Vermont Crime Information Center     Global Justice XML Data Model     Sex Offender Awareness Guide     Practical Implemen...
Vermont Crime Information Center            Sex Offender Awareness Guide                                Mission statement:...
Vermont Crime Information Center              Sex Offender Awareness Guide                       Table of Contents (Page 1...
Vermont Crime Information Center              Sex Offender Awareness Guide                       Table of Contents (Page 2...
Vermont Crime Information Center        Sex Offender Awareness Guide                          Information Sources    •   V...
Vermont Crime Information Center    Sex Offender Awareness Guide6                                      vcic.vermont.gov
Vermont CrimeXML Data Model    Global Justice Information Center    Sex CrimeImplementer’s& Overview    Practical Introduc...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Introduction & Overview                                         Objecti...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Introduction & Overview                              Vermont Crime Data...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Introduction & Overview         Vermont Rape Crime 2010 Report Summary ...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Introduction & Overview            Total Sex Offenses (Vermont - 2010)     ...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Introduction & Overview                    Victim Age (Vermont - 2010)     ...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Introduction & Overview                    Victim Gender (Vermont - 2010)  ...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Introduction & Overview                  Offender Age (Vermont - 2010)     ...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Introduction & Overview              Offender Gender (Vermont - 2010)      ...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Sex Crime Introduction & Overview                      Victim to Offender Relati...
Vermont Crime Information Center             Sex Crime Introduction & Overview                                            ...
Vermont Crime Information Center       Sex Crime Introduction & Overview     Hit “ESC” (once) or “Enter” (twice) to return...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Vermont Sex Offender Registry                VT Sex Offender Registry                ...
Vermont Crime Information Center        Vermont Sex Offender Registry            Sex Offender Registry (SOR) Mission:     ...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Vermont Sex Offender Registry                          Historical Perspective   ...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Vermont Sex Offender Registry     Historical Perspective (cont.)     •   11 yea...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Vermont Sex Offender Registry             Historical Perspective (cont.)             ...
Vermont Crime Information Center              Vermont Sex Offender Registry                      Historical Perspective (c...
Vermont Crime Information Center            Vermont Sex Offender Registry                  Historical Perspective (cont.) ...
Vermont Crime Information Center            Vermont Sex Offender Registry                    Historical Perspective (cont....
Vermont Crime Information Center          Vermont Sex Offender Registry                    Current Vermont Requirements   ...
Vermont Crime Information Center            Vermont Sex Offender Registry                                Who must register...
Vermont Crime Information Center             Vermont Sex Offender Registry                              Length of Registra...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Vermont Sex Offender Registry         Which Offenders are posted to the interne...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Vermont Sex Offender Registry                Sample SOR Internet information31       ...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Vermont Sex Offender Registry                                 SOR Procedures   ...
Vermont Crime Information Center             Vermont Sex Offender Registry                            SOR Procedures (cont...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Vermont Sex Offender Registry        Types of Sex Offender Registry notification...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Vermont Sex Offender Registry            Dissemination of SOR information     • ...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Vermont Sex Offender Registry       Dissemination of SOR information (cont.)    ...
Vermont Crime Information Center            Vermont Sex Offender Registry             What information can be released?   ...
Vermont Crime Information Center               Vermont Sex Offender Registry         What information can be released? (co...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Vermont Sex Offender Registry                        Community Notification    ...
Vermont Crime Information Center        Vermont Sex Offender Registry                Community Notification (cont.)       ...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Vermont Sex Offender Registry           Response to Community Notification     Fe...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Vermont Sex Offender Registry     Response to Community Notification (cont.)     ...
Vermont Crime Information Center             Vermont Sex Offender Registry                                            Summ...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Vermont Sex Offender Registry44                                      vcic.vermont.gov
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Offenders                       Sex Crime Offenders45                      ...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Sex Crime Offenders                              Offender Overview     In order...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Sex Crime Offenders                      Who are Sexual Offenders?     • Sex Of...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Sex Crime Offenders                  Where do sex offenders find their victims?...
Vermont Crime Information Center       Sex Crime Offenders     Where do sex offenders find their victims? (cont.)      Bot...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Offenders                    Sexual Offender Types     • Rapists           ...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Sex Crime Offenders                                   Offender Type            ...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Offenders                   Not All Sex Offenders Are The Same     Sex ...
Vermont Crime Information Center       Sex Crime Offenders                       Crossover Offending     Sex offenders ten...
Vermont Crime Information Center            Sex Crime Offenders        Patterns of Sexual Offending: Three Preconditions f...
Vermont Crime Information Center               Sex Crime Offenders                                      Rapist Typologies ...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Sex Crime Offenders                                 Victim Grooming     •   Many...
