Grammar book cata


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Grammar book cata

  1. 1. Spanish 4 Grammar Book Catalina Vivlamore Spanish 4H Period 1
  2. 2. Tabla de Contentos1. El Presente (3-5) 8. 8. Subjunctive in Adjective2. Ser o Estar (6-7) Clauses (25)3. Verbos Como Gustar (8) 9. 9. Mandatos (26-28)4. El Preterito (9-16) 10. 10. Object Pronouns (29-33)5. El Imperfecto (17-19) 11. 11. Possessive Adjectives and6. Preterito vs. Imperfecto (19) Pronouns (34-35)7. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses 12. 12. Demonstrative Adjectives (20-24) and Pronouns (36-37) 13. 13. Reflexive Verbs (38) 14. 14. Por y Para (39-41) 15. 15. To Become (42-43)
  3. 3. Tabla de Contentos– Página 216. El Futuro (45-46) 26. Adverbs (61-62)17. El Condicional (47-48) 27. Diminutives (63)18. El Presente Perfecto (49-50) 28. Augmentatives (64)19. Pronombres Relativos (51- 29. Present Perfect Subjunctive 55) (65)20. Neuter Lo (55) 30. Uses of Se (66)21. Qué vs. Cuál (56) 31. Past Participles as Adjectives22. Subjuntive in Adverbial (67-68) Clauses (57) 32. Hacer Expressions (69)23. Past/Imperfect Subjunctive (58)24. Comparisons (59)25. Superlatives (60)
  4. 4. El Presente• Used to express actions or situations that are going on at the present time and to express general truths.• Also used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future.• Regular –ar, -er, -ir verbos• Nota: We normally omit subject pronouns.
  5. 5. Stem-Changing Present• E—>ie {ej. pensar)• O ue (ej. Poder)• EI (ej. Pedir)• Uue (ej. Jugar)• Construir, destruir, incluir, influir add a y before the personal endings, except in forms noted below• Change in all forms except nosotros y vosotros.
  6. 6. Irregular Yo Present Tense• Many –er and –ir verbs have irregular yo forms in the present tense.• -cer or –cir -zco• -ger or –gir -jo• Several verbs have irregular –go endings (ej. Caercaigo), and a few have individual irregularities• Others: caber—> quepo; saber se; verveo• Some verbs with irregular yo forms have stem changes as well• Verbs with prefixes follow the same patterns (ej. detenerdetengo)
  7. 7. Ser o Estar• Ser and estar both mean to be, but they are not interchangeable.• Ser is used to express the idea of permanence, such as inherent or unchanging qualities and characteristics.• Estar is used to express temporality, including qualities or conditions that change with time.• With most descriptive adjectives, either ser or estar can be used, but the meaning of each statement is different.• Some adjectives have two different meanings depending on whether they are used with ser or estar.• Nota: Estar, not ser, is used with muerto/a.
  8. 8. Uses of Ser y Estar• Uses of Ser: • Uses of Estar: ▫ Nationality and origin ▫ Location or spatial ▫ Profession/occupation relationships ▫ Characteristics of ▫ Health people,animals, and ▫ Physical states and things conditions ▫ Generalizations ▫ Emotional states ▫ Possession ▫ Certain weather ▫ Material of expressions composition ▫ Ongoing actions ▫ Time, date, season (progressive tenses) ▫ Where/when an event ▫ Results of actions (past takes place participles)
  9. 9. Verbos Como Gustar• Though gustar is translated as to like in English, its literal meaning is to please.• Gustar is preceded by an indirect object pronoun.• Because the thing or person that pleases is the subject, gustar agrees in person and number with it.• When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used.• Gustar is often used in the conditional (me gustaria) to soften a request.• Many verbs follow the same pattern as gustar: ▫ Aburrir, apetecer, caer bien/mal, disgustar, doler, encantar, faltar, fascinar, hacer falta, importar, interesar, molestar, preocupar, quedar, sorprender• The construction a+prepositional pronoun or a+noun can be used to emphasized who is pleased, bothered, etc.• Faltar expresses what someone or something lacks and quedar expresses what someone or something has left. Quedar is also used to talk about how clothing fits or looks on someone.• Ejemplos
