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The Evolution of Internet of Things

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Internet of Things, is a new revolution of the Internet. Objects make themselves recognizable and they get intelligence thanks to the fact that they can communicate information about themselves and …

Internet of Things, is a new revolution of the Internet. Objects make themselves recognizable and they get intelligence thanks to the fact that they can communicate information about themselves and they can access information that has been aggregated by other things. Alarm clocks go off early if there’s traffic; plants communicate to the sprinkler system when it’s time for them to be watered; running shoes communicate time, speed and distance so that their wearers can compete in real time with people on the other side of the world; medicine containers tell your family members if you forget to take the medicine. All objects can get an active role thanks to their connection to the Internet.

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  • 1. The Evolution of Internet of Things February 2011 | Casaleggio Associati 74Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I - è vietata lariproduzione
  • 2. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 Table of contents Introduction The evolution of the Internet The evolution of the Internet of things The world is the Index Take the world on line Take control of the world Let things talk to each other Let things become intelligent Energy and connectivity Where it works Casaleggio Associati 2Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 3. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 Introduction Internet of Things, is a new revolution of the Internet. Objects make themselves recognizable and they get intelligence thanks to the fact that they can communicate information about themselves and they can access information that has been aggregated by other things. Alarm clocks go off early if there’s traffic; plants communicate to the sprinkler system when it’s time for them to be watered; running shoes communicate time, speed and distance so that their wearers can compete in real time with people on the other side of the world; medicine containers tell your family members if you forget to take the medicine. All objects can get an active role thanks to their connection to the Internet. The design of objects connected to the Internet is by now across the board in all sectors, and especially in the media. Estimates suggest that in 5 to 10 years there will be 100 billion devices connected to the Internet.1 Two orders of magnitude greater than the 1.5 billion PCs and the billion mobile phones that can be connected to the Internet that are today present in the world. All the same, it’ll be the simplest objects that will dominate the scene. By the end of 2012, for example, physical sensors will generate 20% of non-video Internet traffic.2 1 Source: Michael Nelson, IBM IT director 3 2 Source: Gartner Group, 2010Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 4. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 From Internet of people to Internet of things Communication between computers started with the EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) that made possible direct dialogue between two PCs. With the Internet, all the computers connected to the Internet can talk to each other and with the connection of mobile phones, the connection has become mobile. The evolution that we have been witnessing in the last few months is an extension of this Internet to all the things that surround us. Up until now the Internet has been the first place for uniting people by means of different types of social media (Email, Blog, Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, …), now it is being transformed into the tool that will allow all objects to interact and in certain cases to gain access to the collective knowledge that they will generate. With social media, we have improved our possibilities for relating to each other beyond the limits of direct physical relations, so for example, we can go beyond the anthropological limit of 150 people 3 with whom we can keep in direct contact. The Internet of Things will make it possible for objects to get information about their position in the world, to interact with other objects and to have access to comparative information for data gathered in their vicinity. The evolution from Internet of People to Internet of Things Fonte: Casaleggio Associati, 2011 4 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbars_numberProprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 5. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 The Evolution of The Internet of Things The Internet of Things is a gradual revolution that will lead to all the objects surrounding us being connected to the Internet in some way. On the other hand it’ll happen that all content starting with music going right up to film will migrate towards digital media. For this reason, the physical devices holding content will have less and less significance. Music will be listened to in MP3 format, books will be listened to as audio-books or read on devices for e-books, and newspapers will be read from PCs or tablets. But even the objects that access content are multiplying. For example, PlingPlong4 PlingPlong is a cushion that reads books that are brought close to it. Nabaztag5, is a ‘rabbit’ connected to the Internet and it reads newspapers, emails, weather forecasts, messages and even audio- books downloaded from the Internet. The rabbit has recently also had an evolution with Tux Droid6 that in the ‘penguin’ version makes it possible to be programmed directly with open software. Digital content will be ever more accessible with the evolution of Internet readers that make it possible to exploit