Vermont Crime Information Center            Sex Crime Offenders                           Victim Grooming (cont.)         ...
Vermont Crime Information Center                Sex Crime Offenders                  Average Sexual Offender Re-Arrest Rat...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Sex Crime Offenders                               Sexual Recidivism     •   Reci...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Sex Crime Offenders                       Risk Factors that Don’t Change        ...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Sex Crime Offenders                         Risk Factors that Do Change         ...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Sex Crime Offenders                                          Summary     • Not ...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Offenders63                                      vcic.vermont.gov
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Prevention                Sex Crime Prevention64                           ...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Prevention                Sex Crime Prevention Overview     The best pr...
Vermont Crime Information Center      Sex Crime Prevention             Effective Prevention Strategies                    ...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Prevention           Effective Prevention Strategies      Look Beyond t...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Prevention                 What Do Victims Tell Us?                        ...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Prevention              What Do Victims Tell Us? (cont.)               ...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Sex Crime Prevention     What citizens can do to protect themselves and         ...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Sex Crime Prevention     What citizens can do to protect themselves and their  ...
Vermont Crime Information Center              Sex Crime Prevention         What citizens can do to protect themselves and ...
Vermont Crime Information Center          Sex Crime Prevention      What citizens can do to protect themselves and        ...
Vermont Crime Information Center         Sex Crime Prevention                   8 Safety Rules for Children     •   I alwa...
Vermont Crime Information Center           Sex Crime Prevention                                          Summary     • Red...
Vermont Crime Information Center     Sex Crime Prevention76                                      vcic.vermont.gov
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Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Offender Awareness Guide

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Vcic presents an awareness guide for law enforcement

  1. 1. Vermont Crime Information Center Global Justice XML Data Model Sex Offender Awareness Guide Practical Implementer’s Course VCIC presents an awareness guide for Law Enforcement and the Community. Vermont Crime Information Center 103 South Main Street Waterbury, VT 05671 (802) 241-5400 Understanding the VT Sex Offender Registry and Sexual Violence1 vcic.vermont.gov
  2. 2. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Offender Awareness Guide Mission statement: This CD is provided as a training guide for Law Enforcement and the community in an on-going effort to raise the level of community awareness regarding sex crimes, offenders and the Vermont Sex Offender Registry. The table of contents allows you to select any or all of the topics for presentation, depending on the goals and community needs you have established. The program assumes the presenter will have some level of understanding regarding the topics of discussion but the overall design of the program is such that even someone with minimal knowledge of the subject matter will come away with an increased level of understanding. We at VCIC hope you find this CD of value. Please do not hesitate to contact us if we can be of any assistance.2 vcic.vermont.gov
  3. 3. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Offender Awareness Guide Table of Contents (Page 1 of 2): Left “click” on underscored topic to go to that presentation! • Introduction and Overview 1 • VT Sex Offender Registry 1 • Objectives 2 • VT Sex Offender Registry mission 2 • Historical Perspective 3-8 • Vermont Crime Data 3 • Current VT requirements 9 • Who must register 10 • 2004 Rape Crime Report 4 • Length of Registration 11 12 • Total Sex Offenses 5 • Internet postings 13 • Victim Age 6 • Sample SOR Internet info 14-15 • Victim Gender 7 • SOR Procedures • Offender Age 8 • Types of Notification 16 • Offender Gender 9 • Dissemination of Info 17-18 • Victim – Offender Relationship 10 • What can be released 19-20 • Community Notification 21-22 11 • Response to Notification 23-24 • Summary 12 • Summary 25 • End • End 263 vcic.vermont.gov
  4. 4. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Offender Awareness Guide Table of Contents (Page 2 of 2): Left “click” on underscored topic to go to that presentation! • Sex Crime Offenders 1 • Sex Crime Prevention 1 • Offender Overview 2 • Prevention Overview 2 • Who are Sex Offenders 3 • Effective Prevention Strategies 3-4 • Where do Sex Offenders find 4-5 • What do Victims tell us 5-6 their victims • What citizens can do to protect 7-10 6-7 • Sex Offender Types themselves • Sex Offender Behavior 8-13 • 8 Safety Rules for Children 11 • Sexual Recidivism 14-17 • Summary 12 • Summary 18 • End 13 • End 194 vcic.vermont.gov
  5. 5. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Offender Awareness Guide Information Sources • Vermont Sex Offender Registry • (802) 241-5400 • Internet • Vermont SOR: • http://www.dps.state.vt.us/cjs/s_registry.htm • National SOR: • http://www.nsopr.gov/ • Probation/parole officers5 vcic.vermont.gov
