9.1 plant structure & growth
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  • 1. 9.1 Plant Structure & Growth Topic 9 Plant Science
  • 2. Plant Structure & Growth  9.1.1 Draw and label plan diagrams to show the distribution of tissues in the stem and leaf of a dicotyledonous plant. (Either sunflower, bean or another dicotyledonous plant with similar tissue distribution should be used).  Note that plan diagrams show distribution of tissues (for example, xylem, phloem) and do not show individual cells. They are sometimes called “low power” diagrams.
  • 3. Plant Structure & Growth  9.1.2 Outline three differences between the structures of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants.  Teachers should emphasize three differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants (examples include: parallel versus net-like venation in leaves, distribution of vascular tissue in stems, number of cotyledons, floral organs in multiples of 3 in monocotyledonous versus 4 or 5 in dicotyledonous, fibrous adventitious roots in monocotyledonous versus tap root with lateral branches in dicotyledonous).
  • 4. Plant Structure & Growth  9.1.3 Explain the relationship between the distribution of tissues in the leaf and the functions of these tissues.  This should be restricted to dicotyledonous plants. The functions should include: absorption of light, gas exchange, support, water conservation, and the transport of water and products of photosynthesis.  9.1.4 Identify modifications of roots, stems and leaves for different functions:  bulbs, stem tubers, storage roots and tendrils.
  • 5. Plant Structure & Growth  9.1.5 State that dicotyledonous plants have apical and lateral meristems.  Apical meristems are sometimes referred to as primary meristems, and lateral meristems as cambium. Meristems generate new cells for growth of the plant.  9.1.6 Compare growth due to apical and lateral meristems in dicotyledonous plants.  9.1.7 Explain the role of auxin in phototropism as an example of the control of plant growth.
  • 6. Plant Classification  There are FOUR main groups of plants.  These can be easily identified by studying their external structure:  Phylum Bryophyta  Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts)  Phylum Filicinophyta  Ferns  Phylum Coniferophyta  Conifers  Phylum Angiospermatophyta  Angiosperms (flowering plants)
  • 7. Angiospermophytes - Flowering Plants  Highly variable structure;  Tiny herbaceous to large trees  They have roots, stems and leaves  An advanced vascular system  Can form woody tissue  Can grow up to 100m in height  Seeds are produced  Seeds develop from ovules inside ovaries. The ovaries are part of flowers. Fruits develop from the ovaries to disperse the seeds.
  • 8. Angiospermophytes - Flowering Plants
  • 9. Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons  Angiosperms can be divided onto two classes.  Classification depends upon the number of seed leaves (cotyledons) which they have in their seeds.  The TWO classes are:  Monocotyledons  One seed leaf  Leaves usually have parallel veins  Includes: grasses, cereals  Dicotyledons  Two seed leaves  Leaves are usually net veined  Often grow to a large size: most trees, roses, many garden plants
  • 10. Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons  The IBO guide states:  Teachers should emphasize three differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants (examples include: parallel versus net-like venation in leaves, distribution of vascular tissue in stems, number of cotyledons, floral organs in multiples of 3 in monocotyledonous versus 4 or 5 in dicotyledonous, fibrous adventitious roots in monocotyledonous versus tap root with lateral branches in dicotyledonous).
