John Dewey


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John Dewey

  1. 1. JOHN DEWEY Progressive Education Gary Plan
  2. 2. JOHN DEWEY <ul><li>Born in 1859, grew up in a merchant-class family in New England, influenced mainly by religious mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Taught high school before taking up studies at John Hopkins </li></ul><ul><li>Earned Ph. D in 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>His popularity as a philosopher and psychologist increased while he taught at various universities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. HISTORY OF JOHN DEWEY AND HIS THEORIES <ul><li>Theories focused around practices of practicality; pragmatism. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewed schools as factory schools. Schools were only used to ready students to become factory workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Factories were so important due to the industrialization, urbanization, and immigration of the late 1800’s. </li></ul><ul><li>The state is just beginning to have a say in general education. The federal government is still removed from education in this time period. </li></ul>
  4. 4. “THE DEWEY IDEA” <ul><li>1896-The first Dewey lab school was created at the University of Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey’s focus was on child centered education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree Experiment: He had children start in classroom and asked them to draw a picture of a tree. Then he took them outside and had them play in the trees where he also asked specific questions about trees. Then he brought them back to the classroom and asked them to draw a tree once again. The difference between the first drawings versus the second drawings was like stick figures to Van Gough. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He wanted the children to get something out of their education. Through experiments the children got to interact and see new learning hands on. </li></ul>
  5. 5. HISTORY OF PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION <ul><li>1896-1904 is when Dewey created progressive education while working at the Chicago University Lab School. </li></ul><ul><li>The philosophy of progressive education leans more towards social freedom because of two essential elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respect for diversity, each individual should be recognized for unique abilities, interests, ideas, needs, and cultural identity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of critical, socially engaged intelligence allowing students to participate effectively in their community and achieve the common good. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1950’s is when progressive education lost movement after WW II. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION <ul><li>Hands on learning through experiment, projects, discussion…etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement to get involved in community </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with one another in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Have a deep understanding through challenging the students through problems, projects, and questions. </li></ul><ul><li>This was based around the children’s interests and meeting their needs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fourth grade classroom would be different from other fourth grade classrooms and the following years after the classroom and the curriculum would be different due to getting new students. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. HISTORY OF THE GARY PLAN <ul><li>Developed in Gary, Indiana by William Wirt in 1907, and was largely influenced by John Dewey. </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants arrived to Gary looking for work. </li></ul><ul><li>To incorporate these new arrivals William Wirt was hired as the superintendent of the public schools. </li></ul>
  8. 8. GARY PLAN CURRICULUM <ul><li>Had features that included hands on activities relating to occupations and daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>It was considered progressive in nature with an articulated and broad program being offered to primary through secondary grades. </li></ul><ul><li>Kept the students in motion, the students would move from class to class at the end of each hour. Such as the block system of today. </li></ul><ul><li>William wanted kids to have a rich school experience so they were busy all the time and getting involved in things that would interest them. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An example of this would be for animal husbandry where the children would take care of chickens and ducks. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. GARY PLAN CONTINUED <ul><li>Because of Wirt’s split shift system every space from classroom to workshop from auditorium to playground was in constant use. </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum reached into other subject areas such as health and hygiene that had little to do with reading writing, and arithmetic. </li></ul><ul><li>Taught manners in school as well. </li></ul><ul><li>This plan was also controversial because a lot of the student’s parents in the community thought that the Gary Plan was basically preparing the students to be factory workers. </li></ul>
  10. 10. DEWEY TODAY <ul><li>Progressive Education today is called experimental or innovative. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a curriculum driven by questions and respect for the mind and imagination of the students. While trying to challenge students instead of providing to much information. </li></ul><ul><li>This goes against the test-prep version of No Child Left Behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Education contradicts No Child Left Behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Educators today are finding ways to incorporate Progressive Education in a post-modern period where we are beginning to focus more on “green societies” and cultural acceptance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. WORKS CITED <ul><li>Bernard, Sheila Curran, & Mondale, Sarah. (2001). School: The Story of American Public Education (pp.71-119). Massachusetts: Beacon Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Field, Richard. (2007). John Dewey 1859-1952. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from: . </li></ul><ul><li>Hildenbrand, David L. (2008) “The place to Get Straight About Dewey.” Retrieved October 6, 2008, from . </li></ul><ul><li>Kohn, Alfie. (2008). Progressive Education: Why It’s Hard to Beat, But Also Hard to Find. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from: . </li></ul><ul><li>Nehring, James H. (2006).Progressive vs. Traditional: Reframing an Old Debate. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from: . </li></ul><ul><li>Volk, Kenneth S. (2005).The Gary Plan and Technology Education: What Might Have Been? The Journal of Technology Studies,39-48. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from Academic Search Premiere database. </li></ul><ul><li>Prgressive Education. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from: . </li></ul><ul><li>John Dewey and Informal Education. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from: . </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO CLIP! </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =opXKmwg8VQM </li></ul>