  6. 6. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Offender Awareness Guide6 vcic.vermont.gov
  7. 7. Vermont CrimeXML Data Model Global Justice Information Center Sex CrimeImplementer’s& Overview Practical Introduction Course Introduction And Overview Vermont Criminal Information Center (VCIC) The Vermont Crime Information Center (VCIC) is charged by Vermont law with the retention and maintenance of complete, accurate and timely criminal history records. By law it is also the repository of the Sex Offender Registry. This public service presentation is designed as an informational and educational aid for law enforcement and the community and is not intended to be an all-inclusive source for sex crime information.7 vcic.vermont.gov
  8. 8. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Objectives • To provide a tool to aid law enforcement. • To help educate the community regarding Vermont’s Sex Offender Registry, sex offenders and sex crimes . • To heighten understanding of the actual dangers within the community regarding sex crimes and sex offenders. • To promote public safety by reducing the opportunity for sex crimes through public awareness.8 vcic.vermont.gov
  9. 9. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Vermont Crime Data • The following slides provide statistical data pertaining to sex crimes in Vermont for 2010. • All information is readily available to law enforcement and the public through Vermont Crime On-Line at the following internet address: http://vcic.vermont.gov/crime%20statistics/Vermont%20Crime%20On-Line9 vcic.vermont.gov
  10. 10. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Vermont Rape Crime 2010 Report Summary • In 2010, 30% of reported forcible rapes occurred in Chittenden County. • The average age of forcible rape victims was 21 years old. • Approximately 51% of rape victims in 2010 were under the age of 18. • In 81% of the cases the defendant was an acquaintance of the victim. • In 21% of the cases the defendant was either a family member or an intimate partner of the victim. • In only 2% of the cases was the defendant a stranger. • The average age of defendants arrested for forcible rape was 29 years of age. • Approximately 38% of defendants arrested for forcible rape were under 21 years of age. • Nearly 76% of forcible rapes occurred in a residence. • Injuries were sustained by 53% of the victims.10 vcic.vermont.gov
  11. 11. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Total Sex Offenses (Vermont - 2010) 86% of reported sex offenses were forcible11 vcic.vermont.gov
  12. 12. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Victim Age (Vermont - 2010) 58% of sex offense victims were between 10 and 17 years of age12 vcic.vermont.gov
  13. 13. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Victim Gender (Vermont - 2010) 86% of sex offense victims were female13 vcic.vermont.gov
  14. 14. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Offender Age (Vermont - 2010) Average age of known sex offenders was 29 years old14 vcic.vermont.gov
  15. 15. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Offender Gender (Vermont - 2010) 94% of known sex offenders were male15 vcic.vermont.gov
  16. 16. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Victim to Offender Relationship (Vermont - 2010) 66% of the known The offenders were offender acquaintances of was a the victim stranger in only 2% of the cases!16 vcic.vermont.gov
  17. 17. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Summary • The previous data and charts were designed to provide an overview of some of the key issues regarding sex crimes in Vermont. This data reveals the following generalities about the average sex crime in Vermont: • Offenders tend to be male between 13 and 50 years old • Victims tend to be female • Victims tend to be between 12 and 24 years old • The victim is often an acquaintance or family member of the offender *Note: These are generalities and there are always exceptions to the rule. Everyone should be cognizant of potential risk in any circumstance.17 vcic.vermont.gov
  18. 18. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Introduction & Overview Hit “ESC” (once) or “Enter” (twice) to return to menu18 vcic.vermont.gov
  19. 19. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry VT Sex Offender Registry Bonnie Goode Coordinator VT Sex Offender Registry VCIC19 vcic.vermont.gov
  20. 20. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Sex Offender Registry (SOR) Mission: • To deter and reduce sexual crime by: • Maintaining a statewide registry of convicted sex offenders • Assisting law enforcement to protect the community from sexual crime • Providing sex offender information and sex crime prevention training for law enforcement and the community20 vcic.vermont.gov
  21. 21. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Historical Perspective The following slides give a brief historical perspective regarding the development of sex offender registration legislation in the United States and in Vermont. Like most legislation it was a reactive response to specific incidents and events. Current laws are a result of cumulative changes and modifications over a period of time.21 vcic.vermont.gov
  22. 22. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Historical Perspective (cont.) • 11 year old Jacob Wetterling • Non-family abduction on October 22, 1989 by an armed, masked man. • Intensive search by local police and FBI. • Jacob still has not been found. • Jacob Wetterling Act • On September 13, 1994, Congress passed Jacob Wetterling Act • Mandates all states and territories to set up sex offender registration program by 9/13/97.22 vcic.vermont.gov
