Grammar Book FINAL


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Grammar Book FINAL

  1. 1. Spanish 4 Grammar BookCatalina VivlamoreSpanish 4H Period 1
  2. 2. Tabla de Contentos1. El Presente (3-5)2. Ser o Estar (6-7)3. Verbos Como Gustar (8)4. El Preterito (9-16)5. El Imperfecto (17-19)6. Preterito vs. Imperfecto (19)7. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses(20-24)8. Subjunctive in AdjectiveClauses (25)9. Mandatos (26-28)10. Object Pronouns (29-33)11. Possessive Adjectives andPronouns (34-35)12. Demonstrative Adjectivesand Pronouns (36-37)13. Reflexive Verbs (38)14. Por y Para (39-41)
  3. 3. Tabla de Contentos– Página 215. To Become (42-43)16. El Futuro (45-46)17. El Condicional (47-48)18. El Presente Perfecto (49-50)19. Pronombres Relativos (51-55)20. Neuter Lo (55)21. Qué vs. Cuál (56)22. Subjuntive in AdverbialClauses (57)23. Past/Imperfect Subjunctive(58)24. Comparisons (59)25. Superlatives (60)26. Adverbs (61-62)27. Diminutives (63)28. Augmentatives (64)
  4. 4. Tabla de Contentos– Página 329. Present Perfect Subjunctive(65)30. Uses of Se (66)31. Past Participles as Adjectives(67-68)32. Hacer Expressions (69)33. Future Perfect (71)34. Conditional Perfect (72)35. Si Clauses (73)36. Transitional Expressions(74-77)37. Pero vs. Sino (78)38. Passive Voice (79)39. Negative Expressions (80)40. Indefinite Expressions (81)41. Past Perfect (82)42. Past Perfect Subjunctive (83)43. Uses of Infinitive (84)44. Prepositions (85-90)
  5. 5. El Presente• Used to express actions or situations that aregoing on at the present time and to expressgeneral truths.• Also used to express habitual actions or actionsthat will take place in the near future.• Regular –ar, -er, -ir verbos• Nota: We normally omit subject pronouns.
  6. 6. Stem-Changing Present• E—>ie {ej. pensar)• O ue (ej. Poder)• EI (ej. Pedir)• Uue (ej. Jugar)• Construir, destruir, incluir, influir add a y beforethe personal endings, except in forms notedbelow• Change in all forms except nosotros y vosotros.
  7. 7. Irregular Yo Present Tense• Many –er and –ir verbs have irregular yo forms inthe present tense.• -cer or –cir -zco• -ger or –gir -jo• Several verbs have irregular –go endings (ej.Caercaigo), and a few have individualirregularities• Others: caber—> quepo; saber se; verveo• Some verbs with irregular yo forms have stemchanges as well• Verbs with prefixes follow the same patterns (ej.detenerdetengo)
  8. 8. Ser o Estar• Ser and estar both mean to be, but they are notinterchangeable.• Ser is used to express the idea of permanence, such asinherent or unchanging qualities and characteristics.• Estar is used to express temporality, including qualitiesor conditions that change with time.• With most descriptive adjectives, either ser or estar canbe used, but the meaning of each statement is different.• Some adjectives have two different meanings dependingon whether they are used with ser or estar.• Nota: Estar, not ser, is used with muerto/a.
