How to SuccessfullyImplement DoDAF2.0- DoDAF2.0 Overview The First in a Series of Five Featured Whitepapers
Introduction The purpose of this document is to outline the four keyThe DoDAF 2.0, released by the OSD-NII, DoD CIO in May of 2009 presents a pillars towards a successfulsignificant shift in the way in which DoD architectural descriptions are to be built, implementation and utilizationanalyzed and used. The guidance, descriptions, best practices and instructions of DoDAF 2.0.presented in DoDAF 2.0 are based on sound principles –such as data-centricarchitecture, architecture development that is “fit-for-purpose”, models as “templates Four additional whitepapersfor collecting data”, and presentation views vs. architecture models to name a few. provide deeper insight intoHowever, there is a sentiment in the community that, although there is little argument how to get the most out ofover the fundamentals of DoDAF 2.0, the implementation of DoDAF 2.0 in reality has these pillars:been difficult and slow-going at best. Some point to the lack of tools on the marketthat provide “true”, out-of-the-box support for DoDAF 2.0. Others point to the fact that • DM2 Conformancealthough the concepts in DoDAF 2.0 are sound in theory, they are difficult to implement • DoDAF 2.0 Viewpoints &in practice without more tangible, “hands-on” guidance for how to carry out the Modelsdirection provided by DoDAF 2.0. • Fit-For-Purpose Views • DoDAF1.x Conversion toThe purpose of this document is to introduce a DoDAF 2.0 implementation framework DoDAF 2.0that addresses four key areas critical to the successful implementation and effectiveutilization of DoDAF 2.0. They are:• Understanding and Leveraging the DM2• Working with the DoDAF 2.0 Viewpoints and Models• Developing “Fit-for-Purpose” Presentation Views• Converting Data and Models from DoDAF 1.x to DoDAF 2.0This is the first, in a series of whitepapers by Casewise, on how to successfullyimplement DoDAF 2.0. The other whitepapers will focus on each of these four pillars ingreater detail and provide specific guidance in that particular area.The pages ahead lay the groundwork for each of these four pillars and establish the keyconcepts necessary for the successful implementation of DoDAF 2.0.
Understanding and Leveraging the DM2The overarching theme of DoDAF 2.0 is “data-centricity” – in other words, taking adata-centric approach to the development and analysis of architecture. The DoDAF 2.0metamodel (DM2), which establishes the “constrained language” of the DoDAF and theunderlying structure of the data, plays a critical role in understanding and implementingDoDAF 2.0. As we prepare to implement DoDAF 2.0 and, as such, the DM2, we needto understand both the components of the DM2 (i.e., what their purpose is and howthey are intended to be used) and the DM2 data groups, in context (i.e., what theyrepresent, how they are intended to be used, etc.).The DM2 whitepaper addresses the Conceptual and Logical data model and thePhysical Exchange Specification. It will also detail some of the key data groups (akasubject areas) defined in the DM2. DM2 Activity Data Group implemented in Corporate Modeler for DoDAF 2.0 (CMD2) by CasewiseIn addition, the DM2 was built upon a foundational ontology model called theInternational Defense Enterprise Architecture Specification (IDEAS). It is important tounderstand what aspects of that foundation are meaningful to the “typical” DoDAFarchitect, and what value it provides as we develop our architectural descriptions. Weoften refer to the DM2 as “flexible, yet rigorous.” But what does this actually mean? It isimportant to get a deep understanding of this in very real terms, which means reviewingthe use of inheritance throughout the DM2 logical data model and the looking at the“tupletypes” defined in the IDEAS foundation.The DM2 whitepaper covers these topics as well, providing key insights into howto make the DM2 work for you and become a powerful “tool” for describingarchitectural perspectives.
DoDAF 2.0 Viewpoints and ModelsFor years, people have associated the concept of architecture “views” or “products”with DoDAF. Previous versions of DoDAF contained Operational Views, Systems Views,Technical Views and All Views. These views were made up of “products” used todescribe various aspects of a given architectural description.In DoDAF 2.0, the name “view” has been changed to “viewpoint”. More importantly,there are new viewpoints, modified viewpoints and renamed viewpoints. Similarly,“DoDAF products” are now referred to as models, defined as “templates for collectinginformation”. Like the viewpoints, there are new models, modified models andrenamed models. DoDAF 2.0 Viewpoints as implemented in CMD2Probably the most common activity performed by DoDAF Architects is the developmentof architecture models. As such, it is critically important for anyone implementingDoDAF 2.0 to understand the new viewpoints and models, how they are intendedto be used, what data they are intended to collect and describe as well as how theyare interrelated. An important aspect of this is how they correlate to the objects andassociations in the DM2. Every object, line, relationship, etc. captured in a model shouldbe captured in the structure of the DM2.Whitepaper three, in the five-part series, addresses the DoDAF 2.0 viewpoints andmodels. It details what’s new in DoDAF 2.0 as well as what has changed. Additionalinsights are shared into how the models correlate to the DM2 and how the flexibilityof the DM2 allows us to be more creative with the development of our models.This whitepaper defines each of the model categories defined in the DoDAF 2.0and introduces a concept called “DoDAF model patterns” – which can be used tounderstand, interpret and extend the DoDAF model concept.
