Supporting children in inclusive settings

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  • Supporting children in inclusive settings

    1. 1. Supporting Young Children with Special Needs in Inclusive Environments EDSP 517 Advanced Issues in ECSE Fall 2009 M. Diane Klein, PhD.CCC-SLP California State University Los Angeles .
    2. 2. Project Support
    3. 3. Project Support
    4. 4. Project Support
    5. 5. Project Support A Quick Overview of Project Support
    6. 6. Project Support Assumptions: Child needs some level of support Supports must be coordinated ECSE well-suited to role of inclusion support specialist (with additional training in collaboration and conflict resolution)
    7. 7. Inclusion Support SpecialistSkills
    8. 8. Inclusion Support SpecialistSkills Foundation in early childhood education
    9. 9. Inclusion Support SpecialistSkills Foundation in early childhood education ECSE skills
    10. 10. Inclusion Support SpecialistSkills Foundation in early childhood education ECSE skills Strategies for including children in typical settings
    11. 11. Inclusion Support SpecialistSkills Foundation in early childhood education ECSE skills Strategies for including children in typical settings Ability to access disability-specific resources
    12. 12. Inclusion Support SpecialistSkills Foundation in early childhood education ECSE skills Strategies for including children in typical settings Ability to access disability-specific resources Collaboration and team building
    13. 13. Inclusion Support SpecialistSkills Foundation in early childhood education ECSE skills Strategies for including children in typical settings Ability to access disability-specific resources Collaboration and team building Problem solving and conflict resolution
    14. 14. Issues in ECSE Inclusion
    15. 15. Issues in ECSE Inclusion Bricker (2000) TECSE  Parents’ dilemma: inclusion or support  Need for adequate supports  Need for trained staff:  Re: disabilities  Collaboration skills  Positive attitudes not enough
    16. 16. Issues (Cont’d)
    17. 17. Issues (Cont’d) Guralnick (2000), JEI  Need for placement guidelines (e.g. child characteristics matched to setting)  Evaluation of feasibility  Personnel preparations  ECE re: disabilities  ECSE re: consultation/collaboration
    18. 18. Issues (cont’d)
    19. 19. Issues (cont’d) Hanson (2001) Exceptional Children  (Elementary school follow-up of parent perspectives)  Administrative infrastructure  Specialized supports  Personnel preparation
    20. 20. Sindelar et al. (2006)(Exceptional Children 72 (3)) U. of Florida case study of sustainability of inclusive reform in one previously very successful middle school Inclusion was not sustained due to:  Pressure from high-stakes assessment policy  Leadership change  Teacher turnover
    21. 21. Williamson, et al. (2006)(Exceptional Children. 72(3) Examined national inclusion trends for K-12 students with MR during decade from 1990-2000. Results:  Overall, increase in at least partial day placement in Gen Ed (in early part of decade) from27% to 44%. But plateau in last 3 years  High variability from state to state Recommendations:  Research on placement policy outcomes and effectiveness
    22. 22. Dinnebeil et al.(2006)(TECSE, 26(3) Investigated perceptions of ECE teachers, parents, ECSE itinerants, and supervisors re: roles and responsibilities of ECSE itinerants Findings:“Lack of understanding of the nature of the intervention itself or the roles of the persons who are delivering the interventions”(p.165)
    23. 23. Etscheidt (2006)(TECSE, 26(3)) Investigated legal decisions re: inclusion in natural environments/ LRE. Arguments based upon:  Potential benefits (academic /nonacademic) and child’s “readiness” (e.g. significant developmental delay; severely disruptive behavior. Note: IDEIA requires positive behavioral supports)  Availability of an appropriate instructional approach (e.g. discrete trial; AVT)  Continuum of options
    24. 24. (Etscheidt cont’d) Findings & Recommendations  Court seems to find in favor of classrooms offering both specialized services and interactions with typical peers  In 7 autism cases requesting specialized DTT settings, only 2 were supported.  Court gives significant weight to IEP team, ruling against administrative override  Court insists on continuum of options, supporting solutions within the community (including private preschools) and customized solutions
    25. 25. NOTE RE: IDEA and LREReauthorization of IDEA requires that the general ed classroom (with appropriate individualized supports and modifications) is the presumed placement. Placement in settings other than the general education classroom requires clear justification in the IEP.
