Frontiers of Interaction '11 Speech. Florence, Italy

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We are now entering into an era of liquid interfaces, where buttons can be downloaded at will, and software flies through the air. Phones have been untethered from their cords and are free to colonize …

We are now entering into an era of liquid interfaces, where buttons can be downloaded at will, and software flies through the air. Phones have been untethered from their cords and are free to colonize our pockets. They cry, and we must pick them up. They get hungry, and we must plug them in. We increasingly live on interfaces, and it is their quality and design which increases our happiness and our frustration.

We are tool using creatures. Prosthetics touch almost every part of our lives. Until recently, humans have used their hands and bodies to interface with objects. Early interfaces were solid and tactile. Now, the interface can be anywhere. The best interfaces compress the time and space it takes to absorb relevant information, and the worst cause us car accidents, lost revenue, and communication failures.

This speech will discuss how the field of anthropology can be applied to interface design, and how future interfaces, such as the ones employed by augmented reality, will change the way we act, feel and communicate with one another. Topics will include non-places, time and space compression, privacy, user flow, supermodernity, wearable computing, work and play, gaming, history and prosthetic culture.

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  • We’re all growing up connected. Getting used to your second self.
  • More about stevemann
  • But not the cyborgs you think.
  • an organism “to which exogenous componentshave been added for the purpose of adapting to new environments”
  • Our first tools were extensions of the physical self We’ve been cyborgs from the first tools But – they’ve extended physical selves – not the mental selves. Flickr: cybertoad but really we've always been borg from the first toolsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 GenericYou are free:to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the workUnder the following conditions:Attribution — You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). 
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  • And technology extendsthe mental self. But these new tools bring with them very curious things.They cry, and we have to pick them up. We have to replace them.
  • cybog anthropology is looking at the technologized worlds and firuging out what kinds of strange tools they use And cyborg anthropology looks at technologically advanced cultures and examines their tool use and strange customs.
  • Based on this essay, and many other instances of needing a methodology to understand and describe rapidly changing sociocultural systems affected by technology, the idea of a “Cyborg Anthropology” was proposed at the Annual Meetings of the American Anthropological Association (AAA) in 1993.
  • You’re dealing with machines that are larger on the outside than on the inside. But you get an automatic production of space! You can putall sorts of things into computers and devices. Photos, software, writing, ect. It’s like Mary Poppins technology. In reality, if you put a bunch of pictures into a room, that room gets full. When you put information into a hard drive, the hard drive stays the same weight. When you put information onto the Internet, you don’t feel the weight at all. The weight is being stored somewhere else. ‘What does 9 years of data really look like?
  • If you take all of the material out of the average computer and print it out, what do you get?Cutwater agency did this in a campaign for Maxtor hard drives. They took 8 years of digital photos, printed them out, and stuck them together. And this is what it looked like. How do we get all this info! Well, it’s really easy to create.
  • And as we start to use the web for all of our data, we begin to get hyperlinked memories. Instead of real memories, we’re beginning to have hyperlinked memories. Digital Anthropologist Michael Wesch talked about a bunch of kids getting together to hang out. In reality, kids try to one-up each other with the best stories. In this case, they were trying to link each other to the best YouTube videos. Memories had become hyperlinks. When one uploads images online, those images become hyperlinked memories. An address book or online document or E-mail is also a hyperlinked memory. It is an external memory stored outside the self for later access.
  • To get to these hyperlinked memories, we must become increasingly skilled virtual paleontologists. The E-mail inbox is the best example of this. Every day our memories and data is covered by a new layer of dust, spam, and items to be responded to. If we need something from our past, we must dig through the newly accumulated items in order to get it. But instead of using a hammer and a chisel, brush and field notebook, we use keywords and search results, tags and categories.
  • An Extended Nervous Systems leads to the need
  • If you keep a device for too long, it turns against you.
  • In the same way, the modern individual passes through transitory spaces. The only way to reconnect the self to a place is to use a phone or music device. The public space has thus become a private one, where private conversations, texts and music are carried on by individuals as they go from one place to another. An airport gives no one identity, relation or history, but a cell phone or computer does. One can easily connect to virtual reality to escape the blandness of the physical one.