content in all occasions of use for which today we use physical data storage devices. For example Chumby7, a viewer connected via wifi, and the iPad8 let you quickly get access to online content without needing to turn on your PC. The evolution that is partially happening right now is in the transformation to digital of the information needed to reproduce objects with 3D9 printers, or ‘making machines’ that make it possible to reproduce physical objects in your own home. As regards software services, we are seeing the evolution of platforms for accessing content directly online. For example, TV series in the United States can be viewed directly on the Hulu10 site that has free online broadcasting of TV serials with breaks for advertising. Films can 4 http://welovetechnology.wordpress.com/2009/03/26/540/ 5 http://www.nabaztag.com/it/index.html 6 http://wiki.tuxisalive.com/index.php/Main_Page 7 http://www.chumby.com/pages/learn_overview 8 http://www.apple.com/it/ipad/ 9 http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/top_10_youtube_videos_about_printing_3d_objects.php?utm_source=feedburner& utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+readwriteweb+(ReadWriteWeb) 5 10 http://www.hulu.comProprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 6. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 be viewed on su Netflix11, a site where you can view if you take out a monthly subscription and online versions of radio can be listened to all over the world or created on demand with services like Jango12. 11 http://www.netflix.com 12 http://www.jango.com 6Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 7. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011  The world is the index13 The world is the index that we will use to classify and identify the things that surround us. For example, the photos that we take have ever more frequently the location of the photographer and the photos can be organised according to location using Google Earth14. Wikitude15 provides information on monuments, commercial activities and other objects that are in our surroundings at a particular time. The indicator of time connected to that of location can be used to classify all sorts of material and any object. For this reason, all our actions will always be connected to these characteristics and they will connect objects to each other simply because they are or were in the same place at a certain moment in time. The most interesting sphere that emerges from this way of thinking is future time. It’s not by chance that the Smartphone applications that are used the most are those connected to forecasting the future in a certain place, like weather forecasts, traffic news and the location of traffic cameras, etc. 13 Ringrazio Kevin Kelly (kk.org) per questa intuizione e definizione. 14 http://earth.google.com 7 15 http://www.wikitude.org/Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 8. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011  Take the world on line The things that are surrounding us can have an information shadow on the Internet. Monuments, museums and works of art already have a lot of information available about them online. And this is even more so for objects produced in series like books and in a future that is not so far off, this will also be true for people. The RFID16 tags, devices that contain chips that can be read by nearby sensors, are becoming ever more popular and are also being used for the chronometry of athletes in almost all the most popular running races. The RFID tags can also be purchased for private use, for example the Championchip17 can be worn when running in different parks around the world 18 (for example Regents Park in London) so as to be timed with a chronometer and to see your own time shown on the big screens or online. Domestic animals can wear RFID19 collars that are recognised by doors that can open to let them enter. Furthermore, it’s possible to have codes applied to objects that are all around us so that they can be recognised automatically. For example, Stickybits 20 can issue bar codes to be stuck on objects and you can be warned if they are scanned. An evolution of this system is Mir:row21, an RFID reader connected to your PC that carries out actions according to the tags that are brought close to it, connected for example to your child’s house keys so when they are recognised, a message is sent to the parents to say that the child has arrived home. If a book is brought close, then this can start a process to read the book in audio reading. The RFID tags are also used to identify people. For example, electronic passports contain one and at passport control they can be read even from a distance. ‘It’s alive inside’ is a project by Guinness to follow a rugby game by the use of RFID tags inserted into the ball and on the players22. All the movements on the field are followed in a detailed way by a computer that can check the speed of the sprinting, the details of the ball passing 16 it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Frequency_IDentification 17 www.championchip.it/pubblico/timePoint.do 18 www.mychampionchip.com/sportsareas.jsf 19 http://www.dogdoors.com/productView.php?id=28 20 stickybits.com/ 21 www.violet.net/_mirror-give-powers-to-your-objects.html 8 22 www.youtube.com/watch?v=9NNL0aHF-Y8Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 9. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 and all the information that is difficult to see just with your eyes. The technology to track objects has evolved even further with mobile phones that can pick up information and can be picked up from a short distance. For example, the Nokia 6212, has a system called Near Field Communication (NFC) that can be used to make payments (rather than using “A year from now, basically every new phone a credit card). It sold will have [near field communication]. can be used to Its a two-way, bi-directional RFID gain access to a communication link that makes this device work as a tag or reader.” trade fair or as a substitute for a Håkan Djuphamma, Ericssons vice-president ticket that can of systems architecture, 06/2009 be sent to a telephone that transmits the code to the sensors nearby23. An add-on called iCarte24, has been created for the iPhone and it enables the phone to use NFC functions. The RFID readers in the shops and in the trade fairs make a unique online identification of the mobile phone and the owner can associate it with a credit card or an entrance ticket. The evolution of object recognition is already happening and it means that it is not necessary to depend on codes or labels, but simply the direct identification of the objects around us. For example, with Google Shopper25, a book can be identified directly by its cover and not just by its bar code. With programs like SoundHound26 and Shazam27 it’s possible to recognise music while it is being broadcast. With Picasa28 è , it is possible to recognise people’s faces, in the future and in real time. It’s probable that technologies will evolve to be able to recognise all the unique objects existing on the earth, to identify those products that are part of a series by their position if that’s fixed (like a lamp post) or from a code that can be picked up at a distance if the objects can be moved. Some objects are already tracked continually around our cities. In certain cases this sort of information is indirectly available to the end user, like the distance of the nearest available taxi if we call a taxi hotline. In other cases, the information can be freely used, as in the case of tracking public transport. For the city of Boston, an iPhone app called Catchthebusapp29, lets you know the location of the public transport vehicles around the city and the exact time that they will come by your stop. Trenitalia offers a service that tells you if the train is late. In certain cases, even animals are tracked using RFID, like for example in Japan and Australia30, where the cows are tagged at birth to guarantee their provenance. 23 Altri telefoni compatibili: Nokia 6131 NFC, BenQ T80, Motorola L7 (SLVR) NFC, Samsung SGH-D500E NFC, Samsung SGH-X700n (brick) NFC, Sagem-Orga my700X NFC, Nokia 3220 + NFC Shell e dei modelli Kyocera. Ci si aspetta che i modelli aumentaranno dato che l’associazione GSMA degli operatori mobile hanno finalizzato lo standard. 24 http://www.icarte.ca/docs/SW09-00XX-DS%20-%20iCarte.pdf 25 www.google.com/mobile/shopper/ 26 www.soundhound.com/ 27 www.shazam.com/ 28 http://picasa.google.com/ 29 http://catchthebusapp.com/ 9 30 http://www.idtechex.com/research/articles/rfid_tagging_of_cattle_by_law_in_australia_00000201.aspProprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 10. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011  Take control of the world The world around us can talk to us and tell us its needs. This is why the objects that have already been monitored at a local level are now communicating information via Internet so as to optimise use, as for example the electricity or gas meters or closed circuit TV cameras. Homecamera31 makes it possible to remotely manage webcams connected to a computer. Google lets you use a remote printer via the service called Cloud Print32 and very probably this is just the first of this type of service to be made available via its browser/operating system called Chrome. At the same time, even objects that were not monitored at one time can today supply data that can be monitored and compared over time. Withings33 is a wifi weighing machine that keeps track of your weight each time you use it. To monitor any object connected to the Internet there’s a platform called Pachube34 that makes it possible for sensors connected to the Internet to send data about themselves and make them viewable in different ways that can be over time and according to place, but above all to trigger actions when certain values are reached (for example, to open a window when a certain temperature is reached). 31 http://www.homecamera.com 32 http://www.google.com/support/cloudprint/?hl=en 33 http://www.withings.com/it/index/?taranim=1 10 34 http://www.pachube.comProprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 11. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011  Let the things talk to each other Objects can interact with each other to exchange and integrate data, to trigger actions and to integrate how they work together. On the basis of this concept, different intercommunication languages have been developed. These are often referred to as M2M35, anguages. Anyway, the most efficient language is still XML that is used to exchange data directly via the Internet. Goodnightlamp36 s a set of lamps (still not yet on the market) with an on/off switch that works via the Internet. The bulbs switch on and off together with their ‘twins’ around the world, and the people that know each other who live apart, can see when the other one goes on (for example our relative has come home) or when they turn off. Even plants can signal their needs. In fact, with Botanicalls37, plants can communicate on Twitter when they need watering and the communication can go to a sprinkler system connected to the Internet. The concept of getting all the objects in a house38 to talk to each other is by now the goal of many companies and in particular IBM. Objects can communicate with each other even at a local level and then they can send the information gathered online. For example, Nike+39 inserts accelerometers inside shoes so as to give information about the rhythm of the running with the distance travelled and the time taken. Still at a local level, Poken40 can communicate. They are digital business cards that can swap data and then download the data to your computer. 