  10. 10. El Preterito A definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending• Regular -ar Verbs: • Regular –er/-ir Verbs -é -amos -í -imos -aste -asteis -iste -isteis -ó -aron -ió -ieron
  11. 11. -Car, -Gar, -Zar• The first group of irregular preterite verbs.• It only changes in the first person tense.• This group pertains to verbs ending in –car, - gar, or –zar. Examples:Verbs ending Infinitive: Conjugation: in -Car • -qué Tocar ToquéVerbs ending in –Gar • -gué Jugar JuguéVerbs ending in –Zar • -cé Comenzar Comencé
  12. 12. Spock Verbs• Ir, ser, dar, ver, y hacer.• Another grouping of irregular preterite verbs. Ir/ser Dar/ver Hacer
  13. 13. Tablas para Verbos de Spock Ir/Ser Dar/Ver Hacer Fui Fuimos (d/v)i (d/v) imos Hice Hicimos Fuiste Fuisteis (d/v)iste (d/v)isteis Hiciste Hicisteis Fue Fueron (d/v)io (d/v)ieron Hizo Hicieron
  14. 14. Cucaracha Verbs• A third grouping of irregular preterite verbs.• A way to remember their conjugations is to sing them to the tune of ―La Cucaracha.‖• For the verbs ―conducir,‖ ―producir,‖ and ―traducir,‖ drop the ―i‖ in –ieron in the third person plural tense.
  15. 15. Tabla para Verbos de CucarachaAndar Anduv- -e -imosEstar Estuv- -iste -isteisPoder Pud-Poner Pus- -o -ieronQuerer Quis-Saber Sup-Tener Tuv-Venir Vin-Conducir Conduj-Producir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-
  16. 16. Snakes and Snakeys• The last groupings of irregular preterite verbs.• In the ―snakes‖ group, there is a stem change in the third person.• In the ―snakeys‖ group, the ―i‖ changes to a ―y‖ in the third person. These verbs usually have double vowels in infinitive form.
  17. 17. Tablas de Snakes y Snakeys Snakes: Dormir Pedir Dormí Dormimos Pedí Pedimos Dormiste Dormisteis Pediste Pedisteis Durmió Durmieron Pidió Pidieron Snakeys: Leer Leí Leímos Leíste Leísteis Leyó Leyeron
  18. 18. Imperfect Tense• Used to describe past activities in a different way, it is an IMPERFECTED ACTION in the past. There is no definite beginning or ending.• It is like a movie; preterite tense is like a photo. -AR Verbs -ER/IR Verbs -aba -abamos -ía -íamos -abas -abais -ías -íais -aba -aban -ía -ían
  19. 19. Imperfect Tense Irregulars • There are only 3 irregulars, and never any stem changesIba Íbamos Era ÉramosIbas Ibais Ir Eras EraisIba Iban Era Eran Ser Veía Veíamos Ver Veías Veías Veía Veían
  20. 20. Imperfect Trigger Words• Todos los dias • Imperfect tense is used for: 1. Habitual/repeated actions• Mientras 2. Events/actions that were in• Los lunes, martes progress (etc.) 3. Physical characteristics 4. Mental/emotional states• Siempre 5. Time-telling• Muchas veces 6. Age• Cada dia/mes/noche/año• ***These will distinguish use of preterite from use of imperfect.***
  21. 21. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses• Subjunctive mood: attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical• Main clause + connector +subordinate clause• -ar: e, es, e, emos, en• -er/-ir: a, as, a, amos, an• Irregulars: dar (de), estar (este), ir (vaya), saber (sepa), haber (haya), ser (sea)• WEDDING: Wishing/wanting, emotions, doubt, disbelief, im personal expressiosn, negation, God/grief
  22. 22. Impersonal Expressions• Es bueno que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es mejor que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es malo que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es importante que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es necesario que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Es urgente que… [Subjunctive Clause]• Y mucho mas!
