Ks4 plant nutrition (boardworks)
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Ks4 plant nutrition (boardworks)

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KS4 Biology Plant Nutrition

KS4 Biology Plant Nutrition

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Ks4 plant nutrition (boardworks) Ks4 plant nutrition (boardworks) Presentation Transcript

  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 57 KS4 Biology Plant Nutrition
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20042 of 57 The rate of photosynthesis Minerals from the soil Plant Nutrition What is photosynthesis? More about photosynthesis Contents How do plants make food? Multiple-choice quiz
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20043 of 57 All living organisms need food to grow and survive. How do plants get the food they need? Plants are known as producers because they provide food for many other organisms. Plants cannot move very much, so how do they get the food that they need?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20044 of 57 Green plants are amazing because they actually make their own food! Green plants are the only living organisms that are able to do this. All other organisms rely on plants because of the food that the plants make. What is the name of the process by which plants make their own food? Nutrition in green plants
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20045 of 57 Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. This process is a chemical reaction that uses light energy. What is photosynthesis? light energy The word photosynthesis comes from the Greek language: “photo” means “light” “synthesis” means “putting together” Photosynthesis just means “putting together with light”. What do green plants “put together” to make their food?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20046 of 57 The rate of photosynthesis Minerals from the soil Plant Nutrition What is photosynthesis? More about photosynthesis Contents How do plants make food? Multiple-choice quiz
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20047 of 57 The raw materials for photosynthesis come from the air and the soil. What are these raw materials called? What else do plants need to turn carbon dioxide and water into food? Photosynthesis: raw materials carbon dioxide water
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20048 of 57 Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide and water. Energy is needed for this reaction to take place. Where do plants get this energy from? Photosynthesis: energy for the reaction carbon dioxide water light energy
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20049 of 57 Plants use light energy from the Sun to power photosynthesis. Where in the leaf does this reaction take place? Photosynthesis takes place in what part of plant cells? Photosynthesis: where it happens carbon dioxide water light energy
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200410 of 57 Photosynthesis takes place in plant cells with chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain the green chemical called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs the energy from sunlight that allows carbon dioxide and water to react. What are the products of this reaction? Photosynthesis: where it happens carbon dioxide water light energy chlorophyll
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200411 of 57 The products of the reaction between carbon dioxide and water are glucose and oxygen. Which of these products is used by plants? What happens to the ‘waste’ product? Photosynthesis: products of the reaction carbon dioxide water glucose oxygen light energy chlorophyll
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200412 of 57 Glucose is the useful product for plants. Some glucose is used straightaway by plant cells, some is converted to starch for storage and later used for food. Oxygen is the ‘waste’ product. This gas is transported out of the leaf into the air. Why is this important for humans and other living things? Photosynthesis: products of the reaction carbon dioxide water oxygen light energy chlorophyll glucose oxygen glucose
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200413 of 57 Photosynthesis: summary Summarize the process of photosynthesis in one sentence. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction which means it can also be summarized in a word equation. What is the word equation for this vital chemical reaction? Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that takes place in the chloroplasts in green plant cells, where light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200414 of 57 Photosynthesis: word equation carbon dioxide water oxygen light energy chlorophyll glucose glucose light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide water oxygen
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200415 of 57 Photosynthesis: word equation activity
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200416 of 57 Photosynthesis: chemical formulae? Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction involving molecules. glucose light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide water oxygen CO2 H2O O2C6H12O6 The chemical formula of a glucose molecule is C6H12O6. What are the chemical formulae of the simple molecules that make up carbon dioxide, water and oxygen?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200417 of 57 Word equation to chemical equation
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200418 of 57 Photosynthesis multiple-choice quiz
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200419 of 57 The rate of photosynthesis Minerals from the soil Plant Nutrition What is photosynthesis? More about photosynthesis Contents How do plants make food? Multiple-choice quiz