35 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_to_Machine 36 http://www.goodnightlamp.com/ 37 http://www.botanicalls.com/ 38 http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/technology/2009/06/things_that_tweet.html 39 http://inside.nike.com/blogs/nikerunning_news-it_IT/2009/08/07/nike-sul-nuovo-iphone-3gs http://nikerunning.nike.com/nikeos/p/nikeplus/it_IT/plus/#//dashboard/ 11 40 http://www.poken.com/Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 12. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011  Let things become intelligent Objects that interact with the Internet can create value that interlinks them. Object Generated Content (OGC), that is the creation of knowledge and aggregated value by individual objects, will be of certain orders of magnitude greater than any value that can be created directly by people. The intelligence of OGC and its value are sited in its planning. Up until now, the systems for having information shared are limited to the use of sensors (for example: responding to temperature or pollution) or to counters that can identify the best moments or the places for getting energy. Furthermore there are some examples of interaction of objects that we have in the home with information that is already on the Internet. For example, WineM41 is a storage system that allows you to put away bottles of wine, to know where they are and to identify them by illuminating the bottle that is being searched for. The system is connected to the Internet and can thus illuminate those bottles recommended by a certain chef, to experience with a particular dish, or those with a certain market value (reckoned in real time via Winebid42). The aggregation of information in real time can also be shared with all those supplying information. Nike has created Nike Human Race43 u a worldwide race that everyone can take part in by making use of a Nike+ sensor in your shoes no matter where in the world you are. The only constant for all participants is the distance. The intelligence of things can be developed by a number of objects in the same location. For example, GlowCap44 provides intelligence to medicine bottles. They use light or sound signals or a telephone call to remind you when they have to be taken and they send your doctor or your family a monthly report on what medicine has been taken. The evolution of OGC will be in the direction of sharing and the automatic use of the information that they can provide. ‘Nike Human Race’ is an example but ‘GlowCap’ and ‘WineM’ could also in the future give aggregated information on the time slots that are the most difficult to remember to take pills or which wines are normally kept together in the same wine cellar. 41 http://thingm.com/sketches/winem.html 42 http://www.winebid.com/ 43 http://www.runtex.com/web/2-2089.asp 12 44 http://www.vitality.net/glowcaps.htmlProprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 13. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 Energy versus Connectivity Two factors are needed for objects to be connected together: energy and connectivity. The more energy and connectivity that is needed to connect things, the fewer the objects that can be connected on the Internet. The technologies and examples can thus be classed according to their potential for being widely distributed. ENERGY CONNECTIVITY Absent On place or recharchable Always plugged in Internet (2 way) Intelligent meters Remote access to the Net Internet (1 way) RFID Internet Tags RFID with sensors e-book readers Adjacent connectivity RFID NFC Without connection Codes on objects 13Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 14. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 Applications Possible applications are likely to be in those places where there is connectivity and energy such as in the office and at home. Today, applications are developing mostly in relation to the mobile phone thanks to its widespread use and its capacity to maintain energy and connectivity wherever it is. Energy vs. Connectivity. Where internet things will be. 14Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 15. Focus – Internet of Things – February 2011 Casaleggio Associati Consultancy on Internet strategy and research on the digital economy. For every organisation, the Internet makes it necessary to have a long term strategy with the definition of priorities, feasibility, realisation and evaluation of the return on investment. An Internet strategy is based on a whole vision in which models of business, communication and web marketing are evaluated all together. For the development of companies on the Internet, you need a detailed knowledge of the evolution that is happening, at both national and international levels, in different environments. Casaleggio Associati (www.casaleggio.it) develops strategic Internet consultancy for companies by means of specific competencies of business owners, affiliates and partners and it prepares reports on the digital economy. Areas of activity An online strategy covers the evaluation of different factors such as, for example, the perceived identity on the Internet , the business model to be implemented and the evaluation of the areas of the ROI. Below you’ll find the main areas of analysis carried out by Casaleggio Associati. Contact details Contattaci per definire la strategia on line della tua impresa: strategia@casaleggio.it Via Morone 6, 20121 Milano Telefono +39 02 89011466 Fax +39 02 72093741 E-mail info@casaleggio.it Website www.casaleggio.it 15Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I – (cc) Utilizzate ed elaborate i dati e le analisi, ma citate la fonte e linkatequesto documento. Per utilizzi a scopo commerciale contattate rapporto@casaleggio.it
  • 16. 74Proprietà intellettuale: C A S A L E G G I O A S S O C I A T I - è vietata la riproduzione

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