Impact of Technology of our Work and Family Lives

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Presentation from the AWLP2012 Work-Life Forum on the Impact of Technology on our Work and Family Lives. How does technology enhance or disrupt our work and family lives?

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Impact of Technology of our Work and Family Lives

  1. 1. Headlines and Hot Spots: Work-LifeResearch for the Non-ResearcherJudith Finer FreedmanJudi CaseyEllen Galinsky
  2. 2. Impact of Technology on ourWork and Family LivesJudi Casey, WFRN, Director WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  3. 3. Work-Life Research Tremendous amount of research Multi-disciplinary Global Diverse topicsSee slides #20-33 for more Work-Life Research information at the end of this slide deck. WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  4. 4. Technology and Work-LifeHow does the use of technology (computers, email,Internet, cell phones, tablets, and MP3 players)enhance or disrupt our work and family lives?Examine:1. The evolving and future world of work2. How technology impacts work and blurs boundaries between home and work3. Addiction to technology and the inability to disconnect4. Impact of technology on attention, focus and creativity WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  5. 5. Evolving World of Work7 key appliances of the information age 85% cell phones (96% of 18-29 year olds) 76% desktop or laptop computers 47% mp3 players (iPod) 42% game consoles (parents 64% more likely) Tablet computers and e-book readers: (Kindle) and (iPad) were relatively new arrivals when survey done  Not only gadgets – Internet and social media Americans and Their Gadgets (2010): survey of 3,001 American adults (18+) WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  6. 6. Evolving World of Work 55% indicated that the future for the “hyperconnected” will be positive:  “…nimble, quick-acting multitaskers who count on the Internet as their external brain and who approach problems in a different way from their elders.” 42% noted negative outcomes:  “…thirst for instant gratification and quick fixes, a loss of patience, and a lack of deep-thinking ability.” 2011 survey of 1,021 technology experts on the Future of the Internet and its impact by 2020 WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  7. 7. Technology Blurs Boundaries 10 different mobiles users, 5 “motivated by mobility” (39% of mobile users) and 5 “stationary media will do” (remaining 61%) Mobile Difference, 2009: surveys in 2006 and 2007 on Internet access via mobile phones Tradeoffs to technology use: “…benefit of increased connectivity and flexibility, while mobiles have added stress and new demands” Networked Workers, 2008: 2,134 adults in the continental US WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  8. 8. Technology Blurs Boundaries “Technology permeates American households…” Technology allows families to connect when they are apart  Friends and extended family too Technology keeps families apart when they are together Networked Families, 2008: survey 2,252 adults, 18+ WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  9. 9. Technology Blurs Boundaries More frequent use of technology (computer, email, cell phones, Internet) results in:  More effective at work, greater work load, increased pace of work demands  Different devices have different outcomes Chesley, 2010: data from 2001-2, 2,214 employees WFRN working paper (Johnson & Chesley, 2012) on ICT: 83% report increased productivity, 53% increased stress levels (sample from Networked Workers, 2008) WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  10. 10. Technology Blurs Boundaries “More likely to view the Internet as having a positive impact on their ability to balance their work and home lives” (more flexibility) Wajcman et al, 2010: nationally representative sample of Australian employees Use of ICT after hours resulted in more work to family conflict for both employees AND their significant other Boswell & Buchanan (2007): 360 university staff WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  11. 11. Technology Blurs Boundaries More use of mobile email increased feelings of work overload and had a negative effect on their family lives Feelings of work overload had a negative impact on organizational commitment Turel et al., (2011): online survey of 241 mobile email users in 3 North American organizations Eroding boundaries=double-edged sword for organizations Available all the Time, 2009 (Nancy Rothbard) WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  12. 12. Technology Addiction Expected to be responsive and connected 24/7 Addiction is:  Linked to our need to feel wanted and important  How we show that we are dedicated/available (Carolyn Marvin): Perlow, 2009: time off benefits employees and productivity at BCG Detachment from work during non-work hours is important for employee wellbeing and productivity Flipping the Switch, 2012 WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  13. 