  • It’s not that we’re always connected, but that we have always ability to connect. This is ambient intimacy, where connectivity is only a button away. Where sharing and connecting with another is not defined by geography but technosocial capability.David Weinberger called it “continual partial friendship”, and Johnnie Moore pointed out that, “it’s not about being poked and prodded, it’s about exposing more surface area for others to connect with”.Ambient intimacy. that sharing it's "about exposing MIT’s a higher level of connectivity the collective now. Sheldon Renan calls it “Loosely but deeply entangled”.Whatever you call it, it is a higher order of connectivity than we’ve ever experienced before as humans. We are beginning to see a new sense of time - the collective now.This is a result of ambient intimacy - Lisa Reichelt Ambient Intimacy - the potential to be connected to anybody at any time, no matter where you are in the world i was at a conference at mit and we were discussing whether or not social media drew people away from each other. a man, normally very stoic and professional, suddenly became very passionate. "when i was in japan,' he said, "i got a message that my sister had died". i was in a foreign country where nothing was familiar, and completely unable to go home. i had no one to talk to, no one to hug, and no one to commiserate with. except i had a twitter account. with a bit of hesitation, i decided to post the message online. within seconds there was an outpouring of support and care that transcended the distance between where i physically was and where they were. i suddenly felt hugged and cared for in the middle of an environment i didn't understand. this can be a good thing -- a guy i knew lost his sister, and he was in japan - and he had no one to talk to. then he looked in his pocket and found his phone - it has twitter. he tweeted it. and from all over the world, people hugged him on twitter, and he philologically felt better, even though it was hugs from strangers that barely knew him and had never met him before in real life. in the same time instead of delving in with a friend and to a topic, we have shallow topics we swirl around for a while and then move on
  • Network as villageIt’s like there are all of these people in your pocket all of the time – that at any time you can touch. If you looked at how close they are digitally – they’re this close. You can be in the middle of the desert and they will still be this close. Story about a man in japan who just learned he lost his sister. And everyone giving him a virtual hug Geography has been annihilated. You have wormholes to all of these people right now. Persistence of humans for the first time we have the ability to log our lives but we’re so busy being involved in logging our lives and looking at each other’s life logs that we log what our lives are be instead of what we want them to beIf you get nothing else from this presentation, get the idea of looking at your lives and actively developing and taking care of your second self.
  • In traffic jams, everyone has the same feelings, but they’re not connected. They are separated by exoskeletons. No one can set foot on a highway. They are stuck, but unconnected. In this case, many people use cell phones or music to reconnect themselves to place. This technosocial interaction helps users to transcend the heaviness of a fully rendered physical body. If one’s physical self is stuck in traffic, one’s mental self can travel elsewhere, assisted by technosocial device.
  • Babies born today have a second self, a virtual identity even before they are born (show an image of a baby in the womb on EKG as a Facebook status update).
  • In co-creating your self with a digital device, you develop an identity in relation to others. This identity is either interesting or not interesting. If it is interesting, an ocular convergence, or set of virtual attention can attach itself to a virtual identity. This gives a person a certain amount of gravity with respect to others. One’s status updates must be technosocially attractive to viewers, or else identity loses gravity. Brands, and increasingly individuals, seek to increase gravity. Many of them fail. The ones who succeed become helpful, service-oriented personas, or they become icons of entertainment. Identity Production is the conscious production of identity through action, whether the action is physical, mental, virtual or both. The production of identity in virtual reality can occur on a social network, through text, image or video and can occur in small moments or large ones. Psychologist Sherry Turkle was one of the first to use the phrase “second self” to identify our bodies in virtual space. She considers the computer not as a "tool," but as an extension of the psychological and social self in reality.Cyberspace allows one to sample the self – that is, choose which pieces of the self to present the self with. A person experiences thousands of moments every day. The moments one chooses to report shape one’s identity.second self is beginning to define you more than your dna doesthe borg part - online part defines you as much as your DNA does, and it is increasingly the case. Updating and maintaining the freshness of your online self will become as routine and crucial as maintaining ones hygiene by showering, brushing one"/ hair and wearing clothes that fit well enough as to not be alienated from society i’ve seen people on youtube getting stressed that their profile hasn’t been updated in a fe years, or people writing blog posts explaining why they haven’t posted in a while. there is a guilt for not updating. but new architectrues make it easier to update. (twitter). And the same bullying that was in Analog life carries over into the digital world - what we managed to forget