  9. 9. Uses of Ser y Estar• Uses of Ser:▫ Nationality and origin▫ Profession/occupation▫ Characteristics ofpeople,animals, andthings▫ Generalizations▫ Possession▫ Material ofcomposition▫ Time, date, season▫ Where/when an eventtakes place• Uses of Estar:▫ Location or spatialrelationships▫ Health▫ Physical states andconditions▫ Emotional states▫ Certain weatherexpressions▫ Ongoing actions(progressive tenses)▫ Results of actions (pastparticiples)
  10. 10. Verbos Como Gustar• Though gustar is translated as to like in English, its literal meaning is toplease.• Gustar is preceded by an indirect object pronoun.• Because the thing or person that pleases is the subject, gustar agrees inperson and number with it.• When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singularform of gustar is always used.• Gustar is often used in the conditional (me gustaria) to soften a request.• Many verbs follow the same pattern as gustar:▫ Aburrir, apetecer, caer bien/mal, disgustar, doler, encantar, faltar, fascinar, hacerfalta, importar, interesar, molestar, preocupar, quedar, sorprender• The construction a+prepositional pronoun or a+noun can be used toemphasized who is pleased, bothered, etc.• Faltar expresses what someone or something lacks and quedar expresseswhat someone or something has left. Quedar is also used to talk about howclothing fits or looks on someone.• Ejemplos
  11. 11. El Preterito• Regular -ar Verbs: • Regular –er/-ir Verbs-é -amos-aste -asteis-ó -aronA definite time in the past with a beginning and/orending-í -imos-iste -isteis-ió -ieron
  12. 12. -Car, -Gar, -Zar• The first group of irregular preterite verbs.• It only changes in the first person tense.• This group pertains to verbs ending in –car, -gar, or –zar.• -quéVerbs endingin -Car• -guéVerbs endingin –Gar• -céVerbs endingin –ZarExamples:Infinitive: Conjugation:Tocar ToquéJugar JuguéComenzar Comencé
  13. 13. Spock Verbs• Ir, ser, dar, ver, y hacer.• Another grouping of irregular preterite verbs.HacerIr/serDar/ver
  14. 14. Tablas para Verbos de SpockIr/SerFui FuimosFuiste FuisteisFue FueronDar/Ver(d/v)i (d/v) imos(d/v)iste (d/v)isteis(d/v)io (d/v)ieronHacerHice HicimosHiciste HicisteisHizo Hicieron
  15. 15. Cucaracha Verbs• A third grouping of irregular preterite verbs.• A way to remember their conjugations is to singthem to the tune of ―La Cucaracha.‖• For the verbs ―conducir,‖ ―producir,‖ and―traducir,‖ drop the ―i‖ in –ieron in the thirdperson plural tense.
  16. 16. Tabla para Verbos de CucarachaAndar Anduv-Estar Estuv-Poder Pud-Poner Pus-Querer Quis-Saber Sup-Tener Tuv-Venir Vin-Conducir Conduj-Producir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj--e -imos-iste -isteis-o -ieron
  17. 17. Snakes and Snakeys• The last groupings of irregular preterite verbs.• In the ―snakes‖ group, there is a stem change inthe third person.• In the ―snakeys‖ group, the ―i‖ changes to a ―y‖in the third person. These verbs usually havedouble vowels in infinitive form.
  18. 18. Tablas de Snakes y SnakeysDormí DormimosDormiste DormisteisDurmió DurmieronSnakes:Pedí PedimosPediste PedisteisPidió PidieronDormir PedirSnakeys:Leí LeímosLeíste LeísteisLeyó LeyeronLeer
  19. 19. Imperfect Tense• Used to describe past activities in a differentway, it is an IMPERFECTED ACTION in thepast. There is no definite beginning or ending.• It is like a movie; preterite tense is like a photo.-aba -abamos-abas -abais-aba -aban-ía -íamos-ías -íais-ía -ían-AR Verbs -ER/IR Verbs
  20. 20. Imperfect Tense Irregulars• There are only 3 irregulars, and never any stemchangesIba ÍbamosIbas IbaisIba IbanEra ÉramosEras EraisEra EranVeía VeíamosVeías VeíasVeía VeíanIrVerSer
  21. 21. Imperfect Trigger Words• Todos los dias• Mientras• Los lunes, martes(etc.)• Siempre• Muchas veces• Cadadia/mes/noche/año• ***These will distinguishuse of preterite from useof imperfect.***• Imperfect tense is used for:1. Habitual/repeated actions2. Events/actions that were inprogress3. Physical characteristics4. Mental/emotional states5. Time-telling6. Age
  22. 22. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses• Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain,hypothetical• Main clause + connector +subordinate clause• -ar: e, es, e, emos, en• -er/-ir: a, as, a, amos, an• Irregulars: dar (de), estar (este), ir (vaya), saber(sepa), haber (haya), ser (sea)• WEDDING: Wishing/wanting, emotions, doubt,disbelief, impersonal expressiosn, negation,God/grief
  23. 23. Impersonal Expressions• Es bueno que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es mejor que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es malo que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es importante que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es necesario que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es urgente que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Y mucho mas!