  23. 23. Verbs of Will and Influence• Aconsejar- to advise• Importar=- to be important, to matter• Ionsistir (en)- to insist (on)• Mandar- to order• Prohibir- to prohibit• Recomendar (e->ie)- to recommend• Rogar (oue)- to beg, to plead• Sugerir (eie) to suggest• Any of these+que+subjunctive
  24. 24. Common Verbs and Expressions ofEmotion• Alegrarse (de)- to be happy• Esperar- to hope, to wish• Senir (eie)- to be sorry, to regret• Sorprender- to surprise• Temer- to be afraid, to fear• Es triste- it’s sad• Ojala (que)- I hope (that), I wish (that)• Any of these+subjunctive
  25. 25. Expressions of Doubt, Disbelief, andDenial• Dudar- to doubt• Negar (eie)- to deny• Es imposible- it’s impossible• Es improbable- it’s improbable• No es cierto- It’s not true, it’s not certain• No es seguro- It’s not certain• No es verdad- it’s not true
  26. 26. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses• An adjective clause is a group of words containing a verb that tells something about a noun.• The subjunctive is used in an adjective clause when the antecedent is someone or something whose existence in unknown, hypothetical, or uncertain from the point of view of the speaker.• EJ: Necesito un amigo que me comprenda.• There is NO personal ―a‖ because it’s not a definite person• If the antecedent is known to exist, then use the indicative mood instead• When the antecedent is not mentioned, introduce adjective clauses by using ―lo que‖
  27. 27. Mandatos- Usted Commands• Use an usted command to tell someone what to do using the formal tense.• Put the verb in ―yo‖ form and change ―o‖ ending to the opposite vowel (are; er/ira)• Do this for both affirmative and negative commands.• Add an ―n‖ at the end for a plural command.• IRREGULARES: TVDISHES– they are irregular in ALL commands ▫ T=Tener; V=Venir; D=Dar/Decir; I=Ir; S=Ser; H=Hacer/haber; E=Estar; S=Saber
  28. 28. Mandatos- Tú Commands• Use a tú command to tell someone what to do in the familiar tense.• For the AFFIRMATIVE: Conjugate to ―tú‖ form and simply drop the ―s‖!• For the NEGATIVE: Put it in ―yo‖ form and change the ―o‖ ending to the opposite vowel (like in a formal command), then add an ―s‖
  29. 29. Mandatos- Nosotros Commands• Use a nosotros command to tell a group of people you are in to do something with you.• Conjugate into ―yo‖ form and change the ―o‖ ending to these opposite vowel endings: aremos; er/iramos• This is for both affirmative and negative. (Just add a ―no‖ in front for negative.)• MONOS Verbs: Affirmative Nosotros Commands with a Reflexive Verb ▫ Drop the extra ―s‖! (EJ: VámosnosVámanos)
  30. 30. Object Pronouns• Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.• Direct object pronouns directly receive the action of the verb. “what”• Indirect object pronouns identify to whom or for whom an action is done. Direct Objects Indirect Objects Me Nos Me Nos Te Os Te Os Lo/La Los/Las Le Les
  31. 31. Position of Object Pronouns• Direct and indirect object pronouns (los pronombres de complemento directo e indirecto) precede the conjugated verb.• Ej: IO- Carla siempre me da boletos para el cine. (Carla always gives me movie tickets.)• Ej: DO- Ella los consigue gratis. (She gets them for free.)• Object pronouns may attach to an infinitive, gerund, or affirmative command. Or they may go before the conjugated verb as usual.• EJ: Voy a hacerlo enseguida./Lo voy a hacer enseguida.• Lo is also used to refer to an abstract thing or idea that has no gender. ―It‖
  32. 32. Double Object Pronouns• The indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence.• EJ: Me los mandaron por correo.• Le and les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las.• EJ: Se las damos.• The ―se‖ has nothing to do with reflexives!• When object pronouns are attached to infinitives, gerunds, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper words stress.• Put accent over third-to-last or fourth-to-last syllable, depending on how many pronouns were attached.k
  33. 33. Prepositional PronounsPrepositional PronounsMí Me, myselfTi You, yourselfUd. You, YourselfÉl Him, itElla Her, itSí Himself, herself, itselfNosotros/as Us, ourselvesVosotros/as You, YourselvesUds. You, yourselvesEllos ThemEllas ThemSí Themselves
  34. 34. Prepositional Pronouns• Prepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions.• Except for mí, tí, and sí, they are identical to their corresponding subject pronouns.• EJ: Lo compramos para ti.• A + [prepositional pronoun] is often used for clarity or emphasis.• EJ: A mí me fascina.• The pronoun sí is the preopositional prnoun used to refer back to the same third-person subject. In this case, the adjective mismo/a(s) is usually added for clarifictation.• EJ: Juan se lo regaló a sí mismo.• When mí, ti, and sí are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, and consigo.• These prepositions are used with tú and yo instead of mí and ti: entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, según.• EJ: Todos están de acuerdo menos tú y yo.
