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Black identity development

Black identity development






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    Black identity development Black identity development Presentation Transcript

    • Black IdentityDevelopment Diverse Realities Seminar Cashain David
    • Why is this important ?  Gives a framework for understanding of responses and presentations  Acknowledges the impact of racism and discrimination  Help referrers to make more appropriate referrals to services  Assists commissioners to understand and value a wide spectrum of services
    • William Cross  A clinical psychologist practicing in the USA  Aim – to explain the need for psychological liberation under conditions of oppression  Central issues is IDENTITY and TRANSITION
    • Published..  Negro-to-Black conversion. 1971  Models of Nigrescence. 1980 (Nigrescence – from the French ‘the process of becoming Black’)  Shades of Black. 1991  His work has been modified and adapted to the British context by Dr June Farrell
    • Development of identity  AUTOMATIC  DISCOVERY  ‘socialisation’  ‘encounter’  Early childhood  ‘the process of  Adolescence becoming black’  adulthood  ‘nigrescence’
    • Stages in Black identitydevelopment  Pre-encounter  Encounter  Immersion – Emersion  Internalisation
    • Pre-encounter ‘.. When I was three years old, I didn’t know I was Black …’ Cashain David  Neutral – black as a fact  Social stigma – something to be negotiated  Anti Black – black is bad, victim blaming  Spotlight or Race Image Anxiety  Assimilationist - Integration
    • Encounter  Events which catch a person off guard  Shattering of world view 1. Experiencing the encounter – observer 2. Personalising the encounter – being changed by it
    • Immersion  Immersion – enveloped in a sea of blackness  ‘Blacker-than-thou ‘ syndrome  Classifies others into neat categories  Anger @ white people and culture  Pride in one’s black people/culture  Guilt @ being tricked by whites  DANGER of getting STUCK !!
    • Emersion  Emersion – a levelling off of more extreme feelings of all white is bad  a need to escape from a rigid format of ‘blackness’  Some black is good  Some White is good
    • Internalisation  Characterised by being more level- headed, calmer,  Reduced anxiety about being the right sort of Black person  Black pride develops into Black self- acceptance
    • The cycle of nigrescence  Nigrescence thought of as a ‘one time’ event  Thomas Parnham suggested that there may be ‘recycling’ through some of the stages in various parts of the life cycle.  This assists in meeting the challenges that are presented as part of adolescence, adult hood, middle age, late adulthood