  24. 24. Verbs of Will and Influence• Aconsejar- to advise• Importar=- to be important, to matter• Ionsistir (en)- to insist (on)• Mandar- to order• Prohibir- to prohibit• Recomendar (e->ie)- to recommend• Rogar (oue)- to beg, to plead• Sugerir (eie) to suggest• Any of these+que+subjunctive
  25. 25. Common Verbs and Expressions ofEmotion• Alegrarse (de)- to be happy• Esperar- to hope, to wish• Senir (eie)- to be sorry, to regret• Sorprender- to surprise• Temer- to be afraid, to fear• Es triste- it’s sad• Ojala (que)- I hope (that), I wish (that)• Any of these+subjunctive
  26. 26. Expressions of Doubt, Disbelief, andDenial• Dudar- to doubt• Negar (eie)- to deny• Es imposible- it’s impossible• Es improbable- it’s improbable• No es cierto- It’s not true, it’s not certain• No es seguro- It’s not certain• No es verdad- it’s not true
  27. 27. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses• An adjective clause is a group of words containing a verbthat tells something about a noun.• The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause when theantecedent is someone or something whose existence inunknown, hypothetical, or uncertain from the point ofview of the speaker.• EJ: Necesito un amigo que me comprenda.• There is NO personal ―a‖ because it’s not a definiteperson• If the antecedent is known to exist, then use theindicative mood instead• When the antecedent is not mentioned, introduceadjective clauses by using ―lo que‖
  28. 28. Mandatos- Usted Commands• Use an usted command to tell someone what to dousing the formal tense.• Put the verb in ―yo‖ form and change ―o‖ ending tothe opposite vowel (are; er/ira)• Do this for both affirmative and negativecommands.• Add an ―n‖ at the end for a plural command.• IRREGULARES: TVDISHES– they are irregular inALL commands▫ T=Tener; V=Venir; D=Dar/Decir; I=Ir; S=Ser;H=Hacer/haber; E=Estar; S=Saber
  29. 29. Mandatos- Tú Commands• Use a tú command to tell someone what to do inthe familiar tense.• For the AFFIRMATIVE: Conjugate to ―tú‖ formand simply drop the ―s‖!• For the NEGATIVE: Put it in ―yo‖ form andchange the ―o‖ ending to the opposite vowel (likein a formal command), then add an ―s‖
  30. 30. Mandatos- Nosotros Commands• Use a nosotros command to tell a group ofpeople you are in to do something with you.• Conjugate into ―yo‖ form and change the ―o‖ending to these opposite vowel endings:aremos; er/iramos• This is for both affirmative and negative. (Justadd a ―no‖ in front for negative.)• MONOS Verbs: Affirmative NosotrosCommands with a Reflexive Verb▫ Drop the extra ―s‖! (EJ: VámosnosVámanos)
  31. 31. Object Pronouns• Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.• Direct object pronouns directly receive theaction of the verb. “what”• Indirect object pronouns identify to whom or forwhom an action is done.Direct ObjectsMe NosTe OsLo/La Los/LasIndirect ObjectsMe NosTe OsLe Les
  32. 32. Position of Object Pronouns• Direct and indirect object pronouns (los pronombresde complemento directo e indirecto) precede theconjugated verb.• Ej: IO- Carla siempre me da boletos para el cine. (Carlaalways gives me movie tickets.)• Ej: DO- Ella los consigue gratis. (She gets them forfree.)• Object pronouns may attach to an infinitive, gerund, oraffirmative command. Or they may go before theconjugated verb as usual.• EJ: Voy a hacerlo enseguida./Lo voy a hacer enseguida.• Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea thathas no gender. ―It‖
  33. 33. Double Object Pronouns• The indirect object pronoun precedes the direct objectpronoun when they are used together in a sentence.• EJ: Me los mandaron por correo.• Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la,los, or las.• EJ: Se las damos.• The ―se‖ has nothing to do with reflexives!• When object pronouns are attached to infinitives,gerunds, or commands, a written accent is often requiredto maintain proper words stress.• Put accent over third-to-last or fourth-to-last syllable,depending on how many pronouns were attached.k
  34. 34. Prepositional PronounsPrepositional PronounsMí Me, myselfTi You, yourselfUd. You, YourselfÉl Him, itElla Her, itSí Himself, herself, itselfNosotros/as Us, ourselvesVosotros/as You, YourselvesUds. You, yourselvesEllos ThemEllas ThemSí Themselves
  35. 35. Prepositional Pronouns• Prepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions.• Except for mí, tí, and sí, they are identical to their correspondingsubject pronouns.• EJ: Lo compramos para ti.• A + [prepositional pronoun] is often used for clarity or emphasis.• EJ: A mí me fascina.• The pronoun sí is the preopositional prnoun used to refer back tothe same third-person subject. In this case, the adjectivemismo/a(s) is usually added for clarifictation.• EJ: Juan se lo regaló a sí mismo.• When mí, ti, and sí are used with con, they become conmigo,contigo, and consigo.• These prepositions are used with tú and yo instead of mí and ti:entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, según.• EJ: Todos están de acuerdo menos tú y yo.
