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Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members
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Perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of military trained gang members

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The problem addressed in this quantitative correlational research study was the apparently growing presence of military-trained gang members in civilian communities. The purpose of the study was to …

The problem addressed in this quantitative correlational research study was the apparently growing presence of military-trained gang members in civilian communities. The purpose of the study was to determine the perceived presence of military-trained gang members and to examine whether there was a relationship between the perceptions of gang investigators regarding the presence and the size of their jurisdictions, the proximity of their jurisdictions to a military installation, and the extent to which investigators participate in anti-gang activities. An online survey, the Military Gang Perception Questionnaire (MGPQ), was created to collect responses from the 260 active members of the Tennessee Gang Investigators Association (TNGIA).

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  • The dissertation title is Perceptions of Gang Investigators Regarding Presence of Military-Trained Gang Members and my name is Carter Smith.
    I chose this topic because of my passionate interest as a result of many years seeing active gang members in the military. I was the gang investigations team chief at Fort Campbell in the mid to late 1990s and though ours was not one of the largest bases in the Army, we were often called upon to share what we had learned with military law enforcement at larger installations. After the tragedy that was September 11, 2001, many in U.S. law enforcement diverted their attention from gangs to homeland security without a corresponding decrease in activity by gang members – not even those in the military. After the History Channel produced an episode about Gangs in the Military, I realized this area of study deserved more of my attention and since I had much more than a passing interest in it I chose to formally acknowledge the continued devotion of a part of my life to their study.

    My commitment to this dissertation was made possible by the patience and encouragement of my committee of mentors – my committee Chair, Dr. John House, and members, Dr. Yvonne Doll and Dr. Joe DiRenzo.

    Please turn to the next slide
  • The outline for this presentation follows that of the dissertation. We will cover the Introduction, Literature Review, Research Method, Findings, Implications & Recommendations, and the Conclusion

    Please turn to the next slide
  • Roughly 80% of all crimes in the United States are committed by members of criminal gangs (NGIC, 2009). FBI researchers surveyed state and local law enforcement agencies and estimated there were one million gang members in the U.S. (NGIC, 2009). Some gang members enlist in the military as an alternative to incarceration, and others join the military to recruit members into their gang, obtain access to weapons, and learn how to respond to hostile gunfire (NGIC). The increase in the number of military-trained gang members created a level of danger most law enforcement officials are not prepared to combat (NGIC). The threat increases because all MTGMs were or will be discharged from the military at some point, either due to inappropriate activity or because their commitment to military service was satisfied.
    The problem addressed in this quantitative study is an assessment of the presence of MTGMs in civilian communities. The number of crimes committed by these gang members has increased significantly since 2002. In 2006, investigators with Army CID found a 265% increase in reported gang-related incidents and investigations from 2005 to 2006 (CID, 2006). The 2009 Gang Threat Assessment yielded similar results, with a twofold increase since the 2006 report.
    There has been little research on the presence of MTGMs and fewer studies have examined factors that impact investigator’s perceptions of the presence of MTGM populations. This study may fill some of the gaps.

    Please turn to the Next slide
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of gang investigators regarding the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions. The first dependent variable was created by summing the ratings from seven Likert scale questions rated on 5-point scales from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) assessing a military presence in gangs in the participants’ jurisdictions. The second dependent variable was the respondent’s estimate of the percentage of gang members in their jurisdiction that had military training. The central independent variables in the study were the size of the gang investigator’s jurisdiction, the extent to which gang investigators participated in anti-gang activities, and the proximity of the gang investigator’s jurisdiction to a military installation.
    The Military Gang Perception Questionnaire, a survey instrument developed by the researcher, was used to obtain the data.
    Participants were 260 active members of the Tennessee Gang Investigators Association with valid e-mail addresses.
    The results of the present study may provide tangible evidence necessary to ascertain the level of perception that gang investigators have of the presence of MTGMs in their communities. Ultimately, the goal was to assist law enforcement agencies with developing training to increase awareness and safety when they encounter MTGMs.