that we went through In middle school is not only present online, but easily accessed. Instead of s transitory nature, one's harsh words hitting and dissipating, there's a whole geology lof the stuff online. One of my habits is to go to support sites for popular websites and see what conflicts have arisen. Foursquare is one of the worst. The support tickets are full of 13 and 14 year old girls desperately trying to get foursquare to ban their classmates, who have left 'tips' all over town that send derogatory messages to any friends who check into a venue (is there enough time to really make a solid point on this? Perhaps there's a faster way to pro be this by just entioninb the mean things people say online, archived by the library of congress. \\i like to look at support tickets of various popular web systems. foursquare has issues now where teenage girls will leave mean tips all over venues, so that  as their enemies can go around town they get taunted by virtual notes. this is one of the most frequent and intense support ticket i see filed. it is not the fault of the technology, but simple human nature. at this age, any medium is used for people to pick on another. it manifests through every medium, but it is strange to see such personal fights show up in a public forum. online self can matter and be larger and more important than your offline self (looking at their picture of a person as they walk up to the actual person) -- mit, second self little digital marker thing that people wear with their facebook profile on it. geography and psychological profiling is annihiliated. no longer matters. so someone who is picked on in real life can have a bevy healthy online life because they are connected to people mentally and with interests …that in a small town they wouldn't be able to find.when you look yourself up online, those are the edges of your digital body.. and you have to extend it or protect it. 36/ now one has to protect portions of the self from seeping out when they’re not there to defend it. a privacy leak in digital life is like having someone break into your hour or spray paint your lawn. people abusing your inbox is like having people put garden gnomes on your front lawn In some cases, posting on one"/ wall is like posting a sign in the front lawn of one's house for everyone to see. In the same way that security and locks on doors are so very important in the real world, they are becoming crucial in the digital world as well. It's becoming important to develop a sort of extended nervous system in order to see where all the bits of the second self are being speared. If one doesn't know here they are, there is no way to react to them. Participating in a free online community or sales site means that your every interaction. comes with ganglia - your profile, who you are and what you've purchased the other important thing about maintaining a second self is that one’s digital self has different looking boundaries that one also has to protect. it’s not just about grooming the digital self by uploading fresh photos and responding to messages, but making sure that information is seen by the correct people and not the wrong ones.Online Self Can becomeMore important Than your Actual selfAnd you have to be concerned with security
  • Where do we our own selves end and our own selves begin? We’re storing ourselves on these devices. How do you present yourself online? In co-creating your self with a digital device, you develop an identity in relation to others. This identity is either interesting or not interesting. If it is interesting, an ocular convergence, or set of virtual attention can attach itself to a virtual identity. This gives a person a certain amount of gravity with respect to others. One’s status updates must be technosocially attractive to viewers, or else identity loses gravity. Brands, and increasingly individuals, seek to increase gravity. Many of them fail. The ones who succeed become helpful, service-oriented personas, or they become icons of entertainment. Identity Production is the conscious production of identity through action, whether the action is physical, mental, virtual or both. The production of identity in virtual reality can occur on a social network, through text, image or video and can occur in small moments or large ones. Psychologist Sherry Turkle was one of the first to use the phrase “second self” to identify our bodies in virtual space. She considers the computer not as a "tool," but as an extension of the psychological and social self in reality.Cyberspace allows one to sample the self – that is, choose which pieces of the self to present the self with. A person experiences thousands of moments every day. The moments one chooses to report shape one’s identity.second self is beginning to define you more than your dna doesthe borg part - online part defines you as much as your DNA does, and it is increasingly the case. Updating and maintaining the freshness of your online self will become as routine and crucial as maintaining ones hygiene by showering, brushing one"/ hair and wearing clothes that fit well enough as to not be alienated from society i’ve seen people on youtube getting stressed that their profile hasn’t been updated in a fe years, or people writing blog posts explaining why they haven’t posted in a while. there is a guilt for not updating. but new architectrues make it easier to update. (twitter). And the same bullying that was in Analog life carries over into the digital world - what we managed to forget that we went through In middle school is not only present online, but easily accessed. Instead of s transitory nature, one's harsh words hitting and dissipating, there's a whole geology lof the stuff online. One of my habits is to go to support sites for popular websites and see what conflicts