  36. 36. Possessive Adjectives• Tells who is in possession of something– whoseobject the object is. (EJ: My book.)• Possessive adjectives must agree with the nounin gender and number. (Gender only applies tonosotros and vosotros forms)Mi (s) Nuestro (a, s, as)Tu (s) Vuestro (a, s, as)Su (s) Sus
  37. 37. Possessive Pronouns• Tells who is in possession of an object, but uses apronoun to replace the noun. (EJ: Mine is blue.)• They also must agree in gender an number to the nounthat they are replacing.• Possessive pronouns usually are used with thecorresponding definite article.El/La mío (a)Los/Las míos (as)El/La nuestro (a)Los/Las nuestros (as)El/La tuyo (a)Los/Las tuyos (as)El/La vuestro (a)Los/Las vuestros (as)El/La suyo (a)Los/Las suyos (as)El/La suyo (a)Los/Las suyos (as)
  38. 38. Demonstrative Adjectives• To be more specific as to which an object is– ―this,‖ ―that,‖ or ―thatone over there.‖• They must agree in gender and number.Este/This Singular PluralMasculineEste EstosFeminine Esta EstasEse/That Singular PluralMasculine Ese EsosFeminine Esa EsasAquel Singular PluralMasculine Aquel AquellosFeminine Aquella Aquellas
  39. 39. Demonstrative Pronouns• To be more specific as to which an object is– ―this,‖ ―that,‖ or ―thatone over there,‖ and replacing the noun with the following pronouns• Must agree in gender and number• They’re the same as the adjectives!Este/This Singular PluralMasculineEste EstosFeminine Esta EstasEse/That Singular PluralMasculine Ese EsosFeminine Esa EsasAquel Singular PluralMasculine Aquel AquellosFeminine Aquella Aquellas
  40. 40. Reflexive Verbs• Reflects the action of the verb back to the subject• If a verb acts on something other than thesubject, use non-reflexive verb form• If verb acts on subject, use reflexive verb formMe NosTe OsSe Se
  41. 41. Por y Para• ―For‖• However, they have specific usages, so they areeasy to confuse, despite being translated to meanthe same• In Spanish, you must use the correct onebecause using the wrong one may give thesentence a different meaning!
  42. 42. Uses of “POR”• Indicates motion/general location• Duration of an action• Reason or motivation for action• Object of a search• Means by which something is done• Exchange or substitution• Unit of measure• Mulitplication• Idiomatic Expressions (EJ: por ejemplo, por eso, porfin, etc.)
