Activating Prior Knowledge


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Activating Prior Knowledge

  1. 1. Activating Prior Knowledge Presented by: Lucy Castañón
  2. 2. <ul><li>Did you know? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Each student brings to the classroom a rich storehouse of knowledge about the world.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ Tapping experiences enhances meaning.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Activating Prior Knowledge increases comprehension” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pair work <ul><li>In pairs work and activate your knowledge about this workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Use the following K-W-L or </li></ul><ul><li>K-W-H-L </li></ul>
  7. 7. Report your answers
  8. 10. When I assign reading/listening … <ul><li>What do I ask students to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>When do they do it? </li></ul><ul><li>Before they read/listen </li></ul>
  9. 11. Categories of Reading Strategies <ul><li>Pre Reading </li></ul><ul><li>During Reading </li></ul><ul><li>After Reading </li></ul>BEFORE DURING AFTER
  10. 12. Pre-Reading Strategies <ul><li>Activate Prior Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the brain for new coming information </li></ul><ul><li>Help the students why they are reading the material </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce new vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Help students make connections </li></ul>
  11. 13. Pre Reading Strategies Featured Strategies <ul><li>Activate Prior Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Context clues </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding </li></ul><ul><li>K-W-L-chart </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting </li></ul>
  12. 14. What’s schemata?
  13. 15. <ul><li> “Schemata” the reader's/listener’s preexisting concepts about the world and about the text to be read or heard. Into this framework, the reader/listener fits what s/he finds in any text. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>If new textual information does not fit into a reader's/listener’s schemata, the reader/listener misunderstands the new material, ignores the new material, or revises the schemata to match the facts within the text. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>“ Developing comprehension helps bridge the gap between what is known and what is new . It opens students to new learning by reassuring them that the concepts are within their grasp. It gives them a reference point for assimilating new material and adds greater meaning to the new concept.” </li></ul>
  16. 18. LEVEL OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>Students generally fall into three categories: MUCH, SOME, or LITTLE prior knowledge. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>MUCH: super ordinate concepts; definitions; analogies; linking.  </li></ul><ul><li>SOME: examples; attributes; defining characteristics.  </li></ul><ul><li> LITTLE: associations; morphemes; sound alikes; firsthand experiences.  </li></ul>PRIOR KNOWLEDGE
  18. 20. <ul><li>In each instance, the teacher will make specific instructional decisions based on what is discovered in the prior knowledge part of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>To check out what prior knowledge exists about a topic, idea, or concept, you may choose to do some of the following activities :  </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>*BRAINSTORM the topic. Write all the information solicited from the students on the chalkboard, a piece of paper, or transparency.  </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>*ASK specific and/or general questions about the topic. See what responses are given.  </li></ul>
  21. 23. Questioning <ul><li>Developing inquiries about the text that will direct readers/listeners towards the purpose of reading. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Four types of questions: <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluative thinking </li></ul>
  23. 25. Memory questions <ul><li>Signal words: who, what, when, where </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive operations: naming, defining, identifying, designating </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: What’s the definition for democracy? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a memory question to your neighbour </li></ul>
  24. 26. Convergent Thinking Questions: <ul><li>Signal words: why, how, in what ways </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive operations: explaining, stating relationships, contrasting/comparing </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: In what ways is “coffee” similar to “tea” </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a convergent thinking question to </li></ul><ul><li>your neighbour </li></ul>
  25. 27. Divergent Thinking Questions <ul><li>Signal words: imagine, predict, if...then, how might, what are some possible consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive operations: predicting, hypothesising, inferring, reconstructing </li></ul><ul><li>Example: What are some possible consequences of drinking coffee? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a divergent thinking question to your </li></ul><ul><li>neighbour </li></ul>
  26. 28. Evaluative Thinking Questions <ul><li>Signal words: justify, defend, judge </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive operations: valuing, judging, defending, justifying choices </li></ul><ul><li>Example: What do you think of capital punishment for drug dealers? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask and evaluative question to your </li></ul><ul><li>neighbour </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>*POST a PROBLEM or a SCENARIO. Based on this description, find out what the students know about the idea presented.  </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>Once the data is collected, a decision about the appropriate forms of instruction can be made. The following diagram can be helpful:  </li></ul>
  29. 31. Teachers should remember to:
  30. 32. <ul><li>(1) Present information which builds:  *Background ideas  *Concepts  *Principles   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  31. 33. (2) Show, don't tell through--  *Demonstrations  *Multi-media  *Graphics 
  32. 34. (3) Use outside resources, trips and speakers
  33. 35. (4) Tell about topic from your experience 
  34. 36. (5) Use any combination of the above! 
  35. 37. Can your prior knowledge tell you what this graphic means?
  36. 38. What can your prior knowledge tell you what these photos mean?
  37. 39. Activating Prior Knowledge <ul><li>Let’s read the heading of “State TV: China quake death toll could hit 50,000” and let’s set a purpose for reading and activate our Prior Knowledge. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Write your questions. Include all three types. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Report your answers
  40. 43. <ul><li>GROUP WORK </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Pretend you have to use the </li></ul><ul><li>second text : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Myanmar junta warns people not to hoard aid” </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Based on what you learned today activate your students Prior Knowledge about the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Report your ideas </li></ul>