have arisen. Foursquare is one of the worst. The support tickets are full of 13 and 14 year old girls desperately trying to get foursquare to ban their classmates, who have left 'tips' all over town that send derogatory messages to any friends who check into a venue (is there enough time to really make a solid point on this? Perhaps there's a faster way to pro be this by just entioninb the mean things people say online, archived by the library of congress. \\i like to look at support tickets of various popular web systems. foursquare has issues now where teenage girls will leave mean tips all over venues, so that  as their enemies can go around town they get taunted by virtual notes. this is one of the most frequent and intense support ticket i see filed. it is not the fault of the technology, but simple human nature. at this age, any medium is used for people to pick on another. it manifests through every medium, but it is strange to see such personal fights show up in a public forum. online self can matter and be larger and more important than your offline self (looking at their picture of a person as they walk up to the actual person) -- mit, second self little digital marker thing that people wear with their facebook profile on it. geography and psychological profiling is annihiliated. no longer matters. so someone who is picked on in real life can have a bevy healthy online life because they are connected to people mentally and with interests …that in a small town they wouldn't be able to find.when you look yourself up online, those are the edges of your digital body.. and you have to extend it or protect it. 36/ now one has to protect portions of the self from seeping out when they’re not there to defend it. a privacy leak in digital life is like having someone break into your hour or spray paint your lawn. people abusing your inbox is like having people put garden gnomes on your front lawn In some cases, posting on one"/ wall is like posting a sign in the front lawn of one's house for everyone to see. In the same way that security and locks on doors are so very important in the real world, they are becoming crucial in the digital world as well. It's becoming important to develop a sort of extended nervous system in order to see where all the bits of the second self are being speared. If one doesn't know here they are, there is no way to react to them. Participating in a free online community or sales site means that your every interaction. comes with ganglia - your profile, who you are and what you've purchased the other important thing about maintaining a second self is that one’s digital self has different looking boundaries that one also has to protect. it’s not just about grooming the digital self by uploading fresh photos and responding to messages, but making sure that information is seen by the correct people and not the wrong ones.Online Self Can becomeMore important Than your Actual selfAnd you have to be concerned with security
  • Work is just badly designed game play. –Patrick Meyer In real life, the time and space between goals and accomplishments is often large. For some, it is physically impossible to achieve certain things, like purchasing a Ferrari or rising above middle management in their career path. Online gaming, especially sites like Farmville, step in to take care of that void. Whereas one doesn’t have the money, time or room for a real garden, Farmville gives you one without the backaching labor. All reality is replaced by small icons, and time is compressed so that goals and accomplishments are right next to one another. Everything has a point value and a reward. When real life takes so long to reward someone, online gaming is often a better and more enjoyable alternative. For those who spend a lot of time in reality, Foursquare is a good add-on for making the mundane exciting.
  • Work is just badly designed game play. –Patrick Meyer In real life, the time and space between goals and accomplishments is often large. For some, it is physically impossible to achieve certain things, like purchasing a Ferrari or rising above middle management in their career path. Online gaming, especially sites like Farmville, step in to take care of that void. Whereas one doesn’t have the money, time or room for a real garden, Farmville gives you one without the backaching labor. All reality is replaced by small icons, and time is compressed so that goals and accomplishments are right next to one another. Everything has a point value and a reward. When real life takes so long to reward someone, online gaming is often a better and more enjoyable alternative. For those who spend a lot of time in reality, Foursquare is a good add-on for making the mundane exciting.
  • Work is just badly designed game play. –Patrick Meyer In real life, the time and space between goals and accomplishments is often large. For some, it is physically impossible to achieve certain things, like purchasing a Ferrari or rising above middle management in their career path. Online gaming, especially sites like Farmville, step in to take care of that void. Whereas one doesn’t have the money, time or room for a real garden, Farmville gives you one without the backaching labor. All reality is replaced by small icons, and time is compressed so that goals and accomplishments are right next to one another. Everything has a point value and a reward. When real life takes so long to reward someone, online gaming is often a better and more enjoyable alternative. For those who spend a lot of time in reality, Foursquare is a good add-on for making the mundane exciting.
  • The second self is becoming our primary self. We groom is as if wer were waking up in the morning. We try not to let embarrassing pictures hit the airwaves. Posting on someone’s wall, paying attention.