  43. 43. Uses of “PARA”• Destination• Deadline or specific time in future• Purpose/Goal + Infinitive• Purpose + Noun• Recipient of something• Comparison with others or an Opinion• In the employment of
  44. 44. “To Become”• In Spanish, there is no specific infinitive thatmeans ―to become‖• Instead, a variety of other infinitives used incertain ways and phrases are used to convey thesame meaning as ―to become‖• The verb used depends on the nature of thechange that occurs (e.g. deliberate, involuntary)
  45. 45. Phrases for “To Become”• Llegar a ser: ―to eventually become,‖ usually change over along period of time, usually with effort.▫ EJ: Antonio became old= Antonio llegó a ser anciano.• Ponerse: Refers to a change in mood or emotion, especially atemporary or sudden change. It is also used to refer tochanges in physical appearance and many other traits.Doesn’t have to apply to just people.▫ EJ: I became sick= Me puse enferma.• Hacerse: Deliberate or voluntary changes, such as a change inidentity, affiliation, religion, etc.▫ EJ: Carmen became a Christian= Carmen se hace una cristiana.• Volverse: A typically involuntary change, generally applying topeople.▫ Jorge became/went crazy: Jorge se volvió loco.
  46. 46. El Futuro• Used to explain what someone/something WILLdo in the future.• I, you, he, she, we, they WILL• No conjugation is needed! Just stick the endingonto the infinitive!• No matter the verb ending, all conjugations arethe same!-é -emos-ás -áis-á -án
  47. 47. El Futuro- Irregulares• Decir: Dir-• Hacer: Har-• Poner: Pondr-• Salir: Saldr-• Tener: Tendr-• Valer: Valdr-• Venir: Vendr• Poder: Podr-• Querer: Querr-• Saber: Sabr-• Caber: Cabr-• Haber: Habr-**Simply add the regular endingsto these irregular conjugations.
  48. 48. El Condicional• Used to express probability, conjecture,possibility, or wonder.• What someone/something WOULD or MIGHTdo.• Like the future tense, conditional verbs do notneed to be conjugated. Instead they have distinctendings. -ía -íamos-ías -íais-ía -ían
  49. 49. El Condicional- Irregulares• Decir: Dir-• Hacer: Har-• Poner: Pondr-• Salir: Saldr-• Tener: Tendr-• Valer: Valdr-• Venir: Vendr• Poder: Podr-• Querer: Querr-• Saber: Sabr-• Caber: Cabr-• Haber: Habr-**They’re exactly the same asfuture irregulars!
  50. 50. El Presente Perfecto• Used to express past actions that continue into thepresent or continue to affect the person in the present.▫ In English, this would be to explain what someone hasdone.• Object pronouns are placed before the auxiliary verb.• Here is the table for the auxilary verbs:Auxilary Verb + Past ParticipleHe HemosHas HabéisHa Han
  51. 51. Presente Perfecto- Irregulares• Abrir Abierto• Cubrir Cubierto• Decir Dicho• Escribir Escrito• Hacer Hecho• Morir Muerto• Poner Puesto• Resolver Resuelto• Romper Roto• Ver Visto• Volver Vuelto• Ir Ido
  52. 52. Pronombres Relativos• Words that refer to an already-stated noun.• There are six: Que El Que Lo Que Cuyo Quien El Cual
  53. 53. Pronombres Relativos- Que y Quien• Que:―That‖• Ejemplo:• Las galletas que comí= The cookies that I ate.• Quien: ―Who‖▫ Refers ONLY to PEOPLE!• Ejemplo:▫ Mi prima, quien es una bailerina, fue al supermercado=My cousin, who is a ballerina, went to the supermarket.• For quien, it must agree in number, so if thenoun is plural, then use ―quienes.‖
  54. 54. Pronombres Relativos– El Que, ElCual, y Lo Que• El Que: ―the one that/who‖• Must agree in gender and number, so use ―los que,‖ ―laque,‖ y ―las que‖ accordingly.• El Cual: Same as ―el que,‖ but used in moreformal settings, such as formal writing.▫ Again, they must agree in gender and number, souse ―los cuales,‖ ―la cual,‖ y ―las cuales‖accordingly.• Lo Que: ―that which,‖ ―that what‖– refers to anabstract idea, rather than something or someonespecific, like above.
  55. 55. Pronombres Relativos- Cuyo• ―Whose‖• Ejemplo: Arturo, cuyo bebida favorita es té, amacafeína= Arthur, whose favorite drink istea, loves caffeine.• Additionally, it must agree in gender andnumber▫ Use ―cuyos,‖ ―cuya,‖ y ―cuyas‖ accordingly.▫ Gender and number is determined based on whatis being owned, NOT the owner!