  23. 23. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Historical Perspective (cont.) • 7 year old Megan Kanka • New Jersey - July 29, 1994 • 7 year old Megan Kanka lured into neighbor’s home to see puppy. • Megan sexually assaulted and murdered by strangulation. • Megans body found in nearby park several days later. • Jesse Timmendequas, twice-convicted sex offender arrested. • Megan’s Law • Passed May 17, 1996. Amends Jacob Wetterling Act. • Mandates the establishment of the community notification process no later than 9/13/97.23 vcic.vermont.gov
  24. 24. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Historical Perspective (cont.) • Pam Lychner • Houston real estate agent • Brutally raped by twice-convicted felon while showing a home • Formed a victim advocate group called “Justice for All” • Killed with her 2 daughters in crash of TWA flight 800 in 1996 • Pam Lychner Sexual Offender Tracking and Identification Act • Passed by Congress in October 1996. • Requires lifetime registration for “recidivist” or “aggravated” offenders24 vcic.vermont.gov
  25. 25. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Historical Perspective (cont.) • Jeanne Clery • 19 years old • Lehigh University freshman • Raped & murdered April 5, 1986, while asleep in her residence hall • Parents discovered there were 38 violent crimes on campus that students were unaware of • 2000 - Congress amends the Jacob Wetterling Act with the “Campus Sex Crimes Prevention Act” (Effective 10/27/2002) • Mandates sex offenders to report employment or enrollment information to law enforcement • Law enforcement must forward information to campus police “promptly” (as soon as possible)25 vcic.vermont.gov
  26. 26. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Historical Perspective (cont.) • July 1, 1996 Vermont Legislature enacts VT Sex Offender Registry Legislation • Vermont Sex Offender Registry Law – Title 13 Vermont Statutes Annotated • § 5402. Sex offender registry: • (a) The department of public safety shall establish and maintain a sex offender registry, which shall consist of the information required to be filed under this subchapter. • (b) All information contained in the registry may be disclosed for any purpose permitted under the law of this state, including use by: • (1) local, state and federal law enforcement agencies exclusively for lawful law enforcement activities; • (2) state and federal governmental agencies for the exclusive purpose of conducting confidential background checks; • (3) any employer, including a school district, who is authorized by law to request records and information from the Vermont criminal information center, where such disclosure is necessary to protect the public concerning persons required to register under this subchapter. The identity of a victim of an offense that requires registration shall not be released; and • (4) a person identified as a sex offender in the registry for the purpose of reviewing the accuracy of any record relating to him or her. The identity of a victim of an offense that requires registration shall not be released. • (c) The departments of corrections and public safety shall adopt rules, forms and procedures under chapter 25 of Title 3 to implement the provisions of this subchapter.26 vcic.vermont.gov
  27. 27. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Current Vermont Requirements Pursuant to Vermont statute the Vermont Sex Offender Registry was created in July of 1996. Since that time a database of information pertaining to Sex Offenders was developed and has been maintained. The database retains pertinent information regarding the offenders and their respective crimes. The sex offender registry requires notification of address change, thus allowing for the tracking of sex offenders. The database is the source of data for internet postings.27 vcic.vermont.gov
  28. 28. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Who must register? T. 13 VSA sec. 5401 - 5407 • Individuals convicted of certain sexual offenses prior to July 1, 1996 who were still under the supervision of the Department of Corrections, and any subsequent offenders are required to register with Vermont. • Individuals with sex offense convictions from other states or jurisdictions who are: • living in Vermont; • attending post-secondary schools in Vermont; • working in Vermont.28 vcic.vermont.gov
  29. 29. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Length of Registration • Period of Supervision plus 10 years after discharge • Lifetime registration required for convictions after Sept. 01, 2001 for: (Number of lifetime registrants = 1418 June 2012) • Sexual Predators* • Sexual Recidivists* • Violent Sexual Offenders* * T. 13 VSA sec. 540129 vcic.vermont.gov
  30. 30. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Which Offenders are posted to the internet? Not all sex offenders are posted on the internet Sex Offender Registry site. As of June 2012 more than 38% of the currently registered sex offenders were posted on the internet. Reasons for internet posting include: • Offenders who have been convicted of Aggravated Sexual Assault • Offenders who have been convicted of Kidnapping & Sexual Assault of a Child • Sexual Recidivists • Offenders who have an active warrant for a Registry violation • Offenders who have been designated as a Sexual Predator • Offenders who are non-compliant with treatment requirements • Offenders who have been designated by the Department of Corrections as “High Risk” to re-offend • Out of State Sex Offenders whose crime of conviction is comparable to Vermont crimes which, by definition, are eligible for internet posting .30 vcic.vermont.gov
  31. 31. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Sample SOR Internet information31 vcic.vermont.gov
  32. 32. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry SOR Procedures • Vermont residents will register with Department of Corrections (DOC) • Registrant is entered into the Vermont Registry and the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) • Registrants from another state who move to Vermont, work in Vermont, or enroll in postsecondary schools contact the Registry for forms and report to a Vermont State Police Barracks for photo and prints. • Registry notifies Law Enforcement when a registrant moves in or out of their jurisdiction32 vcic.vermont.gov
