Explaining Crime
• Classical-Neoclassical
   – General Deterrence
   – Rational Choice
   – Routine Activity
• Positivist
...
Classical-Neoclassical
General Deterrence
General Deterrence
• Severity
  – Exceed the amount of damage done to
    society
• Celerity
  – Swiftness-promptness of p...
Rational Choice
• Builds on deterrence, started neoclassical school
• Assumes
   – Every crime has a purpose
   – Criminal...
Routine Activity
• Focus on why crimes occur at
  specific places and times
• Posits that crime is the function
  of the s...
Routine Activity

                   Property
 Criminal



            Not Guarded
Positivist
Social Disorganization
• Rapid changes in an areas
  characteristics allows crime to occur.
• People in areas of residenti...
Social Learning
• Criminal behavior is learned
• Delinquency occurs when more conditions are
  favorable to breaking the l...
Neutralization
• People believe crime is wrong,
  commit it anyway, and still believe
  crime is wrong
• Offenders rationa...
Strain 1 (Merton)
• Americans want the dream and work ethic
• Strain is the disjunction between goals and
  means, and pro...
Strain 2 (Cohen)
• Also known as status frustration
• Goals based on status, not
  finances
• Middle class is the standard...
Strain 3 (Cloward-Ohlin)
• Youth look for alternative goals
• If illegitimate alternative supports
  skills, may join crim...
Strain 4 (Agnew)
• Strain is caused by
  –Removal of positive valued stimuli
  –Presentation of negative stimuli
  –People...
Control 1 (Hirschi)
• Focus on why people aren’t criminal
• Four social factors affect delinquency
  – Attachment (affecti...
Control 2 (Gottfredson-Hirschi)

• Poor child-rearing is the
  root cause of all crime as it
  results in low self-control
Other
• Critical theory – crime is a normal
  function of certain groups
• Marxist theory – conflict exists between
  uppe...
Real World Application
Review
• Scientific v. non-scientific theory
• Assumptions made in neoclassical school
• Which theory focuses on why peopl...
That’s all . . .
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime
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Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime

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Explaining Crime

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Security Administration I 4 Explaining Crime

  1. 1. Explaining Crime • Classical-Neoclassical – General Deterrence – Rational Choice – Routine Activity • Positivist – Social Disorganization – Social Learning – Neutralization – Strain – Control • Other/Real World Application
  2. 2. Classical-Neoclassical
  3. 3. General Deterrence
  4. 4. General Deterrence • Severity – Exceed the amount of damage done to society • Celerity – Swiftness-promptness of punishment after crime • Certainty – Commonsense? The more likely punishment is the more fearful the offender of being caught
  5. 5. Rational Choice • Builds on deterrence, started neoclassical school • Assumes – Every crime has a purpose – Criminals choose to commit crime based on limited ability to weigh benefits and risks • Three parts – Initiation (leads up to first offense) – Habituation (continued offending) – Desistence (becomes noncriminal or changes crime)
  6. 6. Routine Activity • Focus on why crimes occur at specific places and times • Posits that crime is the function of the space-time convergence of a motivated offender, suitable target, and lack of capable guardianship.
  7. 7. Routine Activity Property Criminal Not Guarded
  8. 8. Positivist
  9. 9. Social Disorganization • Rapid changes in an areas characteristics allows crime to occur. • People in areas of residential mobility lack a mutual trust with neighbors. • Higher crime occurs when neighbors don’t know each other well.
  10. 10. Social Learning • Criminal behavior is learned • Delinquency occurs when more conditions are favorable to breaking the law than unfavorable • A person becomes a criminal when more of their friends are criminals or support them • Criminals learn – Motive – Attitude – Technique
  11. 11. Neutralization • People believe crime is wrong, commit it anyway, and still believe crime is wrong • Offenders rationalize actions, creating exceptions for their actions
  12. 12. Strain 1 (Merton) • Americans want the dream and work ethic • Strain is the disjunction between goals and means, and provokes response – Innovate by rejecting tradition (steal, etc.) – Turn to ritualism (keep working with limited results) – Retreat and turn to drugs – Rebel – create new goals and means (sometimes forming new community)
  13. 13. Strain 2 (Cohen) • Also known as status frustration • Goals based on status, not finances • Middle class is the standard • Lower classes humiliated, seek status elsewhere
  14. 14. Strain 3 (Cloward-Ohlin) • Youth look for alternative goals • If illegitimate alternative supports skills, may join criminal group (gang). • If illegitimate alternative does not support skills, may join a conflict group (gang). • If neither criminal nor conflict associations work, may resort to retreating (drugs).
  15. 15. Strain 4 (Agnew) • Strain is caused by –Removal of positive valued stimuli –Presentation of negative stimuli –People commit crimes when they lose something they like or someone does something they don’t like
  16. 16. Control 1 (Hirschi) • Focus on why people aren’t criminal • Four social factors affect delinquency – Attachment (affection for parents/school) – Commitment (investment in criminal activity) – Involvement (if no free time, no opportunity) – Belief (belief/consensus that a thing is wrong prevents us from doing it
  17. 17. Control 2 (Gottfredson-Hirschi) • Poor child-rearing is the root cause of all crime as it results in low self-control
  18. 18. Other • Critical theory – crime is a normal function of certain groups • Marxist theory – conflict exists between upper-lower classes • Feminist theories – females less likely to commit crimes • Life course theories – teenage youth account for most crime
  19. 19. Real World Application
  20. 20. Review • Scientific v. non-scientific theory • Assumptions made in neoclassical school • Which theory focuses on why people don’t become criminals • What part of Strain theory describes crime for money?
  21. 21. That’s all . . .

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