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Making polymers

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KS4 Chemistry organic chemistry polymers

KS4 Chemistry organic chemistry polymers

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  • Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Teacher notes See the Alloys presentation for more information on the use of metals in the manufacturing of products. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Photo credits: cotton © Subbotina Anna, Shutterstock.com 2011; wool © Kovalchuk Oleksandr, Shutterstock.com 2011; silk © zhu difeng, Shutterstock.com 2011; paper © wisiel, Shutterstock.com 2011 Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Teacher notes Appropriately coloured voting cards could be used with this classification activity to increase class participation. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Teacher notes An additional exercise would be to ask student to identify objects in the scene that are made of or contain plastics. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Teacher notes See the Cracking Hydrocarbons presentation for more information on alkenes. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Teacher notes This interactive animation illustrates the formation of low-density polyethene as an example of addition polymerization. Suitable prompts could include: What special property of ethene enables it be used in making polymers? What has to happen to start the process? Why is the process called addition polymerization? Polymerization needs either very high temperatures and pressures or a catalyst to keep it going. Does it make any difference which is used? Please note, polyethene is also often referred to as polythene. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway GCSE Science. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway GCSE Science. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway GCSE Science. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway GCSE Science. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • This content is higher tier for OCR Gateway GCSE Science. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • This presentation is accompanied by the worksheet Making Hydrocarbons . Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Teacher notes alkene – Alkenes are a type of hydrocarbon compound with the general formula C n H 2n . Alkenes are unsaturated, which means that they contain at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. monomer – A molecule that is the building block of a polymer. polymer – A long chain molecule formed from many monomers joined together. polymerization – The reaction used to convert monomers into a polymer. saturated – A saturated compound only contains single covalent bonds between carbon atoms. synthetic – Made artificially by chemical reactions. unsaturated – An unsaturated compound contains at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers
  • Teacher notes This multiple-choice quiz could be used as a plenary activity to assess students’ understanding of making polymers. The questions can be skipped through without answering by pressing the forward arrow. Students could be asked to complete the questions in their books and the activity could be concluded by the completion on the IWB. Boardworks GCSE Science: Chemistry Making Polymers

Transcript

  • 1. 1 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Making Polymers
  • 2. 2 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011
  • 3. 3 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 The word ‘polymer’ comes from the Greek words poly (meaning ‘many’) and meros (meaning ‘parts’). Polymers are very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long chains. Plastics are synthetic polymers that can be shaped by heat or pressure. What are polymers?
  • 4. 4 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 The materials that are used in every day life are made of either pure chemicals (elements or compounds) or mixtures of chemicals. Where do materials come from? Although pure metals are sometimes used in the manufacture of products, often mixtures of more than one metal are used as they have more useful properties. Polymers are manufactured as pure compounds. However, other compounds are often added, which improve the properties of the plastic, for example, to make it more flexible.
  • 5. 5 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Natural and synthetic materials
  • 6. 6 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Materials from living things
  • 7. 7 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Natural and synthetic polymers
  • 8. 8 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011
  • 9. 9 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Polymerization is the reaction used to convert monomers into polymers. The monomers in a polymer are joined together by covalent bonds between atoms. In a covalent bond, each atom shares one or more electrons with another atom. The bonds are sometimes shown as lines. What keeps the chain together? covalent bond
  • 10. 10 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 How are monomers turned into polymers? Making polymers
  • 11. 11 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Many polymers are formed from alkenes, which are a family of hydrocarbon molecules with the general formula CnH2n. Alkenes contain at least one double covalent bond between carbon atoms. The double bond makes them very reactive. What are polymers made from?  The simplest alkene is ethene (C2H4).  The second simplest alkene is propene (C3H6). double covalent bond
  • 12. 12 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 How is polyethene made?
  • 13. 13 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Addition polymerization The process by which alkenes are joined together is called addition polymerization. All of the atoms in the alkene end up in the polymer so no other products are formed. addition polymerizationmonomers polymer Addition polymerization involves the reaction of many unsaturated monomers (which contain a carbon-carbon double bond) to form a saturated polymer.
  • 14. 14 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Drawing polymers – shorthand formulae Polymers contain thousands of molecules, so how can their structures be easily drawn? Part of the polymer molecule can be drawn: A better way is to show a shorthand formula: The ‘n’ means that the polymer contains a very large number of the repeating unit shown in the brackets.
  • 15. 15 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 What’s the polymer? What is the shorthand formula for polypropene? The monomer is propene (C3H6): which can be drawn as: 1. Draw two C atoms that were in the double bond with a single covalent bond. 2. Draw the brackets and the ‘n’. 4. Add the atoms that were attached to each C atom of the double bond. 3. Add the links outside the brackets. polypropene
  • 16. 16 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Naming polymers
  • 17. 17 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Which polymer?
  • 18. 18 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 What’s the monomer? What is the monomer of polyvinylchloride (PVC)? 1. Draw two C atoms joined with a double covalent bond. 2. Add the atoms attached to each C atom. 3. Draw the brackets and ‘n’. The equation for the reaction can be drawn as:
  • 19. 19 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Which monomer?
  • 20. 20 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011
  • 21. 21 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Glossary
  • 22. 22 of 22 © Boardworks Ltd 2011 Multiple-choice quiz