  33. 33. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry SOR Procedures (cont.) • Registrants must notify the Registry within three (3) days of any change of address. These notifications apply to out of state changes as well as within Vermont. • Registrants who have been designated as “High Risk” offenders must notify the Registry within thirty six (36) hours of any change of address, employment status or enrollment in a postsecondary educational institution. These notifications apply to out of state changes as well as within Vermont. • Registrants must verify their physical and mailing addresses once a year within ten (10) days of their birth date. Registrants who have been designated as “Violent Predators” must validate their address information every 90 days. • Registrants failing to comply are subject to arrest without a warrant.33 vcic.vermont.gov
  34. 34. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Types of Sex Offender Registry notification • The Vermont Sex Offender registry maintains an offender database which provides the basis for the following types of dissemination: • Response to requests from the public • Requests can be made to local police departments and VCIC in person, in writing and by telephone • Active Community notification by law enforcement agencies34 vcic.vermont.gov
  35. 35. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Dissemination of SOR information • Response to requests from the public • If the registrant is not on internet • Request must be of a specific person • Requester must articulate a concern regarding their safety or the safety of another • Release must be in compliance with written protocols • If the registrant is on the internet • Request must be of a specific person • Release must be in compliance with written protocols35 vcic.vermont.gov
  36. 36. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Dissemination of SOR information (cont.) • Active community notification by criminal justice agencies • If the registrant is not on the Internet • Notification only in circumstances which constitute a compelling risk to public safety • Only after consultation with the VCIC and DOC • Notification must be in compliance with written protocols • If the registrant is on the Internet • At the discretion of criminal justice agencies • Notification must be in compliance with written protocols36 vcic.vermont.gov
  37. 37. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry What information can be released? (sex offender not posted on internet) • Upon request of a member of the public about a specific offender for whom they can articulate a public safety concern, VCIC, the department of corrections (DOC), and any authorized law enforcement agency shall release the following registry information on sex offenders whose information is not required to be posted on the internet: • the offender’s date of birth; • a general description of the offender; • the date and nature of the offender’s conviction; • whether the offender complied with treatment recommended by the DOC • whether there is an outstanding warrant for the offender’s arrest.37 vcic.vermont.gov
  38. 38. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry What information can be released? (cont.) (sex offender posted on internet) • Upon request of a member of the public about a specific person, VCIC, the department of corrections (DOC), and any authorized law enforcement agency shall release the following registry information on sex offenders whose information is required to be posted on the internet: • the offender’s known aliases; • the offender’s date of birth; • a general description of the offender; • the offender’s town of residence; • the date and nature of the offender’s conviction; • if the offender is under the supervision of the DOC, the name and telephone number of the local DOC office in charge of monitoring the offender; • whether the offender complied with treatment recommended by the DOC • whether there is an outstanding warrant for the offender’s arrest; • the reason for which the offender information is available. • Law Enforcement may release address information if the requestor can articulate a safety concern.38 vcic.vermont.gov
  39. 39. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Community Notification for “High Risk” Offenders • When a sex offender is released from a correctional institution, VCIC notifies Law Enforcement in the jurisdiction where the individual will reside. • It is Law Enforcement’s responsibility to take the steps they deem appropriate to advise the community and protect the public interest. This takes the form of some sort of community notification which can vary on a case-by-case basis.39 vcic.vermont.gov
  40. 40. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Community Notification (cont.) SAMPLE package provided to Law Enforcement on release of a HIGH RISK OFFENDER Cover Letter Sample Press Release Offender Information40 vcic.vermont.gov
  41. 41. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Response to Community Notification Few of us would question the need for sex offenders to be held accountable for their actions. Yet while holding them accountable, we must ensure that sex offender registration and community notification are not used as additional punishment. It is, and is meant to be, regulatory. Fair, responsible, and non-inflammatory community notification is a reasonable consequence to the acts of the offender; furthermore, it allows citizens to take prudent and rational steps to protect themselves, their children, and their community.41 vcic.vermont.gov
