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Elements of poetry

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    Elements of poetry Elements of poetry Presentation Transcript

    • Elements of Poetry
    • The Speaker and The Poet
      • Poets will often assumes a role or imitate the speech of a person in a particular situation.
      • This “role” is referred to as the speaker , voice , mask , or persona .
      • The voice speaking a poem may sound like it is the poet’s own, and it may be difficult to separate the two, but there is usually a distinction.
    • Diction and Tone
      • Diction refers to the words and grammatical constructions that the poet uses in the creation of their persona.
      • These choices may occur on a subconscious level.
      • These choices give the reader insight into the persona of the poet.
    • Diction and Tone
      • Speakers have attitudes toward themselves, their subjects, and their audiences.
      • They choose their words, pitch, and modulation based on these attitudes.
      • These choices add up to the tone of the poem.
      • To find the tone, it is a good idea to read the poem aloud.
        • The reader must try to catch “the speaking tone of voice somehow entangled in the words and fastened to the page for the ear of the imagination.” (Frost)
    • Figurative Language
      • Words have their literal meanings, but they can also be used so that something other than the literal meaning is implied.
      • Common types of figurative language:
        • Simile: items from different classes are compared by a connective such as “like,” “as,” “appears,” or “seems.”
    • Figurative Langaage
        • Metaphor: Assert the identity, without a connective, of terms that are literally incompatible.
        • Personification: The attribution of human feelings or characteristics or abstractions to inanimate objects.
        • Apostrophe: Addressing a person or thing that is not literally listening.
    • Usage of Figurative Language
      • Figurative language forces the reader to confront the connotations rather than the denotations of written language.
        • Connotations: suggestions, associations
        • Denotations: dictionary definitions
      • It is said to be different than ordinary language, but many of these expressions, due to repetition have become literal.
    • Usage of Figurative Language
      • Good figurative language is usually concrete, condensed, and interesting.
      • It is not limited to literary writers. It is used by most anyone who is concerned with effective expression.
      • Imagery refers to any element of setting or character that takes on a figurative significance.
      • Much of literary imagery is based on the patterned use of diction, such as word choice.
        • The types of figurative language discussed previously are examples of these patterns.
      Imagery and Symbolism
    • Imagery and Symbolism
      • Symbols: Images that are so loaded with significance that it is not simply literal, and it does not simply stand for something else; it is both itself and the something else that it suggests.
        • “ The Infinite is made to blend with the Finite, to stand visible, and as it were, attainable there.” – Thomas Carlyle
    • Imagery and Symbolism
      • Conventional Symbols: people have agreed to accept them as standing for something other than their literal meanings.
        • Cross = Christianity
        • Rose = Love, Romance
    • Verbal Irony and Paradox
      • Verbal Irony: The speaker’s words mean more or less the opposite of what they say.
        • Overstatement (hyperbole)
        • Understatement
      • Paradox: the assertion of an apparent contradiction
    • Poetic Structure
      • Rhythm: Stresses at regular intervals
        • Poets vary their rhythm according to their purpose. These choices often contribute to the meaning of the poem.
        • “ Rhythm must have meaning. It cannot be merely a careless dash off, with no grip and on real hold on the words and sense, a tumty tum tumty tum tum ta.” – Ezra Pound
      • Meter: the pattern of stressed sounds
        • Foot: basic unit of measurement
        • End-stopped line concludes with a distinct pause
        • Run-on line has its sense carried over into the next line with a pause
        • Meter produces rhythm – a poem with end-stopped lines will have a different meter than one with run-on lines.
      Poetic Structure
      • Rhyme: the repetition of identical or similar stressed sounds or sounds
        • While rhythm is a basic element of poetry, rhyme is not.
        • Rhyme suggests order and may be related to meaning. It brings two words together, implying a relationship that the reader may not have been aware of.
      Poetic Structure
    • Poetic Structure
      • Blank Verse and Free Verse
        • Blank verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter
        • Free verse: rhythmical lines, varying in length, adhering to no fixed metrical pattern, and usually unrhymed. The pattern is often based on repetition and parallel grammatical structure.