    26. 26. Unique Challenges in ECSEInclusion Support
    27. 27. Unique Challenges in ECSEInclusion Support Lack of parity between ECE and ECSE staff:  Training  Income
    28. 28. Unique Challenges in ECSEInclusion Support Lack of parity between ECE and ECSE staff:  Training  Income Resource and time constraints in ECE setting
    29. 29. Unique Challenges in ECSEInclusion Support Lack of parity between ECE and ECSE staff:  Training  Income Resource and time constraints in ECE setting Information and attitudes toward disabilities
    30. 30. Unique Challenges (cont’d)
    31. 31. Unique Challenges (cont’d) Lack of availability of quality placements
    32. 32. Unique Challenges (cont’d) Lack of availability of quality placements Greater need for involvement of families
    33. 33. Unique Challenges (cont’d) Lack of availability of quality placements Greater need for involvement of families Need to balance expert and collaborator relationships
    34. 34. Unique Challenges (cont’d) Lack of availability of quality placements Greater need for involvement of families Need to balance expert and collaborator relationships No clear definition of “support” or role of support provider
    35. 35. Unique Challenges (cont’d) Lack of availability of quality placements Greater need for involvement of families Need to balance expert and collaborator relationships No clear definition of “support” or role of support provider Need to clarify “level” of inclusion
    36. 36. Levels of Inclusion
    37. 37. Levels of Inclusion Access
    38. 38. Levels of Inclusion Access
    39. 39. Levels of Inclusion Access Social participation
    40. 40. Levels of Inclusion Access Social participation
    41. 41. Levels of Inclusion Access Social participation IFSP outcome / IEP goal achievement
    42. 42. Expectations Related to Access
    43. 43. Expectations Related to Access What do people expect child to learn in inclusive setting?
    44. 44. Expectations Related to Access What do people expect child to learn in inclusive setting?
    45. 45. Expectations Related to Access What do people expect child to learn in inclusive setting? Who will meet those expectations?
    46. 46. Expectations Related to Access What do people expect child to learn in inclusive setting? Who will meet those expectations?
    47. 47. Expectations Related to Access What do people expect child to learn in inclusive setting? Who will meet those expectations? Defining the role of the inclusion specialist.
    48. 48. Models of Inclusion Support
    49. 49. Models of Inclusion Support “Dump and hope”
    50. 50. Models of Inclusion Support “Dump and hope” Inservice training  e.g., for child development staff
    51. 51. Models of Inclusion Support “Dump and hope” Inservice training  e.g., for child development staff Use of related service providers  Multidisciplinary model
    52. 52. Models (cont’d)
    53. 53. Models (cont’d) Co-teaching
    54. 54. Models (cont’d) Co-teaching Itinerant  Direct Service (e.g. pull-out)  Consultant: Expert / Collaborative
    55. 55. Models (cont’d) Co-teaching Itinerant  Direct Service (e.g. pull-out)  Consultant: Expert / Collaborative Use of one-to-one aide
    56. 56. Co-teaching Approach
    57. 57. Co-teaching Approach Definition:
    58. 58. Co-teaching Approach Definition:
    59. 59. Co-teaching Approach Definition:ECE teacher and ECSE teacher share teaching responsibilities
    60. 60. Coteaching: Planning
    61. 61. Coteaching: Planning
    62. 62. Coteaching: Planning Involving administrators
    63. 63. Coteaching: Planning Involving administrators Planning weekly and daily schedules
    64. 64. Coteaching: Planning Involving administrators Planning weekly and daily schedules Use of specific assignments to focus on child needs
