Recreation Conflict


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Recreation Conflict

  2. 2. <ul><li>Conflict in Outdoor Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>A Theoretical Model </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Studies of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>An Expanded Conflict Model </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Conflict </li></ul>CONTENT
  3. 3. CONFLICT IN OUTDOOR RECREATION <ul><li>Patricia Ross </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Early descriptive studies of outdoor recreation often found substantial conflict among participants in alternative recreation activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of “Compatibility Indexes” (how well different groups desire encountering other type of groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most like encountering their own types. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict in recreation appears to be expanding as technology contributes to development of new recreation equipment and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary lifestyles are becoming increasingly diverse leads to more conflict in recreation. </li></ul>CONFLICT
  5. 5. <ul><li>Examples of new equipment- include mountain bikes, helicopters for access to backcountry skiing and use of llamas of backcountry hiking. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of common recreation conflict found- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canoeist vs. motorboaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hikers vs. bikers and horse riders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters vs. Non-hunters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Studies have led to “one way nature of conflict” concept- participants in one activity may object to the presence or behavior of participants in another activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Working definition of Conflict- “Goal interference attributed to others” </li></ul>
  6. 6. THEORETICAL MODEL <ul><li>Abil Castaneda </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Before, only a descriptive approach that focuses on the “symptoms” of conflict” was used. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms were thought to be differences between visitors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Theoretical Approach offers a way to understand why conflict exists and how they could be resolved or managed. </li></ul><ul><li>The original Theoretical Approach studied the origins of conflict. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used the Expectancy Theory (people participate in recreation because they expect to achieve certain goals from it) </li></ul></ul>THEORETICAL MODEL
  8. 8. <ul><li>And the Discrepancy Theory (dissatisfaction occurs when achieved goals fall short of expected goals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, conflict is a source of dissatisfaction. </li></ul></ul>CONT…
  9. 9. <ul><li>Suggested that conflict is caused by four major factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Activity style- refers to the various personal meanings assigned to a recreation activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes- intensity of participation, type of equipment and expertise needed (Status), Range of Experience, and definition of quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resource Specificity- is the significance attached to using a specific recreation resource for a given recreation experience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes- evaluation of resource quality, sense of possession, intimate knowledge of a recreation area. </li></ul></ul>JACOB AND SCHREYERS’S THEORETICAL MODEL
  10. 10. <ul><li>Mode of Experience- refers to varying expectations of how the natural environment will be perceived. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes- extent to which the recreation participant is focused or not focused on the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle Tolerance- refers to the tendency to accept or reject lifestyles different from one’s own. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include- level of technology, resource consumption and prejudice. </li></ul></ul>CONT…
  11. 11. <ul><li>These four factors then give rise to a set of propositions. </li></ul><ul><li>These propositions suggests the conditions under which recreation conflict may occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor+Proposition show that conflict is not necessarily an OBJECTIVE state, but can be SUBJECTIVE based on experience, beliefs and attitudes. Nor is direct contact necessary. </li></ul>THEORETICAL MODEL CONT…
  12. 12. <ul><li>The more intense the activity style, the greater the likelihood of a social interaction with less intense participate will result in conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict occurs between participants who do not share the same status hierarchies. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict occurs for high status users when they must interact with the lower status user who symbolize a devaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>When a person is focused and interacts with an unfocused person conflict occurs. </li></ul>EXAMPLE OF PROPOSITIONS OF CONFLICT
  13. 13. EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF CONFLICT <ul><li>Miriam Cal and Wilfredo Lienez </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Many studies have documented the existence of conflict in outdoor recreation and some went farther to explore the underlying reason for conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Several have examined the role of motives in explaining recreation conflict. </li></ul>EMPIRICAL STUDIES
  15. 15. <ul><li>Evidence of the role of MOTIVATION in recreation conflict was found in a study of fishers and water skiers on lake Shelbyville, IL. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglers were divided into 2 groups: Experienced conflict (defined as reporting having observed reckless boating) and having not experienced conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in their motives were found, such as: escape, enjoying the smells and sounds of nature, using and discussing equipment, feeling their independence, doing things with family, and chancing dangerous situations. </li></ul></ul>MOTIVATION AND CONFLICT
  16. 16. <ul><li>A study between different groups of campers theorized the differences in recreation motivations on the part of “traditional” verses “modern” campers as causing conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Found that “perceived conflict” are best understood not only as an outcome of the choice of activity, but instead it derives from the orientation of recreational preferences (motivation and participation) </li></ul>CONT…….
  17. 17. <ul><li>This study was supported by empirical studies of canoeists, fishers, skiers and snowmobilers. </li></ul><ul><li>They also suggested that motives are important in explaining and understanding recreation conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Not statistically strong due to the indirect measure of conflict. </li></ul>CONT…..