Fit-For-Purpose Presentation ViewsAnother foundational theme of DoDAF 2.0 is “Fit-for-Purpose”. Part of what this meansis that Architects are instructed to develop architectural descriptions that are “fit” for thepurpose of the architecture, or their customers’ or consumers’ purpose. In other words,rather than blindly following the framework and building DoDAF models because theframework says “thou shalt build an OV-4” (for example), architects should understandthe purpose and scope of any given architecture development effort and build onlythose models necessary to capture the information required to support the purpose ofthe architecture.“Fit-for-Purpose” also refers to the views of information that are to be presented to theinformation consumer (e.g., stakeholders, decision makers, etc.) based on the data inthe architecture repository. These “Presentation Views” have been categorized into fivetypes in the DoDAF 2.0 – Dashboards, Graphical Depictions, Reference Models, FusionProducts, and Hybrid Products. Furthermore, DoDAF 2.0 makes a distinction between“models” and “views”. However, the distinction doesn’t always seem to be clear in theDoDAF documentation and is worthy of interpretation.Our fourth whitepaper of the five-part series on DoDAF 2.0 dives deeper into this notionof “Fit-for-Purpose”. It addresses what this means to the front-end of the architecturedevelopment lifecycle, in terms of building the necessary viewpoints and models, as wellas to the back-end, which focuses more on the creation or generation of presentationviews in accordance with stakeholders needs and requirements. Fit-for-Purpose example of a capability viewpoint model (CV-4)
Conversion from DoDAF 1.x to DoDAF 2.0The final “pillar” in the DoDAF 2.0 implementation Te iew ch es V nic al S rvic tan /Seframework is the ability to transition to DoDAF 2.0 from da ms rds st e Vie Sy w Operational Viewprevious versions of DoDAF – be it DoDAF 1.0 or 1.5. More All View Core Architecture Data Modelspecifically it’s about the ability to convert the data capturedin DoDAF 1.x to DoDAF 2.0, and subsequently the DM2. Thisconversation requires both a conceptual discussion as wellas a mechanical discussion. OV-3 SV-6The conceptual discussion addresses the conversion of CMD2some of the core DoDAF 1.x objects that have either beenchanged, consolidated, distributed or eliminated in the DM2.This list includes, but is not limited to, Node (both operationaland system), Operational Activities and Systems Functions,Information Exchanges and SystemData Exchanges and Services. In each case, there are someunique nuances in the conversion from DoDAF 1.x and DoDAF 2.0 DiagramsDoDAF 2.0. These are addressed in the final whitepaper inthe five-part series on DoDAF 2.0. In addition, this whitepaper touches on the mechanicsof how the Casewise solution, Corporate Modeler for DoDAF 2.0 (CMD2), supports andautomates the conversion from DoDAF 1.x to DoDAF 2.0, regardless of what tool you areusing for your legacy DoDAF architectures.SummaryIn summary, DoDAF 2.0 is an architecture development framework built on a foundationof principles – metamodel rigor, flexibility, data-centricity and “Fit-for-Purpose”. It hasbeen signed into law and is mandated for the future development of DoD architecturaldescriptions.Casewise is committed to those entities working towards successfully implementingDoDAF 2.0. We have gone to great length to bring a full-functioning, true DoDAF 2.0architecture development and analysis tool to the market. The next step is to providethe Community with best practices and guidance on how to implement DoDAF 2.0 andmaximize the benefits of this framework. We believe our five-part whitepaper series willbegin to do that.We hope you enjoy the whitepaper series and we look forward to hearing your thoughts!
About CasewiseEstablished in 1989, Casewise provides software and consulting solutions to over 3,000major global organizations for Business & Enterprise Architecture, Business Process Analysis& Improvement, Business Process Management as well as Governance, Risk & Compliancepurposes.In addition, Casewise’s dedicated North American Government Division focuses on the specificneeds of Defense & Civilian Agencies, State & Local Government and Systems Integrators.Casewise solutions enable organizations to visualize, audit, report, improve and continuallymaximize complex operating processes and technology infrastructures.With a team of passionate experts, and with offices in the United States, United Kingdom,France, Belgium and Germany – and a network of global resellers – Casewise provides thoughtleadership and solutions enabling clients to achieve stronger strategic planning, better decisionmaking and improved business efficiencies. About The Author Chris White, VP of Architecture Strategy and Implementation for Casewise, is a recognized expert and thought leader in the field of enterprise architecture. He has over 20 years of technical sales, implementation and consulting experience, working extensively with Federal Government clients including DoD and Civilian Agencies, as well as Fortune 500 companies. He is a regular speaker in the Federal EA community and highly sought after as a consultant and advisor on EA planning, implementation, and utilization.