    65. 65. Co-teaching: Structures
    66. 66. Co-teaching: Structures EXAMPLES:
    67. 67. Co-teaching: Structures EXAMPLES: One teaching/one assisting
    68. 68. Co-teaching: Structures EXAMPLES: One teaching/one assisting Pre-teaching
    69. 69. Co-teaching: Structures EXAMPLES: One teaching/one assisting Pre-teaching Complementary teaching
    70. 70. Co-teaching: Structures EXAMPLES: One teaching/one assisting Pre-teaching Complementary teaching Station teaching
    71. 71.  Roles of specialized consultants
    72. 72.  Roles of specialized consultants
    73. 73.  Roles of specialized consultants Behavior challenges
    74. 74. Video #1
    75. 75. Video #1 Early Childhood Inclusion Support: Co-teaching Strategies
    76. 76. Itinerant ConsultationApproach
    77. 77. Itinerant ConsultationApproach Definition:
    78. 78. Itinerant ConsultationApproach Definition:Inclusion support provider visits site on a regular basis (e.g. weekly)
    79. 79. Itinerant Consultation
    80. 80. Itinerant Consultation Building collaborative relationships  Communicating with team members  Coordinating services
    81. 81. Itinerant Consultation Building collaborative relationships  Communicating with team members  Coordinating services Involving parents
    82. 82. Use of One-to-one Assistants
    83. 83. Use of One-to-one Assistants Training and background
    84. 84. Use of One-to-one Assistants Training and background Teacher expectations
    85. 85. Use of One-to-one Assistants Training and background Teacher expectations Need to clarify role
    86. 86. Use of One-to-one Assistants Training and background Teacher expectations Need to clarify role 1:1 assistant as “most restrictive environment!”
    87. 87. Use of One-to-one Assistants Training and background Teacher expectations Need to clarify role 1:1 assistant as “most restrictive environment!” Supervision issues
    88. 88. Itinerant Consultation: SpecificSupport Strategies
    89. 89. Itinerant Consultation: SpecificSupport Strategies Observation; assessment
    90. 90. Itinerant Consultation: SpecificSupport Strategies Observation; assessment Modeling/demonstrating for staff
    91. 91. Itinerant Consultation: SpecificSupport Strategies Observation; assessment Modeling/demonstrating for staff Direct intervention
    92. 92. Itinerant Consultation: SpecificSupport Strategies Observation; assessment Modeling/demonstrating for staff Direct intervention Coaching staff
    93. 93. Itinerant Consultation: SpecificSupport Strategies Observation; assessment Modeling/demonstrating for staff Direct intervention Coaching staff Coaching child peers
    94. 94. Itinerant Strategies (cont’d)
    95. 95. Itinerant Strategies (cont’d) Adapting:  materials  environment  curriculum
    96. 96. Itinerant Strategies (cont’d) Adapting:  materials  environment  curriculum
    97. 97. Itinerant Strategies (cont’d) Adapting:  materials  environment  curriculum Assisting in the classroom
    98. 98. Video #2
    99. 99. Video #2 Early Childhood Inclusion Support: Itinerant Consultation
    100. 100. Examples of ProgramConfigurations Hybrid program  Blended program in a.m. – 4-6 students with more severe disabilities  Itinerant consult in p.m.– 6-8 students with less intensive needs in 3-4 preschools Blended program  50% children w/disabilities – 10 students  50% typical children – 10 students  Dual enrollment
    101. 101.  Emergency only (on-call) “Floating assistants” =additional classroom assistants (not 1-1
    102. 102. Program configurations(cont’d) Itinerant program  Up to 25 children @ 5 - 9 sites Using assistant teachers/ paraprofessionals  Determining need of individual students  Assigning assistants  Scheduling nightmares!