  35. 35. Possessive Adjectives• Tells who is in possession of something– whose object the object is. (EJ: My book.)• Possessive adjectives must agree with the noun in gender and number. (Gender only applies to nosotros and vosotros forms) Mi (s) Nuestro (a, s, as) Tu (s) Vuestro (a, s, as) Su (s) Sus
  36. 36. Possessive Pronouns• Tells who is in possession of an object, but uses a pronoun to replace the noun. (EJ: Mine is blue.)• They also must agree in gender an number to the noun that they are replacing.• Possessive pronouns usually are used with the corresponding definite article. El/La mío (a) El/La nuestro (a) Los/Las míos (as) Los/Las nuestros (as) El/La tuyo (a) El/La vuestro (a) Los/Las tuyos (as) Los/Las vuestros (as) El/La suyo (a) El/La suyo (a) Los/Las suyos (as) Los/Las suyos (as)
  37. 37. Demonstrative Adjectives • To be more specific as to which an object is– ―this,‖ ―that,‖ or ―that one over there.‖Este/This must agree in gender and number. • They Singular PluralMasculin Este Estose Aquel Singular PluralFeminine Esta Estas Masculine Aquel AquellosEse/That Singular Plural Feminine Aquella AquellasMasculin Ese EsoseFeminin Esa Esase
  38. 38. Demonstrative Pronouns • To be more specific as to which an object is– ―this,‖ ―that,‖ or ―that one over there,‖ and replacing the noun with the following pronouns • Must agree in gender and numberEste/This Singular Plural • They’re the same as the adjectives!Masculin Este Estose Aquel Singular PluralFeminine Esta Estas Masculine Aquel AquellosEse/That Singular Plural Feminine Aquella AquellasMasculin Ese EsoseFeminin Esa Esas
  39. 39. Reflexive Verbs• Reflects the action of the verb back to the subject• If a verb acts on something other than the subject, use non-reflexive verb form• If verb acts on subject, use reflexive verb form Me Nos Te Os Se Se
  40. 40. Por y Para• ―For‖• However, they have specific usages, so they are easy to confuse, despite being translated to mean the same• In Spanish, you must use the correct one because using the wrong one may give the sentence a different meaning!
  41. 41. Uses of “POR”• Indicates motion/general location• Duration of an action• Reason or motivation for action• Object of a search• Means by which something is done• Exchange or substitution• Unit of measure• Mulitplication• Idiomatic Expressions (EJ: por ejemplo, por eso, por fin, etc.)
  42. 42. Uses of “PARA”• Destination• Deadline or specific time in future• Purpose/Goal + Infinitive• Purpose + Noun• Recipient of something• Comparison with others or an Opinion• In the employment of
  43. 43. “To Become”• In Spanish, there is no specific infinitive that means ―to become‖• Instead, a variety of other infinitives used in certain ways and phrases are used to convey the same meaning as ―to become‖• The verb used depends on the nature of the change that occurs (e.g. deliberate, involuntary)
  44. 44. Phrases for “To Become”• Llegar a ser: ―to eventually become,‖ usually change over a long period of time, usually with effort. ▫ EJ: Antonio became old= Antonio llegó a ser anciano.• Ponerse: Refers to a change in mood or emotion, especially a temporary or sudden change. It is also used to refer to changes in physical appearance and many other traits. Doesn’t have to apply to just people. ▫ EJ: I became sick= Me puse enferma.• Hacerse: Deliberate or voluntary changes, such as a change in identity, affiliation, religion, etc. ▫ EJ: Carmen became a Christian= Carmen se hace una cristiana.• Volverse: A typically involuntary change, generally applying to people. ▫ Jorge became/went crazy: Jorge se volvió loco.