  42. 42. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Response to Community Notification (cont.) It is natural to be angry or fearful when we hear about a sex offender living nearby. Citizens should not perform the role of law enforcement by attempting to investigate suspected criminal acts or by engaging in vigilantism. Vigilante acts such as assaults are illegal. If a citizen has a concern that criminal conduct has been committed or is going to be committed, the citizen should immediately notify law enforcement. Law enforcement officers, based upon their training, are better able to properly and effectively investigate a sexual offender which in turn increases the probability that the sex offender will be convicted, punished and held accountable for his or her crime.42 vcic.vermont.gov
  43. 43. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry Summary • The development of Sex Offender laws and registration processes throughout the country have been reactive responses to specific incidents. • The Vermont Sex Offender Registry was legislatively mandated in 1996 and is managed at the Vermont Criminal Information Center. • The Vermont Sex Offender Registry program is dedicated to maintaining up to date and accurate information on sex offenders in our communities. • The Vermont Sex Offender Registry additionally provides law enforcement notification for “high risk” offenders and strives to improve community awareness through education and understanding. • The community needs to understand the value and purpose of the sex offender registry as well as their role in ensuring that information obtained from the Registry is used responsibly.43 vcic.vermont.gov
  44. 44. Vermont Crime Information Center Vermont Sex Offender Registry44 vcic.vermont.gov
  45. 45. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Sex Crime Offenders45 vcic.vermont.gov
  46. 46. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Offender Overview In order to better protect yourself, your children and the community it is extremely important that you have at least a basic understanding of what you are protecting yourself against and how to recognize possible danger signs. This knowledge will help minimize fear of things unknown. The following slides will provide a very basic overview of some of the sexual offender profiles in our society.46 vcic.vermont.gov
  47. 47. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Who are Sexual Offenders? • Sex Offenders are everywhere • They look no different then anyone else • They come in any age, size and gender • Sex Offenders are present at every socio-economic level • They often align themselves in positions that give them access to their victims47 vcic.vermont.gov
  48. 48. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Where do sex offenders find their victims? Private Residences and YOUR Home Parks and Playgrounds Churches and Meeting Halls Woods and Recreational areas Internet Schools48 vcic.vermont.gov
  49. 49. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Where do sex offenders find their victims? (cont.) Bottom Line – Anywhere there is opportunity!49 vcic.vermont.gov
  50. 50. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Sexual Offender Types • Rapists • Molesters • Predators • Girl molesters • Pediphiles • Stalkers • Boy molesters • Internet • Opportunists • Anger motivated • Non-Contact Offenders • Incest Offenders • Exhibitionists • Pornography50 vcic.vermont.gov
  51. 51. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Offender Type (Vermont Probation & Parole, 2003) Rapists = 16% Non-Contact Offenders = 12% Incest Offenders = 15% Molesters - Female Victims (<16) = 49% Molesters - Male Victims (<16)= 9%51 vcic.vermont.gov
  52. 52. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Not All Sex Offenders Are The Same Sex offenders cannot be stereotyped by appearance or location. However, sex offenders generally have sex crime preferences and each typology varies by: • Victim preferences • Behavior preferences (methods of operation) • Attitudes of offender towards deviant behavior • Motivation of offender • Risk to re-offend (some typologies have higher probability) • Management strategies needed • Given the differences in sex offenders, treatment and screening strategies vary52 vcic.vermont.gov
  53. 53. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Crossover Offending Sex offenders tend to specialize, but…. • Some incest offenders also molest outside the home • Some men who molest male children also molest female children • Some rapists also molest children53 vcic.vermont.gov
  54. 54. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Patterns of Sexual Offending: Three Preconditions for sexual crime to occur 1 2 3 Motives Willingness Opportunity • Sexual Interest • Cognitive Distortions • Planned versus • Emotional Closeness • Substance Abuse Opportunistic • Power and Control • Pornography • Force versus • Anger/Grievance • Stress Manipulation • Psychopathy • Other54 vcic.vermont.gov
  55. 55. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Rapist Typologies From A. Nicholas Groths studies, and the work of others, a rapist motivational typology has been developed that most often places offender behavior into one of five typologies: • Power Reassurance: offender behaviors that suggest an underlying lack of confidence and inadequacy, or belief that the offense is consensual; • Power Assertive: offender behaviors that suggest an underlying lack of confidence and inadequacy, expressed through a need for control, mastery, and humiliation of the victim, while demonstrating authority; • Anger Retaliatory:: offender behaviors that suggest a great deal of rage, either towards a specific person, group, institution or a symbol of either; • Sadistic: offender behaviors that suggest that the offender gets sexual gratification from victim pain and suffering; • Opportunistic: offender behaviors that suggest an offender who is out to satisfy immediate sexual impulses. "Psychological Crime Scene Tape: The Investigative Use of Rapist Motivational Typologies," Brent E. Turvey – 199955 vcic.vermont.gov