    103. 103. Collaboration
    104. 104. Collaboration Definition - Direct interaction between coequal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making…toward a common goal (Friend & Cook, 2003)
    105. 105. Collaboration Definition - Direct interaction between coequal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making…toward a common goal (Friend & Cook, 2003) Requires:  Effective communication  Problem solving process  Conflict resolution
    106. 106. Collaboration Challenges inEarly Childhood Inclusion
    107. 107. Collaboration Challenges inEarly Childhood Inclusion Lack of time to communicate
    108. 108. Collaboration Challenges inEarly Childhood Inclusion Lack of time to communicate
    109. 109. Collaboration Challenges inEarly Childhood Inclusion Lack of time to communicate Lack of parity
    110. 110. Collaboration Challenges inEarly Childhood Inclusion Lack of time to communicate Lack of parity
    111. 111. Collaboration Challenges inEarly Childhood Inclusion Lack of time to communicate Lack of parity Different goals; philosophies
    112. 112. Personality Issues What type of personalities work best collaboratively? Your Unique Personality (activity)
    113. 113. Collaboration, ConflictResolution & Problem Solving Challenges of collaboration in early childhood inclusion Understanding different perspectives and sources of resistance Use of effective communication Problem solving strategies
    114. 114. Effective Communication
    115. 115. Effective Communication Body language
    116. 116. Effective Communication Body language Listening
    117. 117. Effective Communication Body language Listening Encouraging everyone’s view as standard operating procedure
    118. 118. Effective Communication Body language Listening Encouraging everyone’s view as standard operating procedure “I” messages
    119. 119. Effective Communication Body language Listening Encouraging everyone’s view as standard operating procedure “I” messages Clarifying perspectives; identifying sources of resistance
    120. 120. Problem Solving Process
    121. 121. Problem Solving Process 1. Preparation
    122. 122. Problem Solving Process 1. Preparation 2. Entry
    123. 123. Problem Solving Process 1. Preparation 2. Entry 3. Problem definition
    124. 124. Problem Solving Process 1. Preparation 2. Entry 3. Problem definition 4. Brainstorm solutions
    125. 125. Problem Solving Process 1. Preparation 2. Entry 3. Problem definition 4. Brainstorm solutions 5. Action plan
    126. 126. Problem Solving Process 1. Preparation 2. Entry 3. Problem definition 4. Brainstorm solutions 5. Action plan 6. Follow-up
    127. 127. Problem Solving Process 1. Preparation 2. Entry 3. Problem definition 4. Brainstorm solutions 5. Action plan 6. Follow-up 7. Recycle steps if necessary
    128. 128. Resolving Conflicts
    129. 129. Resolving Conflicts Conflict avoidance is not a solution (e.g. withdrawal, giving in, compromise)
    130. 130. Resolving Conflicts Conflict avoidance is not a solution (e.g. withdrawal, giving in, compromise) Pause and take a breath
    131. 131. Resolving Conflicts Conflict avoidance is not a solution (e.g. withdrawal, giving in, compromise) Pause and take a breath Try to state issues in a neutral way
    132. 132. Resolving Conflicts Conflict avoidance is not a solution (e.g. withdrawal, giving in, compromise) Pause and take a breath Try to state issues in a neutral way Be aware of and express your own view honestly
    133. 133. Resolving Conflicts Conflict avoidance is not a solution (e.g. withdrawal, giving in, compromise) Pause and take a breath Try to state issues in a neutral way Be aware of and express your own view honestly Use problem-solving process
    134. 134. Resolving Conflicts Conflict avoidance is not a solution (e.g. withdrawal, giving in, compromise) Pause and take a breath Try to state issues in a neutral way Be aware of and express your own view honestly Use problem-solving process Focus on needs (child’s, teacher’s, or parent’s) rather than rushing to solutions
    135. 135. Conflict Resolution
    136. 136. Conflict Resolution
    137. 137. Conflict Resolution
    138. 138. Conflict Resolution
    139. 139. Conflict Resolution
    140. 140. Conflict Resolution Different perspectives bring conflict. The goal is not to avoid conflict but to resolve it effectively.”
    141. 141. Video #3
    142. 142. Video #3 Early Childhood Inclusion Support: Collaboration, Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution
    143. 143. Inclusion can work. . .
    144. 144. Inclusion can work. . .But it is work! And it’s worth it!

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