  56. 56. Neuter Lo• In Spanish, ―lo‖ is used as a neuter article• Used in front of an adjective in order to expresssomething that is abstract or a quality.• Common Expressions:▫ Lo fácil (the easy thing/part)▫ Lo bueno (the good thing)▫ Lo bello (what’s beautiful)▫ Lo justo (what’s fair)▫ Lo mejor (the best part)• Lo + Adjective+ Que= ―How [adjective]▫ No sabes lo feliz que estoy. = You do not know howhappy I am.
  57. 57. Qué vs. Cuál• Both are used to mean ―what‖ or ―which,‖ butthey have distinct uses when used in questions:Qué CuálAsking fordefinitionsNormally usedbefore forms of serwhen not asking fora definition.Normally usedbefore nounsSuggesting aselection or choicefrom a groupIdioms such as―¿qué hora es?‖ or―¡qué lástima!
  58. 58. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses• Conjugated exactly the same as in noun andadjective clauses.• An adverb clause is a dependent clause thatmodifies the verb in the independent clause– theverb is hypothetical or anticipated.▫ Why, where, when, how• Ejemplos:▫ Voy a esperar hasta que vuelvas.▫ Trabajo duro para que mi familia viva bien.
  59. 59. Past/Imperfect Subjunctive• Follows the same rules for when to use it as Present Subjunctive.• However, this expresses in the past– the verb in the independentclause will be in the imperfect or preterite tenseThirdpersonpreteriteDrop the―-ron‖endingAddendingsfrom table:-ra -ramos-ras -rais-ra -ranThere are also alternateendings that are used inSpain only.Instead of the ―ra‖ baseconjugation, it takes formsfrom ―se.‖ (e.g. ses, se, sen)
  60. 60. Comparisons• Comparatives are used to compare two things.• If the things you are comparing is followed by a number, use de instead ofque.• When comparing two things that are equal (something is ―as [adj/adv] as‖),follow this instead:• If the equality comparison uses a noun, then use tanto (-a/-as/-os)instead.Más/MenosAdjective/Adverb/NounqueTanAdjective/Adverbcomo
  61. 61. Superlatives• Used to describe someone or something to thegreatest degree• Other superlative and comparative words: mejor(best); peor (worst); mayor (older); menor(younger)Noun Más Adjective de
  62. 62. Adverbs• Word that modifies a verb, adjective, or anotheradverb• Adding –mente is like adding –ly in English.• Adverbs can refer tomanner, time, place, frequency, quantity, affirmation, and negation.• Place the adverb in front of the adjective oradverb it modifires, or after the verb it modifiesAdjective infeminineformAdd -mente
  63. 63. Non- “Mente” AdverbsManner Time Place Frequency Quality Affirmation/NegationBien Hoy Aquí Nunca Muy NuncaMal Temprano Allí Simpre Bastante SiempreMuy Ayer Allá A menudo MuchoDespacio A tiempo CasiRápido Pronto MuchoAnd many more!
  64. 64. Diminutives• Used to indicate small size or affection, or to make aword less harsh• Drop final vowel and add one of these endings:• Masculine: ―-ito‖ or ―-cito‖▫ Gato Gatito (kitty)▫ Padre Padrecito (Daddy)• Feminine: ―-ita‖ or ―-cita‖▫ Hermana Hermanita (little sister)▫ Mamá Mamacita (Mommy)• Be careful not to confuse ―-ito‖ and ―-ita‖ with pastparticiples such as ―frito.‖
  65. 65. Augmentatives• Used to refer to something as large, or toindicate intensity• Less common than diminutives, but formed thesame way• Masculine: ―-ón,‖ ―-azo,‖ ―-ote‖▫ Hermano Hermanón (big brother)▫ Pájaro Pajarote (large bird)• Feminine: ―-ona,‖ ―-aza,‖ ―-ota‖▫ Hermana Hermanona (big sister)
  66. 66. Present Perfect Subjunctive• Used in the same type of clauses as presentsubjunctive• Used to describe what MAY have taken place.• Like present perfect, this uses a form of haberand a past participle.Haya HayamosHayas HayáisHaya Hayan
  67. 67. Uses of “Se”• In Spanish, ―se‖ is a very versatile pronoun.• Uses:▫ Reflexive Pronoun▫ Passive Voice▫ A substitute for le or les▫ Impersonal Se
  68. 68. Past Participles as Adjectives• Past participles are formed by dropping theending of the infinitive and adding the endings―-ado‖ for –AR verbs and ―-ido‖ for –ER/-IRverbs.• As adjectives, they agree in gender and numberwith the nouns they modify.