  45. 45. El Futuro• Used to explain what someone/something WILL do in the future.• I, you, he, she, we, they WILL• No conjugation is needed! Just stick the ending onto the infinitive!• No matter the verb ending, all conjugations are the same! -é -emos -ás -áis -á -án
  46. 46. El Futuro- Irregulares• Decir: Dir-• Hacer: Har- **Simply add the regular endings to these irregular conjugations.• Poner: Pondr-• Salir: Saldr-• Tener: Tendr-• Valer: Valdr-• Venir: Vendr• Poder: Podr-• Querer: Querr-• Saber: Sabr-• Caber: Cabr-• Haber: Habr-
  47. 47. El Condicional• Used to express probability, conjecture, possibility, or wonder.• What someone/something WOULD or MIGHT do.• Like the future tense, conditional verbs do not need to be conjugated. Instead they have distinct endings. -ía -íamos -ías -íais -ía -ían
  48. 48. El Condicional- Irregulares• Decir: Dir- **They’re exactly the same as• Hacer: Har- future irregulars!• Poner: Pondr-• Salir: Saldr-• Tener: Tendr-• Valer: Valdr-• Venir: Vendr• Poder: Podr-• Querer: Querr-• Saber: Sabr-• Caber: Cabr-• Haber: Habr-
  49. 49. El Presente Perfecto• Used to express past actions that continue into the present or continue to affect the person in the present. ▫ In English, this would be to explain what someone has done.• Object pronouns are placed before the auxiliary verb. Auxilary Verb + Past Participle• Here is the table for the auxilary verbs: He Hemos Has Habéis Ha Han
  50. 50. Presente Perfecto- Irregulares• Abrir Abierto• Cubrir Cubierto• Decir Dicho• Escribir Escrito• Hacer Hecho• Morir Muerto• Poner Puesto• Resolver Resuelto• Romper Roto• Ver Visto• Volver Vuelto• Ir Ido
  51. 51. Pronombres Relativos• Words that refer to an already-stated noun.• There are six:  Que  El Que  Lo Que  Cuyo  Quien  El Cual
  52. 52. Pronombres Relativos- Que y Quien• Que:―That‖• Ejemplo: • Las galletas que comí= The cookies that I ate.• Quien: ―Who‖ ▫ Refers ONLY to PEOPLE!• Ejemplo: ▫ Mi prima, quien es una bailerina, fue al supermercado= My cousin, who is a ballerina, went to the supermarket.• For quien, it must agree in number, so if the noun is plural, then use ―quienes.‖
  53. 53. Pronombres Relativos– El Que, ElCual, y Lo Que• El Que: ―the one that/who‖ • Must agree in gender and number, so use ―los que,‖ ―la que,‖ y ―las que‖ accordingly.• El Cual: Same as ―el que,‖ but used in more formal settings, such as formal writing. ▫ Again, they must agree in gender and number, so use ―los cuales,‖ ―la cual,‖ y ―las cuales‖ accordingly.• Lo Que: ―that which,‖ ―that what‖– refers to an abstract idea, rather than something or someone specific, like above.
  54. 54. Pronombres Relativos- Cuyo• ―Whose‖• Ejemplo: Arturo, cuyo bebida favorita es té, ama cafeína= Arthur, whose favorite drink is tea, loves caffeine.• Additionally, it must agree in gender and number ▫ Use ―cuyos,‖ ―cuya,‖ y ―cuyas‖ accordingly. ▫ Gender and number is determined based on what is being owned, NOT the owner!
  55. 55. Neuter Lo• In Spanish, ―lo‖ is used as a neuter article• Used in front of an adjective in order to express something that is abstract or a quality.• Common Expressions: ▫ Lo fácil (the easy thing/part) ▫ Lo bueno (the good thing) ▫ Lo bello (what’s beautiful) ▫ Lo justo (what’s fair) ▫ Lo mejor (the best part)• Lo + Adjective+ Que= ―How [adjective] ▫ No sabes lo feliz que estoy. = You do not know how happy I am.
  56. 56. Qué vs. Cuál• Both are used to mean ―what‖ or ―which,‖ but they have distinct uses when used in questions: Qué Cuál Asking for Normally used definitions before forms of ser when not asking for a definition. Normally used Suggesting a before nouns selection or choice from a group Idioms such as ―¿qué hora es?‖ or ―¡qué lástima!
