Dos raios alfa à energia nuclear: caminhos percorridos por Rutherford
Dos raios alfa à energia nuclear CAMINHOS PERCORRIDOS POR RUTHERFORD
<ul><li>Fontes bibliográficas </li></ul><ul><li>Quem é Rutherford? </li></ul><ul><li>Nasce em Nova Zelândia </li></ul><ul><li>Doutor no Lab. Cavendish – Cambridge </li></ul><ul><li>Descobre Alfa e Beta na Univ. McGill – Montreal </li></ul><ul><li>Sugere o núcleo em Manchester </li></ul><ul><li>Descobre o próton no Lab. Cavendish </li></ul>Sumário
O primeiro trabalho sobre radioatividade 54 páginas
§ 1. Comparison of methods of investigation. § 2. Refraction and polarization of uranium radiation. * Comptes Rendus, 1896, pp. 420, 501, 559, 689, 762, 1086; 1897, pp. 438, 800. 170 § 3. Theory of ionization of gases. § 4. Complexity of uranium radiation. § 5. Comparison of the radiation from uranium and its compounds. § 6. Opacity of substances for the radiation. § 7. Thorium radiation. § 8. Absorption of radiation by gases. § 9. Variation of absorption with pressure. § 10. Effect of pressure of the gas on the rate of discharge. § 11. The conductivity produced in gases by complete absorption of the radiation. § 12. Variation of the rate of discharge with distance between the plates. § 13. Rate of recombination of the ions. § 14. Velocity of the ions. § 15. Fall of potential between two plates. § 16. Relation between the current through the gas and electromotive force applied. § 17. Production of charged gases by separation of the ions. § 18. Discharging power of fine gauzes. § 19. General remarks.
These experiments show that the uranium radiation is complex, and that there are present at least two distinct types of radiation—one that is very readily absorbed, which will be termed for convenience the α radiation, and the other of a more penetrative character, which will be termed the β radiation Paul Villard
We also have strong reason for believing that the nuclei of atoms contain electrons as well as positively charged bodies … it may be possible for an electron to combine much more closely with the H nucleus, forming a kind of neutral doublet. … it should be able to move freely through matter. Its presence would probably be difficult to detect by spectroscope, and it may be impossible to contain it in sealed vessel.