as a different nation within the Spanish state.
    Nevertheless, most Catalan political parties still promoted the affirmative vote in the referendum held in 2006, for the new statute still gave more self-government than the previous one.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
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    2011
    Torture
    Amnesty International presents yet another report on tortures in Spain specially against Basque and Catalan separatists and on Spanish laws violating the international law regarding solitary confinement.
    The cases go back to the beginning of the democracy in Spain and continue until today.
    ETA separatist terrorist group members are imprisoned far away from the Basque Country, against European and Spanish legislation.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
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    Referendum about self-government, forbidden
    On 27 June 2008, the Basque Parliament approved a nonbinding referendum about the exercise of self-government by the Basque Country.
    In July the Spanish Authorities suspended the referendum plans, and in September the Constitutional Court ruled that the referendum was inconstitutional.
    Spain created a new law to suspend any kind of self-government and to imprison the members of that government if a any kind of referendum was called without the approval of the Spanish government.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
    2004
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    Catalonia gives over 10.2% of its GDP to Spain for free
    It’s impossible to summarize the dramatic economic consequences that being in Spain has for Catalonia. Catalonia would be between the 6th and 4th European country in GDP, but its quality of life is less than that of almost any area of Spain. It’s the 3rd Spanish region in contribution to the Spanish government’s founds but the 11th in investments by that very government. The European Union has recognized that has allowed Spain to make investments based on political centralism rather than on practical and economical facts and necessities. On top of that, Catalonia is giving to Spain for free 10.2%+ of its GDP every year, equivalent to the Marshal Plan for the reconstruction of Europe, and this number is growing every year.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
    2004
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    2006
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    2011
    Spain removes or modifies 41 articles of the new Catalan statute
    41 articles of the new Catalan statute of autonomy, previously modified by the Spanish Parliament, were removed or modified by the Constitutional Court –in a decision that took 4 years–, although it was designed to not outlaw the Constitution and had the support of almost 100% of the Catalan Parliament and the approval of the Catalan people in a referendum in 2006.
    The modified articles include the definition as a nation, the protection of the Catalan self-government and language, a fair funding system and the judicial system, rendering it even worse than the previous statute in many aspects.
    A massive demonstration of 1.5 million people was held against the ruling the day before the Football World Cup that Spain won. Its main slogans were “We are a nation, we decide” and “Independence”.
  • Some recent grievances to Cataloniaand the Basque Country
    2003
    2004
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    2006
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    2008
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    2011
    Catalan public TV network banned in Catalan-speaking territory
    After years of fines against a cultural association for enabling millions of Catalan-speakers in the Autonomous Community of Valencia to watch it, the government, using a new ad-hoc law, increased the fines to more than 60,000 € monthly, forcing the association to stop any activities and practically banning the public Catalan TV network, ignoring more than 600,000 signatures and demonstrations in many cities and statements by many city councils.
    The online protests were regarded by Al-Jazeera’s correspondent as the first massive online protest in Europe. #sensesenyal (without signal) was trending topic on Twitter for a week.
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