European exploration


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European exploration

  1. 1. European Exploration
  2. 2. By the fifteenth century, Europeans were aware of places as distant as Africa, India and China. However, they had no idea of the existence of the Americas. Yet by 1650, most of the Atlantic coastline of the Americas would be under the control of European powers. Europe Explores the “New World”
  3. 3. Why did Europeans begin to explore the world during the 15th and 16th centuries?
  4. 4. CuriosityCuriosity • Wanted to know “what was really out there”Wanted to know “what was really out there” • During the Renaissance period, peopleDuring the Renaissance period, people became more educated and curious aboutbecame more educated and curious about the worldthe world • Started askingStarted asking questionsquestions
  5. 5. Economic ReasonsEconomic Reasons Wealth (Gold)Wealth (Gold) • Spain acquired a great deal ofSpain acquired a great deal of wealthwealth in goldin gold taken from the Americastaken from the Americas (Aztecs, Inca)(Aztecs, Inca) • People were seeing new wealth fromPeople were seeing new wealth from investment and trade.investment and trade. • European countries hoped to increaseEuropean countries hoped to increase theirtheir profitsprofits through exploration.through exploration.
  6. 6. Political ReasonsPolitical Reasons Fame & GloryFame & Glory • With fame came wealthWith fame came wealth whichwhich motivated explorers and themotivated explorers and the monarchs who funded them.monarchs who funded them.
  7. 7. Political ReasonsPolitical Reasons National Pride &National Pride & GloryGlory • In the early 15In the early 15thth century countries in Europecentury countries in Europe (Spain, France, Portugal, England, &(Spain, France, Portugal, England, & Netherlands) hoped to extend theirNetherlands) hoped to extend their influence through exploration.influence through exploration. • LANDLAND == WEALTHWEALTH == POWERPOWER • Spain, France, & England constantly foughtSpain, France, & England constantly fought wars to control the most landwars to control the most land
  8. 8. Religious ReasonsReligious Reasons Religion & GodReligion & God • European missionaries,European missionaries, especially from Spain andespecially from Spain and Portugal, sought toPortugal, sought to spreadspread the Christian religion.the Christian religion. • Christian missionariesChristian missionaries believed they not only havebelieved they not only have a superior religion, but alsoa superior religion, but also a superior culture.a superior culture.
  9. 9. Foreign GoodsForeign Goods • Marco Polo wrote of what he found in China – silks, spices, jewels, and gold. • Polo’s writings encouraged an increase in trade.
  10. 10. Better TradeBetter Trade RoutesRoutes • European merchants and rulers were anxious to find a sea route to reach China and the Spice Islands of the East Indies. • This would allow European merchants to ship these luxury goods more easily back to Europe. • Traveling by land was slow, expensive, and dangerous • Columbus believed he could travel west across the ocean and reach Asia (up to this point everyone had traveled east, never west).
  11. 11. Spain, France and England were ready to claim land in the Americas.
  12. 12. Reasons For EuropeanReasons For European ColonizationColonization (Gold, Glory & God)(Gold, Glory & God) Nation Purpose Spain Spread Religion, Gain Wealth, Expand Empire France Fur Trade, Expansion England Religious Freedom, Economic Opportunity
  13. 13. • Italian sea captain, Christopher Columbus found support for his voyage from the King and Queen of Spain. • Columbus was looking for a faster route to the Indies to – find gold, jewels and spices – possibly convert heathens to Christianity  Heathen - an offensive term that deliberately insults somebody who does not acknowledge the God of the Bible, Torah, or Koran
  14. 14.  Columbus set sail in 1492.  He never reached Asia, but instead landed in the West Indies, where he established Spain’s first settlements in what became known as the “New World.”
  15. 15. The “ColumbianThe “Columbian Exchange”Exchange” • Columbian Exchange – The exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres that occurred after 1492. • Europeans learned about new foods, such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate from the Americas. • Europeans introduced the Americas to sugar, wheat, oranges, grapes and onions.
  16. 16. The “ColumbianThe “Columbian Exchange”Exchange” • Europeans also introduced many new animals to the Western Hemisphere, including horses, sheep, goats, cows, cats, and rats. • The Americas exposure to the Europeans also brought diseases like smallpox, typhus, cholera, and measles. Approx. 2 to 18 million Native Americans died from European diseases since they had no immunity.
  17. 17. The “ColumbianThe “Columbian Exchange”Exchange”
  18. 18. The “ColumbianThe “Columbian Exchange”Exchange”
  19. 19. A conclusion best supported by this illustration is that the Columbian Exchange (1) increased the isolation between Europe and the Americas (2) ended the slave trade in the Eastern Hemisphere (3) led to the spread of disease to the natives of the Americas (4) resulted in a decrease in trade between North America and Europe