  69. 69. Past Participles as Adjectives-Irregulares• Abrir Abierto• Cubrir Cubierto• Decir Dicho• Escribir Escrito• Hacer Hecho• Morir Muerto• Poner Puesto• Resolver Resuelto• Romper Roto• Ver Visto• Volver Vuelto• Ir Ido
  70. 70. Hacer Expressions• Hacer expressions tell how long ago somethinghappened.• Hace + [duration] + [meses/días/etc.] + que + verb• Present Tense: ―I have lived in Spain for two years.‖• Hace dos años que vivo en España.• Past Tense: ―I lived in Spain two years ago.‖ Hace dos años que viví en España.• ―Since‖• ―For‖PresentTense• ―Ago‖PreteriteTense
  71. 71. Future Perfect• Haber conjugation + Past Participle• Describes what WILL HAVE HAPPENED in thefuture before a different action takes place, or bya specific time.• Add the ―no,‖ object pronouns, and reflectivepronouns before the conjugation of haber.Habré HabremosHabrás HabréisHabré Habrán
  72. 72. Conditional Perfect• Haber conjugation + Past Participle• Used to indicate something hypothetical orunreal in past time.• Ej: Sí, habría ido a la luna.▫ Yes, I would have gone to the moon.)Habría HabríamosHabrías HabríaisHabría Habrían
  73. 73. Si Clauses• Conditional Clauses that use si.• Except in very rare cases, si is never followed by a verb in thepresent subjunctive• The conditional clause can come before or after the rest of thesentences.• Two Types:1. Sentences in which the condition is likely or reasonably likelya. Open Conditionb. Si tengo dinero… (it is likely that I have money(2. Sentences in which the condition is contrary to fact or is unlikelya. Contrary-to-fact conditionb. Si yo fuera rica… (I am not actually rich)• Correct Verb Tense Following Si:▫ Open Conditions: followed by present indicative▫ Unlikely conditions: followed by past/imperfect subjunctive, even if theaction occurs in the present.
  74. 74. Transitional Expressions• Used to express the connections between detailsand ideas.• Many function to narrate time and sequence• Others compare or contrast ideas and details• They can also be used to express cause and effect
  75. 75. Transitional Expressions- Time andSequence• Al final (at/in the end)• Al mismo tiempo (at the sametime)• Al principio (in the beginning)• Anteayer (day beforeyesterday)• Antes (de) (before)• Ayer (yesterday)• Después (de) (after)• Entonces (then)• Finalmente (finally)• Hoy (today)• Luego (later)• Mañana (tomorrow)• Mientras (while)• Pasada mañana (day aftertomorrow)• Por fin (finally)• Primero (first)• Segundo (second)• Siempre (always)
  76. 76. Transitional Expressions- Compare andContrast• Además (furthermore)• Al contrario (on the contrary)• Al mismo tiempo (at the sametime)• Con excepción de (with theexception of)• De la misma manera(similarly)• Igualmente (likewise)• Mientras que (meanwhile)• Ni… ni (neither…nor)• O… o (either…or)• Por otra parte (on the otherhand)• Por otro lado (on the otherhand)• Por un lado… por el otro (onone hand… on the other)• Por una parte… por la otra (onone hand… on the other)• Sin embargo (however)• También (also)
  77. 77. Transitional Expressions- Cause andEffect• Así que (so, therefore)• Como (since)• Como resultado (de) (as a result (of))• Dado que (since)• Debido a (due to)• Por lo tanto (therefore)• Por consiguiente (therefore)• Por eso (therefore)• Por esta razón (for this reason)• Porque (because)
  78. 78. Pero vs. Sino• Both are ways of saying ―but‖ in Spanish.• ―Pero‖ is used mostly, but…• Use ―sino‖ when both of the following occur:▫ The part of the sentence before the conjunction isstated in the negative▫ The part of the sentence after the conjunction directlycontradicts what is negated in the first.• For ―sino,‖ you may also translate it as ―rather‖ or―instead.‖• EJ:▫ Pero: Juan es alto pero no es fuerte.▫ Sino: Catalina no es alta sino baja.