  56. 56. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Victim Grooming • Many sex offenders invest many hours, days and even years in the cultivation or grooming of their victims. They work their way into the victims’ worlds usually by gaining the victims’ trust and respect with gifts and promises. • They are often extremely adept at finding vulnerable environments and building on its weaknesses. • Internet “chats” and the like provide an excellent environment for sexual predators to locate and cultivate victims. • Homes without adequate supervision provide an opportunity for many child molesters. • Environments with single mothers tend to be a target for sexual predators. • Sex offenders will often seek employment in environments where they have access to potential victims of their preference.56 vcic.vermont.gov
  57. 57. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Victim Grooming (cont.) “A Sexual Predator’s Statement” As quoted from Robert Schilling’s “Community Notification: A Blueprint for Success” Jim disclosed that he has been sexually assaulting children, males and females since he was 8 or 9 years old. His victim’s [sic] range in age from 2 to 10 years old. He groomed his victim’s [sic] by keeping candy, popsicles, and children’s toys in his apartment. He raised birds to attract children; took children to the park, beach and McDonald’s and used children he was baby-sitting to gain access to other victims. He groomed the parents by offering free baby- sitting; helping out by providing transportation and money “when they needed it”. He disclosed he gains access by targeting single parents with a large number of children who are not good housekeepers. In his words, “a mother who doesn’t give a damn.” He played the part of Mary’s best friend by being around her as much as possible and telling her she could always come to him if she needed someone to talk to. He helped Mary do her homework and her household chores. He played games with Mary and took her to the park. Other places he took her were the malls, toy stores, clothing stores and swimming pools. He gave Mary money and bought her things, such as toys, board games, a bike, and expensive clothing. When he was baby-sitting Mary he would tell her she could do anything she wanted. He told Mary if she would let him do whatever he wanted to her he would buy her things. To keep her quiet he told Mary that if her mother found out about what “we” were doing, she would be mad and it would be all Mary’s fault.57 vcic.vermont.gov
  58. 58. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Average Sexual Offender Re-Arrest Rates Harris & Hanson (2004) 10 sample groups; Total = 4,724 individuals Percent 100 90 80 70 60 27% 50 24% 40 20% 30 14% 20 10 0 0 5 10 15 20 Years in Community58 vcic.vermont.gov
  59. 59. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Sexual Recidivism • Recidivism is defined as being arrested for the commission of a new offense. In the case of sex offenders, the public is most concerned with sexual recidivism - the commission of a new sexual offense. • Andrew Harris & R. Karl Hanson conducted an international study in 2004 and they reported statistics showing: • After 5 years in the community there is approximately a 14% rate of re-arrest for sexual offenses. • The highest rate of sexual recidivism (77%) was for those with previous sexual offenses, who selected boy victims outside the family and who were never married. • In general, rapists re-offend more often than child molesters. • Among child molesters, those with male victims have been found to have the highest recidivism rates, followed by those with unrelated female victims. • Incest offenders show the lowest recidivism rates of all sexual offenders.59 vcic.vermont.gov
  60. 60. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Risk Factors that Don’t Change “Static Risk Factors” The probability of sexual recidivism can be assessed through various risk factors – some of which are static and often define the individual’s sex offense tendencies. These include: • Prior sex offense charges or convictions • Prior non-sexual criminal offenses • Stranger victims • Prior non-contact sex offenses • Prior non-sexual violent offenses • Unrelated victims • Male victims • Offender was young at time of offense • Minimal co-habitation history60 vcic.vermont.gov
  61. 61. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Risk Factors that Do Change “Dynamic Risk Factors” Dynamic risk factors can and often do change. Changes in these factors can often be predictors of a persons inclination toward recidivism. These include: • Non-cooperation with supervision and treatment • Sexual preoccupation • Victim access • Relationship problems with partner • Collapse of social supports • Emotional collapse • Hostility • Substance abuse • Employment and residence instability61 vcic.vermont.gov
  62. 62. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders Summary • Not all sex offenders are the same and community members must be aware of this and have an understanding of the types of sexual offenders in our society in order to best protect themselves and their families. • Being cognizant of offender methodologies and ever vigilant for signs of deviant behavior are among the best defenses. • Certain sex offenders appear to have higher rates of sexual recidivism; sexual recidivism rates are influenced by a number of static and dynamic factors.62 vcic.vermont.gov
  63. 63. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Offenders63 vcic.vermont.gov
  64. 64. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention Sex Crime Prevention64 vcic.vermont.gov