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200420 of 57 Leaves: maximizing photosynthesis Leaves are the most efficient solar panels on Earth! Why can they be called this? Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll in leaves and used to carry out photosynthesis. Leaves come in all shapes and sizes but what features do they have in common to maximize photosynthesis?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200421 of 57 Structure of a leaf How are leaves designed to maximize photosynthesis? Leaves are wide and flat to create a large surface area and to absorb as much light as possible. Leaves are thin so gases can reach cells easily. Leaves have holes, called stomata, on their underside through which gases move in and out. Leaves have lots of veins to carry water to the cells and carry glucose away.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200422 of 57 Structure of a leaf activity
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200423 of 57 Take a look inside a leaf
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200424 of 57 What happens to the glucose?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200425 of 57 Testing leaves for starch – procedure
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200426 of 57 Testing leaves for starch – experiment
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200427 of 57 Photosynthesis and respiration Only green plants photosynthesize, glucose light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide water oxygen Compare the reactants, products and energy results of these two chemical reactions. How are they connected? carbon dioxideglucose oxygen water Photosynthesis Respiration but respiration occurs in the cells of all living things to release energy. (energy needed) (energy released)
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200428 of 57 12a.m. 12p.m. 12a.m. Photosynthesis and respiration How will the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air vary over 24 hours? What overall effect do photosynthesis and respiration have on the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air? amount of gas in the air amount of oxygen amount of carbon dioxide
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200429 of 57 The rate of photosynthesis Minerals from the soil Plant Nutrition What is photosynthesis? More about photosynthesis Contents How do plants make food? Multiple-choice quiz
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200430 of 57 Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction and so has a rate. Is the rate of photosynthesis always the same? The rate of photosynthesis light glucose light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide water oxygen The rate of photosynthesis varies depending on three main factors: How do these factors affect the rate of photosynthesis? carbon dioxide temperature
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200431 of 57 Light and the rate of photosynthesis Light energy has to be absorbed by chlorophyll for photosynthesis to take place. glucose light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide water oxygen The brighter the light, the more light energy there is, so will photosynthesis be faster or slower? More light energy means that photosynthesis will be faster. If light intensity is too high plant cells can be damaged. How is photosynthesis affected if this happens?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200432 of 57 Investigating photosynthesis – apparatus
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200433 of 57 Investigating photosynthesis – experiment
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200434 of 57 Investigating photosynthesis – results
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200435 of 57 Carbon dioxide is one of the raw materials used by plants to make their food. Carbon dioxide and the rate of photosynthesis glucose light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide water oxygen The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air (0.03%) is actually quite low. Why is the concentration of carbon dioxide in commercial greenhouses often raised to about 0.1%? More carbon dioxide means more photosynthesis, so plants make more food and grow quicker.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200436 of 57 Photosynthesis is controlled by enzymes. Enzymes usually work best at warmer temperatures. Temperature and the rate of photosynthesis glucose light energy chlorophyll carbon dioxide water oxygen Why is the rate of photosynthesis slower on a sunny day in winter compared to in summer? If the temperature gets too hot (above 40°C), plant enzymes begin to break down and are destroyed or denatured. Why does photosynthesis stop under such conditions?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200437 of 57 What is the ideal combination of factors for the maximum rate of photosynthesis? What is a limiting factor? enough light enough carbon dioxide ideal temperature (not too hot or cold) How is the rate affected if one of these factors is restricted? If one of the factors is restricted, the rate of photosynthesis will be below the maximum possible rate. The restricted factor controls how quickly photosynthesis occurs and so limits the rate.It is called the limiting factor.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200438 of 57 Photosynthesis and light – limiting factors How does the amount of light affect the rate of photosynthesis on this labelled graph? As the amount of light increases, so does the rate. The limiting factor is light. light intensity rateofphotosynthesis Here, increasing the amount of light has no affect on the rate. The limiting factor is now carbon dioxide or temperature. What must be increased for the rate to increase? 1 2 1 2