  57. 57. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses• Conjugated exactly the same as in noun and adjective clauses.• An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies the verb in the independent clause– the verb is hypothetical or anticipated. ▫ Why, where, when, how• Ejemplos: ▫ Voy a esperar hasta que vuelvas. ▫ Trabajo duro para que mi familia viva bien.
  58. 58. Past/Imperfect Subjunctive• Follows the same rules for when to use it as Present Subjunctive.• However, this expresses in the past– the verb in the independent clause will be in the imperfect or preterite tense Third Drop the Add person ―-ron‖ endings preterite ending from table: -ra -ramos There are also alternate endings that are used in -ras -rais Spain only. -ra -ran Instead of the ―ra‖ base conjugation, it takes forms from ―se.‖ (e.g. ses, se, sen)
  59. 59. Comparisons• Comparatives are used to compare two things. Adjective/ Más/Menos Adverb/ que Noun• If the things you are comparing is followed by a number, use de instead of que.• When comparing two things that are equal (something is ―as [adj/adv] as‖), follow this instead: Adjective/ Tan como Adverb• If the equality comparison uses a noun, then use tanto (-a/-as/-os) instead.
  60. 60. Superlatives• Used to describe someone or something to the greatest degree Noun Más Adjective de• Other superlative and comparative words: mejor (best); peor (worst); mayor (older); menor (younger)
  61. 61. Adverbs• Word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb Adjective in Add - feminine mente form• Adding –mente is like adding –ly in English.• Adverbs can refer to manner, time, place, frequency, quantity, affirm ation, and negation.• Place the adverb in front of the adjective or adverb it modifires, or after the verb it modifies
  62. 62. Non- “Mente” AdverbsManner Time Place Frequency Quality Affirmation /NegationBien Hoy Aquí Nunca Muy NuncaMal Temprano Allí Simpre Bastante SiempreMuy Ayer Allá A menudo MuchoDespacio A tiempo CasiRápido Pronto Mucho And many more!
  63. 63. Diminutives• Used to indicate small size or affection, or to make a word less harsh• Drop final vowel and add one of these endings:• Masculine: ―-ito‖ or ―-cito‖ ▫ Gato Gatito (kitty) ▫ Padre Padrecito (Daddy)• Feminine: ―-ita‖ or ―-cita‖ ▫ Hermana Hermanita (little sister) ▫ Mamá Mamacita (Mommy)• Be careful not to confuse ―-ito‖ and ―-ita‖ with past participles such as ―frito.‖
  64. 64. Augmentatives• Used to refer to something as large, or to indicate intensity• Less common than diminutives, but formed the same way• Masculine: ―-ón,‖ ―-azo,‖ ―-ote‖ ▫ Hermano Hermanón (big brother) ▫ Pájaro Pajarote (large bird)• Feminine: ―-ona,‖ ―-aza,‖ ―-ota‖ ▫ Hermana Hermanona (big sister)
  65. 65. Present Perfect Subjunctive• Used in the same type of clauses as present subjunctive• Used to describe what MAY have taken place.• Like present perfect, this uses a form of haber and a past participle. Haya Hayamos Hayas Hayáis Haya Hayan
  66. 66. Uses of “Se”• In Spanish, ―se‖ is a very versatile pronoun.• Uses: ▫ Reflexive Pronoun ▫ Passive Voice ▫ A substitute for le or les ▫ Impersonal Se
  67. 67. Past Participles as Adjectives• Past participles are formed by dropping the ending of the infinitive and adding the endings ―-ado‖ for –AR verbs and ―-ido‖ for –ER/-IR verbs.• As adjectives, they agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify.
  68. 68. Past Participles as Adjectives-Irregulares• Abrir Abierto• Cubrir Cubierto• Decir Dicho• Escribir Escrito• Hacer Hecho• Morir Muerto• Poner Puesto• Resolver Resuelto• Romper Roto• Ver Visto• Volver Vuelto• Ir Ido
  69. 69. Hacer Expressions• Hacer expressions tell how long ago something happened. Present • ―Since‖ Tense • ―For‖ Preterite • ―Ago‖ Tense• Hace + [duration] + [meses/días/etc.] + que + verb• Present Tense: ―I have lived in Spain for two years.‖ • Hace dos años que vivo en España.• Past Tense: ―I lived in Spain two years ago.‖  Hace dos años que viví en España.