  18. 18. <ul><li>Three other studies suggested the importance of goals in explaining and understanding recreation conflict. Conflicts reported were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not fully attained goals associated with the visit attributed to other types of visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to differences in goal between participants in the activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation goals that were more dependent on the behavior of others were more likely to experience conflict. </li></ul></ul>GOALS AND CONFLICT
  19. 19. <ul><li>Broad social values are a third issue addressed in several conflict studies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include: Beliefs, attitudes, and more global worldviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A study between snowmobilers and cross-country skiers found difference with regard to attitudes toward environmental issues and management of outdoor recreation areas. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) studies between hikers and pack stock users have suggested the importance of “symbolic values” or broad philosophical considerations including beliefs about the meaning and importance of wilderness and the “appropriateness” of selected recreation activities. </li></ul>SOCIAL VALUES AND CONFLICT
  20. 20. <ul><li>The role of social values in recreation conflict was addressed by two other studies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hikers objected to the use of the Rattlesnake National Recreation Area, MT, but could not specify objectionable behavior of bikers, indicating that biking was considered inappropriate on the basis of broad philosophical grounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict was also found between hunters and non-hunters at Mount Evan, CO, despite the fact that there was physical separation by zoning and vegetative screening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Since there was no physical interaction between participants suggests that conflict may be associated with contrasting attitudes and worldviews. </li></ul></ul></ul>CONT….
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Perceived similarity between groups or perception of alikeness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example- A Minnesota study shows that motorboat users consider themselves like canoeist, but canoeists perceive themselves different that motor boat users. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is consistent with the “one-way nature of conflict” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar results were seen between hikers and mountain bike riders. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type and level of technology used in the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of experience and commitment needed for the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Place Attachment”- the degree to which visitors report symbolic attachment to recreation </li></ul></ul>OTHER ISSUES INFLUENCING CONFLICT
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Florida study of canoeist and motorboaters found that tolerance of respondents for sharing resources with members of other activity groups and the degree to which expectations for encountering other type of activity groups were influential in creating conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Concerns and Visitor Norms also influence the conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgroup Bias (unfavorable evaluation of groups that one does not belong to) and years of participation have also been seen to influence conflict in outdoor recreation. </li></ul></ul>CONT….
  23. 23. EXPANDED CONFLICT MODEL <ul><li>Hui-Pei Lin </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>The theoretical and empirical work can be synthesized to outline an expanded conceptual model of recreation conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical studies have supported the inclusion of the four factors or categories of variables originally thought to influence recreation conflict . </li></ul><ul><li>However these studies of conflict have also suggested several additional components to a more comprehensive conflict model </li></ul>EXPANDED CONFLICT MODEL
  25. 25. <ul><li>It suggests that these variables determine sensitivity to conflict rather than conflict as it is experienced and attributed directly to others. </li></ul><ul><li>These variables have been suggested as creating a “catalyzing situation” for conflict (Blahna et al. 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to Conflict- is often measured generally and indirectly by asking respondents the extent to which they like or dislike meeting participants in other recreation activities. </li></ul>EXPANDED CONFLICT MODEL CON’T
  26. 26. <ul><li>Conflict - is measured more specifically and directly by asking: if and how participants in other recreation activities interfered wither their goals or enjoyment. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical evidence suggests that sensitivity to conflict and conflict are related but separate concepts. </li></ul>EXPANDED CONFLICT MODEL CON’T
  27. 27. <ul><li>Research suggests that conflict is NOT limited to that which occurs between recreation activities or groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-activity conflict- occur within recreation groups </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-activity conflict- occurs between recreation activities or groups </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts occurs between visitors and managers </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts occurs between recreationists and other types of resource uses </li></ul>CONT……
  28. 28. <ul><li>There is also a response element to this model. </li></ul><ul><li>Recreationists may use coping behavior which allow them to adapt to conflict stimuli. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little is known about these behaviors with respect to conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreationist who are unable to cope, experience diminished satisfaction or a lower-quality experience. </li></ul>COPING BEHAVIORS
  29. 29. <ul><li>Conflict can result from both direct and indirect contact between recreation participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct contact – overt behavior of others that is seen to interfere with one’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect contact – the simple presence of undesirable outgroups or artifacts of such groups, including associated environmental impacts. </li></ul>CONT….
  31. 31. MANAGING CONFLICT <ul><li>Heng-Ju Lin </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Conflict management should be based on understanding conflict as more than just incompatibility among recreation activities. </li></ul><ul><li>However, conflict among groups is often the manifestation of underlying causes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, management actions should address these underlying causes. </li></ul></ul>CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
  33. 33. <ul><li>Research suggests several insights on managing recreation conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning or Separation of conflicting recreation activities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is most common management approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be effective where goal interference is related to direct or personal contact. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example- Opportunity Spectrum Framework </li></ul></ul>MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
  34. 34. <ul><li>Educational Programs- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May also be effective, especially when the conflict is related to indirect causes such as alternative social values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used to either- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a code of conduct or standard of behavior to handle direct and indirect conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase tolerance in groups to address differences in social values . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research shows that visitors are willing to participate in such programs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Active management- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “one-way nature of conflict” suggests that management is needed to maintain the quality of recreation and satisfaction for visitors who are sensitive to conflicting uses. </li></ul></ul>