INDEX1. GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD2.COGNITIVE APPROACH3.AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD4. DIRECT METHOD5. THE NATURAL/COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH6.TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE7.THE SILENT METHOD8.SUGGESTOPEDIA9.COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING.10. LANGUAGE IMMERSION11. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING12. STRUCTURAL APPROACH
1. GRAMMAR - TRANSLATION METHOD (I)• Originally used to teach dead languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek. (1890 – 1930)• Language = collection of isolated words.• Principles: o Literary language is superior to the spoken language. o Translating is the goal. o Teacher = authority. o The primary skills to be improved are reading and writing no spoken communication or listening comprehension. o Its focus is on accuracy and not fluency. o Error correction: If a student’s answer is incorrect, the teacher asks another student to answer no feedback
1. GRAMMAR - TRANSLATION METHOD (II) Jelou shilrren, hoy• Typical exercises: vamo’ a ver el “ver-tu-bi” o Translation of a Literary Passage Ai am o Reading Comprehension Questions Llu ar Ji is… o Antonym/synonyms o Fill-in-the-blanks o Deductive Application of Rule• Easier for the teacher.• Students =bored.
2. COGNITIVE APPROACH• Origin1950ies psychology & applied linguistics ( J.B. Carroll and K. Chastain)• Language = a set of skills the modern version of the grammar- translation method• FL learning = the conscious study of grammatical rules (deductive) only meaningful practice is effective.• FL teaching = the development of linguistic competence.• Careful with imitation and memorization.• Student’s mistakes = a necessary and natural phenomenon.• The cognitive approach is essentially a theoretical framework.• LAD is determining.
3. AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD• Origin WWII Behaviorist theory (stimulus-response-reinforcement)• Language = a collection of habits.• FL learning = a mechanical process of habit formation.• FL teaching = manipulation of language elements that occur in fixed relationships .• “Drill, drill, and more drill, and only enough vocabulary to make such drills possible" (Hockett 1959)• Student’s mistakes = don´t help to develop the habits, should be corrected immediately.• The child is moulded by regularities the environment.
4.Direct Method (1970)• Developed by Maximilian Berlitz• No use of mother tongue=meaning is connected with a target language• Grammar rules avoided (don´t give rules:make them figure out the rule)• Never translate= act and demonstrate• Teacher-student/student-student activities(reading aloud,question-answer exercises,fill-in-the-blank• Emphasis on good pronunciation/oral transmission• Speech and listening comprehension are taught(contextual/topical teaching)
5.The natural/communicative approach• origin→Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen• Focus on communicative competence:auralcomprehension/ early speech production/ speech activities• Comprehension precedes production• Small groups of students• Visualization activities: slide presentations, word games, dialogues, recreational activities,realia• The classroom=student-centered
6. Total Physical Response• Developed by J.Asher,based on the coordination of speech and action• Primarily designed for students in early stages of language learning• Command forms used to convey info• Students not forced to speak until ready• The importance of aural comprehension
7. THE SILENT WAY• Originated in 1963 by Dr.Caleb Gattegno (Egypt)• Teacher – silent , learners – speaking• Emphasis on PRONUNCIATION. Self-correction.• Role of the teacher – observer• No use of the mother tongue. No translation. Context• No formal evaluation just observation.• Use of CHARTS
Sound/ Colour chart Word chart Fidel chartwww.youtube.com/watch?v=CMLFI38_1cE/watch?v=CMLFI38_1cEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=85P7dmPHtso
8. SUGGESTOPEDIA• An avant garde method/ 1967/ Georgi Lozanov• Small & intensive classes• Material presented in melodic and artistic way• Relaxation is needed• Memory training• Language perceived globally
9. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING• Elaborated by Charles Curran (USA)• It encourages personal growth, and self-development• Learning a language is viewed as collective experience• Based on communication Oral proficiency• Use of the mother tongue.• Activities : translation, transcription, free conversation, listening, reflection and observation, repeating• Focus on fluency rather than accuracy• GoalsUnderstanding & Speaking
10. LANGUAGE IMMERSION• The regular school curriculum is taught through the medium of the target language.• The second language is the vehicle for content instruction• Focus on fluency• Main purposes: to promote bilingualism and develop learner’s communicative competence• The first modern language immersion programs appeared in Canada in the 1960’s
11. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT)• Aim: to communicate effectively and appropriately• Emphasis on interaction• Similar to the Communicative Approach• Different situations and functions: inviting, suggesting, expression of time, visiting a doctor…• More important to achieve the defined outcome rather than have accuracy on language forms• Language use outside the classroom• Classroom activities
12. STRUCTURAL APPROACH• Language as a set of grammatical rules and structures to be learned• Emphasis on speech rather than reading or writing• Habit formation, repetitions and drill exercises• Mastery of structures is more important than the acquisition of vocabulary• Pupil’s activity• This approach has some disadvantages