  • There are benefits and deficits to this. If a link or a plus one on Facebook makes you feel important – As tech pioneer Josh Harris said, “Andy Warhol was wrong. "People won’t want 15 minutes of fame in their lifetimes. People will want 15 minutes of fame every day". It’s what’s needed to feel loved and important. Time and self worth are beginning to be measured in thumbs up and interactions with your virtual self. And the other drawback is that many don’t get the time alone with their minds anymore. There’s a specific process that happens when you get to think alone by yourself. You brain can make connections internally – process things that have gone on. It’s very important time for building a concept of the self. If you don’t allow this time, how can you get to really know yourself. And kids growing up with this technology – this digital closeness may have their selves created for them, instead of creating themselves. Technology is not good or bad. It’s how it’s used. But what it’s doing now is amplifying ourselves and allowing us to meet in new ways. Those who are prone to distraction will have that tendency amplified. And those who are prone to reflection will find ways to leave their computer and find quiet.
  • I gave this talk, and then started building what I was talking about.
  • The point is information should be pushed to you instead of having to seek it out. In order to do this, we need to make our computers and systems more aware of our context so they can work for us. One component of this, and the one we’re focusing on, is location. Imagine if this app knows you haven’t eaten in a while, so it suggests some places you might like to eat that are nearby.
  • You don’t have to query. Information is pushed to you. The Interface is Reduced Actions are ReducedQueries are Eliminated
  • Children will enter into a hyperconnected world where they will begin to program it. They will use systems as playgrounds Allow them opportunities for playAnd they will create very intelligent things.

Transcript

  • 1. CyborgAnthropologyand theEvaporationof theInterface
    Amber Case
    @caseorganic
    case@caseorganic.com
  • 2. we are all
    cyborgs
  • 3.
  • 4. cyborg:
    an organism “to which exogenous components have been added for the purpose of
    adapting to new ambient spaces”
  • 5. Flickr: cybertoad
  • 6. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/119/293670483_cbce23bdde_b.jpg
    Flickr: soylentgreen23
  • 7. “soon, perhaps, it will be impossible to tell where humans end andmachines begin”
    - maureenmchugh
  • 8. traditionalanthropology
  • 9. Flickr: futurestreet
    cyborganthropology
  • 10. macy meetings - anthropologists and scientists discussing humans and technology in 1941.
  • 11. cyborg anthropology launched as a
    sub-discipline of anthropology at AAA
    in 1992
  • 12. Flickr: soylentgreen23
    I. Present Day
  • 13. the
    automatic
    production
    ofspace
  • 14.
  • 15. Hyperlinked
    Memories
  • 16. Persistent
    Paleontology
  • 17. Panic
    architecture
  • 18. Prosthetics
    and their
    discontents
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. ambientintimacy
    LeisaReichelt
  • 23. Flickr: piet_musterd
  • 24.
  • 25. III. Becoming a Cyborg
  • 26. Infants have a second self before they are even born.
  • 27. this is your
    second self
  • 28. presentation
    of self in
    digital life
  • 29. Reality isn’t always fun
  • 30. Reality isn’t always fast
  • 31. Reality is +5 points!
  • 32. Reality is 5 stars!
  • 33. Accelerated Rewards
  • 34. Database
    Games
  • 35. Spreadsheets have never been so exciting!
    Level Ups
    +1 Friend
    +1 Follower
  • 36. Social
    grooming
  • 37. +1
    psychological
    effects
  • 38. IV. The Future
  • 39.
    • Invisible interfaces
    • 40. Trigger-based interactions
    • 41. Actions as buttons
    • 42. Calm technology
  • Information should be pushed to you
    A robot working for you behind the scenes.
    The more it knows about you the more it can do for you.
  • 43. Ambient user input
    User’s location
    Time of day
    Current speed (slow or fast?)
    Average speed over time (driving vs. walking)
    Prior actions (clicks, subscriptions
    User’s friends on another platform
  • 44. Proximal Notification
  • 45. Geonotes
    Location-Based Reminders
  • 46. your phone will become a remote control for reality.
  • 47. Home Automation
    When you check in to your house, your lights turn on!
    When you leave the house, your lights turn off!
  • 48. The best technologyis invisibleIt should get out of the way and connect people.
  • 49. Thank you.
    Amber Case
    Twitter: @caseorganic
    case@caseorganic.com