Editing, Presenting and Anal Retenting Thursday Bram, Christopher Swenson Center for Information Security University of Tu...
Overview <ul><li>Editing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Anal retentive bits and pieces </li></ul>
Manuals <ul><li>Chicago Manual of Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent reference for all things about setting text </li><...
Writing: the Three Cs <ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use difficult vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Un...
Writing Tips <ul><li>Especially for papers, write in third person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the academic “we” if necessary...
Common Mistakes  <ul><li>Loose / lose  </li></ul><ul><li>Its / it’s </li></ul><ul><li>They’re / their / there  </li></ul><...
The Possessive –  Just for Dr. Hale <ul><li>Chicago , 7.17–7.30 </li></ul><ul><li>Possessives: ’s for everything, except <...
More on e.g., etc. <ul><li>i.e. =  id est  = “it is”, “in other words” </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. =  exempli gratia  = “for th...
Always Proofread <ul><li>Run a spell-checker </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, have someone else look it over </li></ul><ul><...
Cite Your Sources <ul><li>Know where your facts come from </li></ul><ul><li>Cite consistently, regardless of style used </...
Example Citation <ul><li>J. Smith,  Analysis of Networking Procedures , Addison-Wesley, Crawfordsville, Indiana, 2005. </l...
It’s Plagiarism … <ul><li>If you don’t give credit when you use another person’s idea, opinion or theory </li></ul><ul><li...
Style <ul><li>Always conform to the standard style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word limits, text size and formats are all there ...
Presentation Tips <ul><li>Bullets are helpful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each bullet should be a complete thought </li></ul></u...
Letters  <ul><li>Every letter should have a header </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date (no abbreviations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Email <ul><li>Emails should not necessarily be less informal than a letter </li></ul><ul><li>Always use the “Subject” fiel...
Spacing <ul><li>Em – space equal to the font size (12 pt font = 12 pt) </li></ul><ul><li>En – half of an em </li></ul><ul>...
Dashes <ul><li>Hyphens (-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-of-line, hyphenated words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>En-dashes (–) </li><...
Miscellaneous <ul><li>Ellipsis (…) is a special character </li></ul><ul><li>’”    ’   ”  (hair space) </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Fonts <ul><li>Serif – “boots” on the bottom and tops of some letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This font is serif’d </li></ul>...
Sizes and Measures <ul><li>72 points (pts) = 6 picas (pcs) = 1 inch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen resolution: 72–100 dpi </...
Common Fonts <ul><li>Times  ( or worse, Times New Roman ) </li></ul><ul><li>Palatino  ( Book Antiqua ) </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Comic Sans is Evil <ul><li>Comic Sans is overused </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wobbly baseline </li></...
Final Words About Fonts <ul><li>Use what looks good, clean and professional </li></ul><ul><li>The key is to actually look ...
Typesetting Code <ul><li>Use fixed-width fonts at a smaller size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courier New, Bitstream Vera Sans Mo...
Alignment <ul><li>Ragged right – like this presentation (left-aligned) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Okay for short works and web ...
Graphic Formats <ul><li>Vector-based formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics rebuilt by redrawing them (lines, boxes, etc) ...
JPEG <ul><li>A little about lossy compression </li></ul>
Lossless vs. Lossy PNG: 49,336 bytes JPEG: 48,815 bytes
Raster vs. Vector <ul><li> JPEG   Vector (EMF) </li></ul><ul><li>~60K   31K </li></ul>
Editing Programs <ul><li>Microsoft Word sucks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for text, bad for layout, bad for tables </li></u...
Graphic Editing <ul><li>Microsoft Visio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decent, but dropped support for EPS export </li></ul></ul><u...
Rules of Thumb for Figures and Graphics <ul><li>Tables are good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical rules are very bad </li></u...
Choose the Right Format <ul><li>Online viewing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML, HTML, RTF, Word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documents...
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Editing, Presenting, and Anal Retenting

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A quick guide to the finer points of editing, presenting, and being anal retentive in general.