  • 11. Structure of a Dicotyledons Plant  Roots:  Root hairs for absorbing water and mineral nutrients.  Stem:  Transportation of water from the roots to the leaves  Transportation of the sugars from the leaves to the roots  Leaves:  Main site of photosynthesis  Buds (terminal and axillary)  Site of new growth
  • 12. Root Structure of a Dicotyledon Plant  Plants absorb potassium, phosphate, nitrates and other mineral ions from the soil  The concentration of these ions is much higher inside the roots, so they are absorbed by active transport.  Root hairs provide a large surface are for mineral ion uptake.  Because of the high solute concentration in root cells, water moves into the roots cells by osmosis.  Most of the water absorbed by the roots is drawn by the transpiration pull into the xylem vessels in the centre of the root.  To reach the xylem, water has to cross the cortex.  There are two routes for the water to take to reach the xylem vessels:  The symplastic route  Water moves from cell to cell via the cytoplasm  The apoplastic route  Water moves along the cell walls
  • 13. Root Structure of a Dicotyledon Plant
  • 14. Root Structure of a Dicotyledon Plant
  • 15. Stem Structure of a Dicotyledon Plant  Stems connect the leaves, roots and the flowers of plants  They transport materials between them using xylem and phloem tissue.  Xylem transports water and dissolved nutrients  Phloem transports the products of photosynthesis  Stems support the aerial parts of the plant  Xylem tissue provides support especially in woody stems  In dicotyledonous plants, the vascular bundles are arranged in a ring around the outer part of the stem  Xylem on the inside.  Phloem on the outside.
  • 16. Stem Structure of a Dicotyledon Plant
  • 17. Stem Structure of a Dicotyledon Plant
  • 18. Leaf Structure of Dicotyledon Plant
  • 19. Leaf Structure of Dicotyledon Plant
  • 20. Leaf Structure of Dicotyledon Plant
  • 21. Modifications of roots, stems & leaves  Tendrils are usually specialized stems or leaves that are used by climbing plants for support, attachment and cellular invasion by parasitic plants, generally by twining around suitable hosts.
  • 22. Food Storage in Plants  Bulbs, stem tubers & storage roots are used for food storage.  Many plants develop a food storage organ in which food is stored.  Examples include:  potatoes, carrots, corms, bulbs  The steps in food storage are:  Photosynthesis in the leaves produce glucose.  The sugars are translocated in the phloem from the leaves to the storage organ.  The sugars are converted into starch, proteins and other organic compounds for storage.
  • 23. Food Storage in Plants Ref: IB Biology, OSC
  • 24. Meristems  9.1.5 State that dicotyledonous plants have apical and lateral meristems.  Apical meristems are sometimes referred to as primary meristems, and lateral meristems as cambium. Meristems generate new cells for growth of the plant.  9.1.6 Compare growth due to apical and lateral meristems in dicotyledonous plants.  See your notes for explanation
  • 25. Phototropism  9.1.7 Explain the role of auxin in phototropism as an example of the control of plant growth.  See your notes for explanation
  • 26. IBO guide:  9.1.1 Draw and label plan diagrams to show the distribution of tissues in the stem and leaf of a dicotyledonous plant. (Either sunflower, bean or another dicotyledonous plant with similar tissue distribution should be used).  Note that plan diagrams show distribution of tissues (for example, xylem, phloem) and do not show individual cells. They are sometimes called “lowpower” diagrams.
  • 27. IBO guide:  9.1.2 Outline three differences between the structures of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants.  Teachers should emphasize three differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants (examples include: parallel versus net-like venation in leaves, distribution of vascular tissue in stems, number of cotyledons, floral organs in multiples of 3 in monocotyledonous versus 4 or 5 in dicotyledonous, fibrous adventitious roots in monocotyledonous versus tap root with lateral branches in dicotyledonous).
  • 28. IBO guide:  9.1.3 Explain the relationship between the distribution of tissues in the leaf and the functions of these tissues.  This should be restricted to dicotyledonous plants. The functions should include: absorption of light, gas exchange, support, water conservation, and the transport of water and products of photosynthesis.  9.1.4 Identify modifications of roots, stems and leaves for different functions:  bulbs, stem tubers, storage roots and tendrils.
  • 29. IBO guide:  9.1.5 State that dicotyledonous plants have apical and lateral meristems.  Apical meristems are sometimes referred to as primary meristems, and lateral meristems as cambium. Meristems generate new cells for growth of the plant.  9.1.6 Compare growth due to apical and lateral meristems in dicotyledonous plants.  9.1.7 Explain the role of auxin in phototropism as an example of the control of plant growth.