  65. 65. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention Sex Crime Prevention Overview The best protection against sex crime is an informed public. Providing more information to the community to protect itself and increasing awareness and understanding can be a significant step toward the reduction of sex crimes in Vermont. The following slides give a brief insight into some of the issues and measures that communities can take to promote a safer living environment.65 vcic.vermont.gov
  66. 66. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention Effective Prevention Strategies Look Beyond the “Tip of the Iceberg” Sex Offender Registries, Media and Word of Mouth Known Unknown Sex Offenders66 vcic.vermont.gov
  67. 67. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention Effective Prevention Strategies Look Beyond the “Tip of the Iceberg” (cont.) • It is important to understand that the sex offender registries are simply tools to help enhance public awareness and they only provide information about specific known sex offenders. • Doesn’t include those who were convicted prior to the law going into effect • Doesn’t include those who have yet to be caught • Doesn’t include those convicted and still incarcerated.67 vcic.vermont.gov
  68. 68. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention What Do Victims Tell Us? Kilpatrick et al. (2003). National Survey of Adolescents. Victim reporting of sexual crime 100 80 86% of Sexual abuse not 60 reported to the authorities 40 20 0 Not Reported Child Reported Other reported to Police Protective to School reported Services *some cases reported to more than one authority68 vcic.vermont.gov
  69. 69. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention What Do Victims Tell Us? (cont.) Victims’ Greatest Concerns Kilpatrick, Edmunds, Seymour (1992). Rape in America. • Family knowing about the sexual assault 71% • People thinking it was his/her fault 69% • People outside the family knowing about assault 68% • Name being made public by the news media 50%69 vcic.vermont.gov
  70. 70. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention What citizens can do to protect themselves and their children • If you receive notification that a known sex offender is living in your community this is a good time to: • reinforce family safety planning • discuss specific concerns about this offender • be observant, vigilant and aware of your surroundings • get involved in your Neighborhood Crime Watch program • work with local Law Enforcement70 vcic.vermont.gov
  71. 71. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention What citizens can do to protect themselves and their children (cont.) • Talk about more than just “Stranger Danger”. • Be aware that 90% of sex offenses against children are committed by someone known to the victim. • Be aware that 66% of sex offenses against adults are committed by someone known to the victim. • Keep open communications with kids • Indicate that you need to be informed of any inappropriate touching • Assure your children they will be believed • Talk to your children about the dangers of internet predators • Restrict or monitor instant messaging and chat group participation71 vcic.vermont.gov
  72. 72. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention What citizens can do to protect themselves and their children (cont.) • Be vigilant for behavior changes in your children that may be indicative of some problem • Are they abnormally moody, distraught or reclusive • Does their interest in school or outside activities change • Do they neglect or change their friends • Be observant of other people that may display signs of deviant sexual preferences and behavior (including within your own home and neighborhood) • Be aware of any inappropriate conversation • Be aware of any inappropriate touching or gestures • Is anyone spending unusually large amounts of time with your child • Is anyone befriending your child in any way – gifts, etc – beyond the norm72 vcic.vermont.gov
  73. 73. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention What citizens can do to protect themselves and their children (cont.) • Be alert for strangers or strange vehicles around your home, schools or playgrounds • Remember that sex offenders can be anywhere but you can minimize crime by limiting offenders’ opportunities.73 vcic.vermont.gov
  74. 74. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention 8 Safety Rules for Children • I always check first with my parents or the person in charge before I go anywhere or get into a car, even with someone I know. • I always check first with my parents or a trusted adult before I accept anything from anyone, even from someone I know. • I always take a friend with me when I go places or play outside. • I know my name, address, telephone number, and my parents names. • I say no if someone tries to touch me or treat me in a way that makes me feel scared, uncomfortable, or confused. • I know that I can tell my parents or a trusted adult if I feel scared, uncomfortable, or confused. • It is OK to say no, and I know that there will always be someone who can help me. • I am strong, smart, and have the right to be safe.74 vcic.vermont.gov
  75. 75. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention Summary • Reduction of sex crimes can occur with an aware and informed public. • The fact that the majority of sexual offenses are not reported and that the majority of known offenses are committed by someone known to the offender are key concerns for the community. • Don’t be afraid to talk to your children and ensure that they understand the need for open conversation and attention to safe practices to minimize their risk of victimization.75 vcic.vermont.gov
  76. 76. Vermont Crime Information Center Sex Crime Prevention76 vcic.vermont.gov

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