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Editing, Presenting, and Anal Retenting

  1. 1. Editing, Presenting and Anal Retenting Thursday Bram, Christopher Swenson Center for Information Security University of Tulsa 600 South College Ave, Tulsa, OK 74104
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Editing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Anal retentive bits and pieces </li></ul>
  3. 3. Manuals <ul><li>Chicago Manual of Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent reference for all things about setting text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements of Typographic Style , by Robert Bringhurst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best text for typesetting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing for Computer Science , by Justin Z obel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good book for more technical writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elements of Style , Strunk and White </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classic, cheap, small </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Writing: the Three Cs <ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t use difficult vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unless it is necessary; if so, define it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter is almost always better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But don’t add ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be consistent in language, arguments and formatting </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Writing Tips <ul><li>Especially for papers, write in third person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the academic “we” if necessary, but never “I” or “you” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outline your paper ahead of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlining gives you an idea of where you're going and what resources you need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define any technical or difficult terms at the beginning of your paper </li></ul><ul><li>Vary your word choice </li></ul>
  6. 6. Common Mistakes <ul><li>Loose / lose </li></ul><ul><li>Its / it’s </li></ul><ul><li>They’re / their / there </li></ul><ul><li>Then / than </li></ul><ul><li>Effect / affect </li></ul><ul><li>You’re / your </li></ul><ul><li>Different than / different from </li></ul><ul><li>Could of / would of </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Possessive – Just for Dr. Hale <ul><li>Chicago , 7.17–7.30 </li></ul><ul><li>Possessives: ’s for everything, except </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plural in form, singular in meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Politics’, species’, United States’, National Academic of Sciences’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends in “eez” sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euripedes’, Xerxes’, Ganges’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpronounced “s” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descartes’, marquis’, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For …’ sake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>righteousness’, goodness’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not hard and fast: can just omit for any word ending in “s” </li></ul>
  8. 8. More on e.g., etc. <ul><li>i.e. = id est = “it is”, “in other words” </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. = exempli gratia = “for the sake of example” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always use commas after (i.e., like now) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When using e.g., i.e., and so forth, never end it with “etc.” – it’s implied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>etc. = et cetera = “and the rest” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Always Proofread <ul><li>Run a spell-checker </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, have someone else look it over </li></ul><ul><li>If not, try some of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read paragraphs in reverse order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read one line at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print out a copy and highlight any words that are commonly mistaken </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cite Your Sources <ul><li>Know where your facts come from </li></ul><ul><li>Cite consistently, regardless of style used </li></ul><ul><li>Include all the information someone would need to find that source </li></ul><ul><li>For papers, the minimum number of references is 10 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Example Citation <ul><li>J. Smith, Analysis of Networking Procedures , Addison-Wesley, Crawfordsville, Indiana, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Included is the name of the author, the name of the publication (article name and journal name), page numbers, the publisher’s name and location and the date published </li></ul><ul><li>If citing material from the Web, cite the URL </li></ul><ul><li>Book titles, journal titles should be italicized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article names in quotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal volume numbers in bold, issue in parentheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence 7 (1) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. It’s Plagiarism … <ul><li>If you don’t give credit when you use another person’s idea, opinion or theory </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t give credit use facts, graphs, statistics or other pieces of information that are not common knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t give credit for a direct quotation or paraphrase of another person’s work </li></ul>
  13. 13. Style <ul><li>Always conform to the standard style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word limits, text size and formats are all there for a reason </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, ask for a sample or a template </li></ul><ul><li>Assume that copies of any paper, presentation, etc. will be given to other people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be understandable without you present </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Presentation Tips <ul><li>Bullets are helpful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each bullet should be a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely on PowerPoint, except for displaying images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t just read off your slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use easy to read figures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always use easy-to-read text </li></ul><ul><li>Use strong colors, especially for text </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid animations, neon colors and sillyness </li></ul><ul><li>Try to keep bullets to one line </li></ul>
  15. 15. Letters <ul><li>Every letter should have a header </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date (no abbreviations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressee and Address (Name, Title, Company, Street Address, City, ZIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Address letters to an individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Mr., Ms. or the appropriate title </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All letters begin with “Dear” </li></ul><ul><li>End letters with “Sincerely” or a similar closing </li></ul><ul><li>Leave a space for a signature and type your name </li></ul>
  16. 16. Email <ul><li>Emails should not necessarily be less informal than a letter </li></ul><ul><li>Always use the “Subject” field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to a specific project or connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid using the words “Urgent” or “Important” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be professional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not abuse the Caps Lock key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Sunday is INTERNATIONAL CAPS LOCK DAY!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s email, not e-mail </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Spacing <ul><li>Em – space equal to the font size (12 pt font = 12 pt) </li></ul><ul><li>En – half of an em </li></ul><ul><li>Thick – 1/3 of an em </li></ul><ul><li>Hair – 1/5–1/6 of an em </li></ul><ul><li>Thin – a little smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Word spacing should be 1/3 to 1/4 of an em </li></ul><ul><li>After a period: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends a sentence, either 1–1.5 word spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otherwise, 1 word space (Mr. Smith) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kerning – spacing after a character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special kerning between certain pairs is good, like Te </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Dashes <ul><li>Hyphens (-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-of-line, hyphenated words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>En-dashes (–) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges (pp. 22–30) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A relationship (Muslim–Christian relations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatically (Mr. Smith – a nice guy – something …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spaces before, afters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Em-dashes (—) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatically (no spaces, thin spaces, full spaces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triple-em-dash for bibliographies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minus (-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Figure dash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placeholder for numbers </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Miscellaneous <ul><li>Ellipsis (…) is a special character </li></ul><ul><li>’”  ’ ” (hair space) </li></ul><ul><li>Ligatures – special pairs of letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically, in English, ff, fi, ffi, fl, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary to use ®, ™, etc. in papers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use plain “Microsoft Word” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slashes “read” from top to bottom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/ = “forward slash” or “slash” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> = “backslash” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All caps things should be put in small caps, if possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sign said: WARNING: DO NOT ENTER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7 AM , or 7 a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>No space between initials in a name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Fonts <ul><li>Serif – “boots” on the bottom and tops of some letters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This font is serif’d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leftover from the original pens used to write Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for anything more than a few lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes illegible at small sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slab-serif (more modern), regular serif (more classic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sans Serif – no “boots” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to read at any size, but a bit difficult to read for long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for short things and very small things (headlines, captions, text in drawings and figures) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Sizes and Measures <ul><li>72 points (pts) = 6 picas (pcs) = 1 inch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen resolution: 72–100 dpi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper resolution: 300–2400 dpi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Font size (e.g., 12 pt) = height of ascenders, descenders, and x-height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also height of left-parenthesis ( </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance between two lines is usually 1.2 times the font size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 pt size  14.4 pt line skip </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Common Fonts <ul><li>Times ( or worse, Times New Roman ) </li></ul><ul><li>Palatino ( Book Antiqua ) </li></ul><ul><li>Century (New Century Schoolbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Helvetica (bad imitation, Arial ) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Comic Sans is Evil <ul><li>Comic Sans is overused </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wobbly baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor kerning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The childish, “cute” feature is way overused </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R ésumés </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Euro symbol </li></ul>WoBblLe Calculus I €
  24. 24. Final Words About Fonts <ul><li>Use what looks good, clean and professional </li></ul><ul><li>The key is to actually look and care </li></ul><ul><li>Some fonts created for the screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verdana, Tahoma, Calibri </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Typesetting Code <ul><li>Use fixed-width fonts at a smaller size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courier New, Bitstream Vera Sans Mono is free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embed in documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use bold for keywords ( for i in list ) </li></ul><ul><li>Italics for comments </li></ul><ul><li>Also use fixed-width fonts for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-line programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexadecimal numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program output </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Alignment <ul><li>Ragged right – like this presentation (left-aligned) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Okay for short works and web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Justified – flush on both sides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anything more than a page or so in length </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centered and ragged left (right-aligned) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use sparingly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Side-note: double spacing is worthless if someone isn’t going to be editing with a pen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes text harder to read, wastes paper </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Graphic Formats <ul><li>Vector-based formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics rebuilt by redrawing them (lines, boxes, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great for figures, poor for photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postscript formats: EPS, PS, PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other formats: WMF, EMF, SVG </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Raster-based formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rows of pixels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JPEG images should only be used for images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lossy (takes advantage of defects in the human eye) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compresses geometric objects poorly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PNG is good for non-photographic images (screenshots!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lossless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it’s going in a paper, go ahead and make it grayscale </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. JPEG <ul><li>A little about lossy compression </li></ul>
  29. 29. Lossless vs. Lossy PNG: 49,336 bytes JPEG: 48,815 bytes
  30. 30. Raster vs. Vector <ul><li> JPEG Vector (EMF) </li></ul><ul><li>~60K 31K </li></ul>
  31. 31. Editing Programs <ul><li>Microsoft Word sucks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for text, bad for layout, bad for tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kerning turned off by default </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor support for advanced typesetting features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor hyphenation and line-breaking algorithm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor support for non-TrueType fonts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TrueType fonts use quadratic Bezier curves (Postscript / OpenType fonts use cubic – much cleaner) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you are going to use Word, use it properly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adobe InDesign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good, but poorly designed for documents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TeX / LaTeX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best for science and mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very difficult to use properly </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Graphic Editing <ul><li>Microsoft Visio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decent, but dropped support for EPS export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairly large diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dia is a free mostly compatible replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Illustrator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as geared towards networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True book-quality figures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photoshop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No substitute (GIMP is only okay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*DO NOT USE IT FOR DRAWING FIGURES* </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Rules of Thumb for Figures and Graphics <ul><li>Tables are good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical rules are very bad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lines should be 1pt thick or more, if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Font – sans serif and bold (Helvectica, Verdana, Tahoma are okay) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to use Alignment, Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid shading and gradients </li></ul><ul><li>Makes a good figure look great </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look in professionally-created computer books for examples of good graphics </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Choose the Right Format <ul><li>Online viewing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XML, HTML, RTF, Word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documents (online or printed) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RTF, Word, PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Printed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF, RTF, Word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PDF is the only true archival format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open standard, everything embedded </li></ul></ul>

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