13. Technology and Attention Information overload can make people feel anxious and powerless  Multi-taskers produce more stress hormones Overload can reduce creativity Overload can lower productivity The Economist, 2011 Switch tasks every 3 seconds Distractions use as much as 28% of the average US workers day Productivity cost of $650 billion/year Distracted, 2008 WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  14. 14. What Some Organizations Are Doing Volkswagen(Germany):deactivate emails during non-work hours. Can only receive email ½ hr before and ½ hour after the work day Deutsche TeleKom: pledged to not expect workers to read email after business hours at certain points during the week Lloyds Bank (UK) banned employee travel during the 3rd week of every month Google installed energy pods for short breaks Flipping the Switch, 2012 WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  15. 15. What Can Your Organization Do? Employer Guidelines? Employer Policies? Provide Employee Training? WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  16. 16. Bibliography (1) Agger, B. (2011). iTime: Labor and life in a smartphone era. Time & Society, 20(1), 119-136. Allen, D. (2012, March 17) When office technology overwhelms, get organized. Retrieved from: http://nyti.ms/FWz32g Anderson, J., & Rainie, L. (2012, February). Future of the internet: Millennials will benefit and suffer due to their hyperconnected lives. Pew Charitable Trust: Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2012/Hyperconnected-lives.aspx Boswell, W. & Olson-Buchanan. (2007). The use of communication technologies: The role of work attitudes and work-life conflict. Journal of Management, 33(4), 592-610. Chesley, N. (2010). Technology use and employee assessments of work effectiveness, workload and pace of life. Information, Communication and Society, (13)4, 485-514. WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  17. 17. Bibliography (2) Friedman, Stewart (2008). Total leadership: Be a better leader, have a richer life. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. Horrigan, J. (2009, March). The mobile difference. Pew Charitable Trust: Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/5-The-Mobile-Difference--Typology.aspx Jackson, M. (2008). Distracted: The erosion of attention and the coming Dark Age. Amherst, NY: Prometheus. Jackson, M. (2008). May we have your attention, please? Retrieved from: http://buswk.co/18dm3O Kennedy, T. et al. (2008, October). Networked families. Pew Charitable Trust: Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2008/PIP_Networked_Family.pdf Knowledge@Wharton. (2009, September 30). Available all the time: Etiquette for the Social Networking Age. Retrieved from: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=2349 WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  18. 18. Bibliography (3) Knowledge@Wharton. (2012, February 15). Flipping the switch: Who is responsible for getting employees to take a break? Retrieved from: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=2941 Madden, M. & Jones, S. (2008, September). Networked workers. Pew Charitable Trust: Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2008/Networked-Workers.aspx Perlow, L. & Porter, J. (2009) Making time off predictable &- required. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: http://hbr.org/2009/10/making-time-off-predictable-and-required/ar/1 Perlow, L. (forthcoming). Sleeping with your smartphone: How to break the 24/7 habit and change the way you work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. Schwartz, T. (2012, March 14). The magic of doing one thing at a time. Retrieved from HBR Blog Network: http://bit.ly/FWyXIf WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  19. 19. Bibliography (4) Smith, A. (2010, October). Americans and their gadgets. Pew Charitable Trust: Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Gadgets.aspx The Economist. (2011, June). Too much information: how to cope with data overload. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/node/18895468 Turel, O., Serenko, A., & Bontis, N. (2011). Family and work-related consequences of addiction to organizational pervasive technologies. Information and Management, doi:10.1016/j.im.2011.01.004 Wajcman, J. et al (2010). Enacting virtual connections between work and home. Journal of Sociology, 46(3), 257- 275. WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  20. 20. Work-Life ResearchTremendous amount of research Work and Family Researchers Network Conference: https://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/content/conference 826 individual presenters 785 presentations 132 sessions WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  21. 