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Chapter 1 section 2 ppt


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  • Cinda, these next two were supposed to be on one slide, but they obviously didn’t fit. I’m not sure where the picture should go.
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    • 1. Solving Problems—Identify the Problem • Although the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations. • Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem. • Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved. Doing Science 2
    • 2. How can the problem be solved? • Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design. • Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation. • Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps. Doing Science 2
    • 3. How can the problem be solved? • Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems. Doing Science 2
    • 4. Descriptive Research • Some scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research. Doing Science 2 • Descriptive research is based mostly on observations. • Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform. • Descriptive research usually involves the following steps.
    • 5. State the Research Objective • This is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research. Doing Science 2 • A research objective is what you want to find out, or what question you would like to answer.
    • 6. Describe the Research Design • How will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed? Doing Science 2 • An important part of any research design is safety. Click image to view movie. • These are a few of the things scientists think about when they design an investigation using descriptive research.
    • 7. Eliminate Bias • Sometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias. Doing Science 2 • Good investigations avoid bias. • One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data. • Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations. • To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample.
    • 8. Equipment, Materials, and Models • When a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important. Doing Science 2
    • 9. Using Models • One part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models. Doing Science 2 • In science, a model represents things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly. • Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive.
    • 10. Using Models • Dr. John Snow’s map of the cholera epidemic was a model that allowed him to predict possible sources of the epidemic. Doing Science 2 • Many kinds of models are made on computers. • Graphs, tables, and spreadsheets are models that display information.
    • 11. Scientific Methods Doing Science 2 • This allows them to understand each other’s research and compare results. • Scientists around the world use a system of measurements called the International System of Units, or SI, to make observations.
    • 12. Scientific Methods • Because SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do. Doing Science 2 • Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units.
    • 13. Data—Designing Your Data Tables • A well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately. Doing Science 2 • Data tables are one way to do this.
    • 14. Analyze Your Data • Your data must be organized to analyze them. Doing Science 2 • Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data. • You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them.
    • 15. Draw Conclusions • After you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion. Doing Science 2 • Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesn’t work. • A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted.
    • 16. Communicating Your Results • Every investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved. Doing Science 2 • Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation. • Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public. • Scientists usually publish their most important findings.
    • 17. Communicating Your Results • You can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class. Doing Science 2 • Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently. • Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research.
    • 18. Experimental Research Design • Another way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation. Doing Science 2 • Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation. • Experimental research design includes several steps.
    • 19. Form a Hypothesis • A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested. Doing Science 2 • You use your prior knowledge, new information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
    • 20. Variables • In well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time. Doing Science 2 • This means that the variable is controlled. • The variable that is changed is called the independent variable. • A dependant variable is the factor being measured.
    • 21. Variables • To test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic. Doing Science 2 • The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria. • In this experiment, the independent variable is the amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.
    • 22. Variables • The variables that stay the same are called constants. Doing Science 2 • You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics.
    • 23. Identify Controls • Your experiment will not be valid unless a control is used. Doing Science 2 • A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it.
    • 24. Identify Controls Doing Science 2 • In the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic. • The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic.
    • 25. Identify Controls • Once you begin an experiment, make sure to carry it out as planned. Doing Science 2 • Don’t skip or change steps in the middle. • Also, you should record your observations and complete your data tables in a timely manner. • Incomplete observations and reports result in data that are difficult to analyze and threaten the accuracy of your conclusions.
    • 26. Number of Trials • Experiments done the same way do not always have the same results. Doing Science 2 • To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment. • Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment won’t be considered the true result. • The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable.
    • 27. Analyze Your Results • When you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis. Doing Science 2 • If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment. • Experiments that don’t work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information. • Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first.
    • 28. Analyze Your Results • After your results are analyzed, you can communicate them to your teacher and your class. Doing Science 2 • Sharing the results of experiments allows you to hear new ideas from other students that might improve your research. • Your results might contain information that will be helpful to other students.