  79. 79. Passive Voice• The recipient of the action becomes the subject of the sentence• Emphasize the thing that was done or the person that was acted upon• Singular forms of ser are used with singular recipients, while plural formsare used with plural recipients• Past participle must agree in number and gender with the recipients• EJEMPLO: La frontera es vigilada por el policía. (the border is guarded bythe pólice)RecipientForm ofSERPor Agent
  80. 80. Negative Expressions• Words that express the negative of a fact or opinion.• Double negatives are OKAY in Spanish!▫ Actually, you kind of have to use them…Nadie NobodyNada NothingNi NorNi… Ni Niether… NorNingún (o,a,os,as) No, no one, none, anyNo NoNunca, Jamás NeverTampoco Neither, not eitherTodavía No Not yetYa No No longer
  81. 81. Indefinite Expressions• The opposite of negative expressions– something isaffirmative, but not definite.• Don’t use with ―no‖– that is what negative expressionsare for.Alguien SomebodyAlgo SomethingAlgún (o,a,os,as) Some, somethingAlguna Vez EverSiempre AlwaysTambién AlsoTodavía, Aún StillYa AlreadyO OrO… O Either… Or
  82. 82. Past Perfect• Haber Conjugation + Past Participle• Used when a past action was completed beforeanother past action• Add the ―no,‖ object pronouns, and reflectivepronouns before the conjugation of haber.Había HabíamosHabías HabíaisHabía Habían
  83. 83. Past Perfect Subjunctive• Haber Conjugation + Past Participle• The Haber Conjugation is in the imperfectsubjunctive.• Used during completed actions that hadhappened before another past action, whensubjunctive would normally be usedHubiera HubiéramosHubieras HubieraisHubiera Hubieran
  84. 84. Uses of the Infinitive• As a Noun– subject or object▫ Aprender es importante.• After a conjugated verb, with or without apreposition, or possibly with ―que.‖▫ Me gusta comer.• In the place of the subjunctive when the mainclause has the same subject as the subordinate,or when the main clause has an impersonalsubject (implied subject)▫ Tengo miedo de llegar tarde.
  85. 85. Prepositions- A• To, at, by means of• EJ:▫ Voy a la ciudad. I am going to the city.▫ Vengamos a los dos. We are coming at two.▫ Viaje a pie. He is traveling on foot. (by means of walking)
  86. 86. Prepositions- Hacia• Toward• EJ:▫ Caminamos hacia la plaza. We are walking toward the square.
  87. 87. Prepositions- Con y De• Con: with▫ Voy al cine con mis amigos. I am going to the movies with my friends.• De: of, from, possession▫ La camiseta es de algodón. The t-shirt is (made) of cotton.▫ Antonio es de España. Antonio is from Spain.▫ Amo el gato de mi novio. I love my boyfriend’s cat. (the cat of my boyfriend)
  88. 88. Prepositions- Desde• Since, from• EJ:▫ No comí desde ayer. I haven’t eaten since yesterday.▫ Tiramos el fútbol desde el autobus. We threw the soccer ball from the bus.
  89. 89. Prepositions- En y Entre• En: in, on▫ Ella está en Barcelona. She is in Barcelona.▫ Mi foto es en el refrigerador. My picture is on the refrigerator.• Entre: Between, among▫ El abogado está entre el ladrón y el alguacil. The lawyer is between the thief and the bailiff.▫ Ella está entre sus amigos. She is among her friends.
  90. 90. Prepositions- Hasta y Sin• Hasta: Until▫ Hasta la vista. Until I see you again.• Sin: Without▫ Salí de mi casa sin mi abrigo. I left my house without my coat.