21. Work-Life ResearchMulti-disciplinary*  Sociology: 27%  Women/Gender studies: 4%  Psychology: 14%  Law: 3%  Management/HR: 12%  Public hlth/Healthcare: 3%  Business: 9%  Communications: 1%  Corporate/Private: 6%  Education: 1%  Public policy/Political sci: 6%  Anthropology: 1%  Work/Family Specialists: 6% *Based on department/affiliation of  Economics: 4% presenter, not available for all  Social Work: 4% participants WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  22. 22. Work-Life Research Global: approximately 30% international with 30+ countries represented, including: WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  23. 23. Work-Life Research  Australia  Germany  Austria  Ghana  Canada  India  Chile  Ireland  China  Israel  Cyprus  Italy  Czech Republic  Japan  Finland  Kenya  France  New Zealand WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  24. 24. Work-Life Research  Nigeria  Spain  Pakistan  Sweden  Philippines  Switzerland  Portugal  The Netherlands  Singapore  United Arab Emirates  Slovenia  United Kingdom  South Africa  USA WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  25. 25. Work-Life ResearchDiverse topics reflected in a sample of sessions listed below (# of session on program)Culture (16)  Work-Family Culture and Work Performance: Does a Supportive Culture Enhance Performance?  Understanding the Dynamic among Organizational Culture, Employee Characteristics and Employee Use of Work-Life Initiatives WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  26. 26. Work-Life ResearchChild, Elder, Dependent Care (47)  Work-Family, Time and Parental Shares of Childcare in Five Countries  Improving Work-Life Integration for Families of Children and Youth with Mental Health Disorders WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  27. 27. Work-Life ResearchFlexible Work Arrangements, Telework, Time (22)  Love in the Time of Liberalization: Gender, Power, and Marriage Among White-Collar Workers in India  “I’ll finish this at home”: How Boundary Flexibility and Permeability Influence Work-family Outcomes  Workplace Flexibility Within Selected Industrial Sectors, Organizational Sizes, and Employee Populations WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  28. 28. Work-Life ResearchDiversity/Inclusion (29)  How Americans Think and Feel About Families  The Work/Non-Work Experience: What about Gay Homosexuals? An Explorative Study of Gay Men in Sweden WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  29. 29. Work-Life ResearchFathers/Dads (14)  Fatherhood and Marital Relationships in Families of Combat Officers in the IDF (Israel)  “You Try to be Superman and You Don’t Have to Be”: Gay Adoptive Dads’ Challenges with Work/Family Balance  How Companies Accommodate Fathers’ Taking Parental Leave – Perspectives of HR Managers in Sweden WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  30. 30. Work-Life ResearchGender (74)  Intensive Work Commitment among Executive Men: Cultural Inheritance and Contemporary Meanings  Gender Differences in Specialization Choices, and Career Advancements of Japanese Lawyers  How High-Performing Women Sustain Strong Job Performance While Raising Families: Insights from Field Research WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  31. 31. Work-Life ResearchRecession (16)  Parent Reports of the Recessions Effect on Young Children and Their Families in Rural Communities  Work-life Balance in Times of Economic Crisis: A Longitudinal Study in a Dutch Consultancy Firm  How do Families react to the Economic Crisis? Families’ Expenses on Early Childhood Education in Spain over the Period 2006-2009 WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  32. 32. Work-Life ResearchWellbeing, Wellness, Health (25)  Solitary Time in a Harried Society: The Association Between Solitary Time and Mental Health in the Netherlands  Good to be Back Home: Work Travelers and Spouses’ Daily Reports of Physical and Psychological Well-Being  The Effect of Leaders’ Work-Family Conflict on Followers’ Depression: An Examination of Crossover Processes  Uplifts Over the Weekend and Work Performance: The Mediating Role of Positive Mood WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012
  33. 33. Work-Life ResearchWorkplace (43)  The Customized Well-Being Index: Developing an Understanding of Your Employee Population and Tracking Change Over Time  Antecedents and Organizational Consequences of Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior: An Empirical Investigation  Work/Family Reconciliation: Corporate Management, Family Policies, and Gender Equality in the Finnish Context  Is Work-Life Balance Training Effective? An Evaluation of a Self-Learning Kit for Employees WWW.AWLP.ORG/FORUM 2012

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