Chapter 1 section 2 ppt

  • 212 views
Uploaded on

 

More in: Technology , Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
212
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Cinda, these next two were supposed to be on one slide, but they obviously didn’t fit. I’m not sure where the picture should go.

Transcript

  • 1. Solving Problems—Identify the Problem • Although the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations. • Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem. • Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved. Doing Science 2
  • 2. How can the problem be solved? • Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design. • Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation. • Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps. Doing Science 2
  • 3. How can the problem be solved? • Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems. Doing Science 2
  • 4. Descriptive Research • Some scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research. Doing Science 2 • Descriptive research is based mostly on observations. • Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform. • Descriptive research usually involves the following steps.
  • 5. State the Research Objective • This is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research. Doing Science 2 • A research objective is what you want to find out, or what question you would like to answer.
  • 6. Describe the Research Design • How will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed? Doing Science 2 • An important part of any research design is safety. Click image to view movie. • These are a few of the things scientists think about when they design an investigation using descriptive research.
  • 7. Eliminate Bias • Sometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias. Doing Science 2 • Good investigations avoid bias. • One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data. • Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations. • To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample.
  • 8. Equipment, Materials, and Models • When a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important. Doing Science 2
  • 9. Using Models • One part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models. Doing Science 2 • In science, a model represents things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly. • Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive.
  • 10. Using Models • Dr. John Snow’s map of the cholera epidemic was a model that allowed him to predict possible sources of the epidemic. Doing Science 2 • Many kinds of models are made on computers. • Graphs, tables, and spreadsheets are models that display information.
  • 11. Scientific Methods Doing Science 2 • This allows them to understand each other’s research and compare results. • Scientists around the world use a system of measurements called the International System of Units, or SI, to make observations.
  • 12. Scientific Methods • Because SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do. Doing Science 2 • Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units.
  • 13. Data—Designing Your Data Tables • A well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately. Doing Science 2 • Data tables are one way to do this.
  • 14. Analyze Your Data • Your data must be organized to analyze them. Doing Science 2 • Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data. • You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them.
  • 15. Draw Conclusions • After you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion. Doing Science 2 • Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesn’t work. • A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted.
  • 16. Communicating Your Results • Every investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved. Doing Science 2 • Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation. • Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public. • Scientists usually publish their most important findings.
  • 17. Communicating Your Results • You can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class. Doing Science 2 • Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently. • Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research.
  • 18. Experimental Research Design • Another way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation. Doing Science 2 • Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation. • Experimental research design includes several steps.
  • 19. Form a Hypothesis • A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested. Doing Science 2 • You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
  • 20. Variables • In well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time. Doing Science 2 • This means that the variable is controlled. • The variable that is changed is called the independent variable. • A dependant variable is the factor being measured.
  • 21. Variables • To test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic. Doing Science 2 • The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria. • In this experiment, the independent variable is the amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.
  • 22. Variables • The variables that stay the same are called constants. Doing Science 2 • You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics.
  • 23. Identify Controls • Your experiment will not be valid unless a control is used. Doing Science 2 • A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it.
  • 24. Identify Controls Doing Science 2 • In the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic. • The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic.
  • 25. Identify Controls • Once you begin an experiment, make sure to carry it out as planned. Doing Science 2 • Don’t skip or change steps in the middle. • Also, you should record your observations and complete your data tables in a timely manner. • Incomplete observations and reports result in data that are difficult to analyze and threaten the accuracy of your conclusions.
  • 26. Number of Trials • Experiments done the same way do not always have the same results. Doing Science 2 • To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment. • Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment won’t be considered the true result. • The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable.
  • 27. Analyze Your Results • When you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis. Doing Science 2 • If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment. • Experiments that don’t work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information. • Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first.
  • 28. Analyze Your Results • After your results are analyzed, you can communicate them to your teacher and your class. Doing Science 2 • Sharing the results of experiments allows you to hear new ideas from other students that might improve your research. • Your results might contain information that will be helpful to other students.