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200439 of 57 Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide – limiting factors How does the amount of carbon dioxide affect the rate of photosynthesis on this labelled graph? As the amount of carbon dioxide goes up, so does the rate. The limiting factor is carbon dioxide. concentration of carbon dioxide rateofphotosynthesis Here, increasing the amount of carbon dioxide has no affect on the rate. Light or warmth is now the limiting factor. What must be increased for the rate to increase? 1 2 1 2
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200440 of 57 Photosynthesis and temperature – limiting factors How does temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis on this labelled graph? 1. As temperature increases, so does the rate because photosynthetic enzymes work best in the warmth. Here, the limiting factor is temperature. temperature rateofphotosynthesis 0o C 45o C Most plant enzymes are destroyed at about 45°C. Here, photosynthesis stops and the rate falls to zero. What is the limiting factor? 1 2 1 2
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200441 of 57 Limiting factors activity
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200442 of 57 Limiting factors in the greenhouse
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200443 of 57 The rate of photosynthesis Minerals from the soil Plant Nutrition What is photosynthesis? More about photosynthesis Contents How do plants make food? Multiple-choice quiz
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200444 of 57 What do plants need for a balanced diet? Plants need carbon dioxide and water for photosynthesis. Do they need any other nutrients to keep healthy? Just like humans, plants need a balanced diet that includes small amounts of mineral elements. What mineral elements do they need?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200445 of 57 What minerals do plants need? Plants need mineral elements for healthy growth. Some of the most important minerals needed by plants are: The mineral elements are found in salts dissolved in water. Plants obtain minerals when they absorb water from the soil. How do plants obtain these minerals? nitrogen potassium ions phosphorus potassium magnesium magnesium ions phosphates nitrates What type of salt are each of these elements found in?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200446 of 57 What are minerals needed for? How do plants use these mineral elements? Mineral element How mineral is used in plants nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) potassium (K) magnesium (Mg) making leaves making roots making flowers and fruit making chlorophyll
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200447 of 57 Plant and minerals – summary activity
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200448 of 57 Where do minerals come from? Rocks: The minerals in rocks are slowly dissolved by slightly acidic rainwater. These minerals are washed into the soil. Natural fertilizers: Animal faeces and the decay of dead plants and animals return minerals to the soil. Artificial fertilizers: These contain a ready-made mixture of the minerals needed by plants. What are the sources of minerals in the soil? Why do farmers add fertilizers to their soil?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200449 of 57 Not enough minerals! What happens if plants do not get enough minerals? Plants do not grow properly if they are deprived of minerals and begin to look unhealthy. If a plant does not get enough of a mineral it is said to have a mineral deficiency. Do mineral deficiencies affect a plant in the same way?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200450 of 57 Mineral deficiency – no nitrogen! Nitrogen is used for making leaves and is probably the most important mineral for plant growth. What is the effect of nitrogen deficiency? lower leaves yellow and dead weak stem upper leaves pale green
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200451 of 57 Mineral deficiency – no phosphorus! Phosphorus is used for making roots and is important for all the other minerals used by plants. What is the effect of phosphorus deficiency? small roots purple leaves
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200452 of 57 Mineral deficiency – no potassium! Potassium is used for making flowers and fruit, so crops are given extra potassium before they start to fruit. What is the effect of potassium deficiency? poor flower and fruit growth yellow leaves with dead spots
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200453 of 57 Mineral deficiency – no magnesium! Magnesium is used for making chlorophyll and so is vital for the process of photosynthesis. What is the effect of magnesium deficiency? upper leaves normal (leaves turn yellow from bottom upwards) lower leaves pale green or yellow
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200454 of 57 Mineral deficiency experiment
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200455 of 57 Plant and minerals summary Mineral Use in plant Deficiency signs nitrogen phosphorus potassium magnesium Complete this table of plant mineral needs and deficiencies. making leaves making roots making flowers and fruits making chlorophyll stunted growth and yellow leaves poor roots and purple leaves yellow leaves with dead spots leaves turn yellow from the bottom
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200456 of 57 The rate of photosynthesis Minerals from the soil Plant Nutrition What is photosynthesis? More about photosynthesis Contents How do plants make food? Multiple-choice quiz
  • © Boardworks Ltd 200457 of 57 Multiple-choice quiz