    Next slide
  • There were 7 Research Questions.
    To what extent is there a statistically significant relationship between gang investigators’ perceptions of the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions and
    Q1. the size of their jurisdictions?
    Q2 the gang investigators’ level of participation in anti-gang activities?
    Q3. the proximity of the gang investigators’ jurisdiction to a military installation?
    Q4. anti-gang experience?
    Q5. age?
    Q6. race?
    and
    Q7. military experience?

    Next slide please
  • The literature review includes: traditional street gangs, differences between juvenile and adult street gang members, advanced organized crime groups, MTGMs, conflicting loyalties, and methods used to restrict non-criminal gang activity. The first three sections provide the background needed to conceptualize the dangers of MTGMs in communities, while the fourth section provides an explanation and rationale for viewing the phenomenon as a critical issue. The fifth section of the literature review was necessary to understanding the logic that allows individuals to have active membership in two demanding organizations simultaneously. The sixth provides a framework for understanding the situations in which police officers are most likely to encounter gang members, as they use methods to restrict non-criminal gang activity.
    Members of traditional street gangs represent major variations in age, ethnicity, criminal pattern, and duration of allegiance to the gang (Klein, 1995; Thrasher, 1927). Scholars and other researchers have recently begun to address the differences between juvenile and adult members of street gangs.
    As the presence of gangs was traditionally thought to be a youth-oriented problem, many gang scholars considered street gang members to be comprised primarily of youth. The aging of the youth gang population brought increasing concerns.

    Next slide
  • Many people in military and civilian communities are unaware of the existence of gang members with military training (CID, 2006; McMaster, 1994; NGIC, 2007). Those who were aware of the presence of gang members in the military have expressed differing views on the problems their presence brings (Florida Department of Law Enforcement, 2007; Knox, 2006; NGIC, 2007).
    In 1992, Knox conducted an exploratory study of members of an Illinois National Guard unit. Respondents estimated that gang membership in the military ranged from a low of zero percent to a high of 75% with a mean of 21.5%. The responses indicated that the Army National Guard was thought to have the highest percentage of former or current gang members in its ranks. Notably, the Coast Guard was thought to have the lowest percentage, with a mean of 6.3%.
    In 1996, members of a Department of the Army task force evaluated the effects of extremist groups, and reported that, "gang-related activities appear to be more pervasive than extremist activities" (U.S. Department of Defense [DoD], 1996, para. 16).
    In 1998, a follow up study to the task force report identified three primary areas in need of attention: policies used by recruiters, coordination with local law enforcement, and access to juvenile records of potential enlistees (Flacks & Wiskoff, 1998). The authors recommended that prior (Tierney, 1998) research on gang members and military acculturation should be expanded to include non-incarcerated personnel.

    Next slide
  • The authors of the 2006 CID Gang Threat Assessment reported a significant increase in gang-related investigations and incidents in 2006. The most common gang-related crimes involved drug trafficking, with 31% of the gang-related felony offenses reported for the year (CID, 2006).
    Members of nearly every major street gang have been documented on military installations both domestically and internationally (NGIC, 2007). Gang members were present in most branches and across all ranks of the military, but were most common among the junior enlisted ranks. The Army, Army Reserves, and Army National Guard were most likely to have gang members (NGIC). Gang members serving in the military have committed murder, racketeering, drug distribution, and other serious crimes (NGIC).
    Authors of the CID Gang Threat Assessment (2009a) proposed the following standards for threshold evaluation: If 5% or less of the felony crime investigated was gang-related then the threat was low. If 6-10% of the felony crime was gang-related then the threat was medium. And if 11% or more of the felony crime was gang-related then the threat was high.
    Conflicting loyalties like those faced by gang members in the military was explained by the theories of differential identification (Glaser, 1956) and organizational commitment (Mowday et al., 1982). Methods used to restrict non-criminal gang activity, often referred to as anti-gang activities include formal anti-gang teams, sections, and task forces (NAGIA, 2005), injunctions (Grogger, 2005) and restrictive ordinances (Strosnider, 2002).

    Next slide
  • A quantitative correlational cross-sectional research design was used for the study. The researcher-developed Military Gang Perception Questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was reviewed by an expert group, pilot tested with gang investigators outside the intended population, and subjected to statistical analysis to confirm validity and reliability.
    All participants for the study were active members of the Tennessee Gang Investigators Association with valid e-mail addresses.
    The survey instrument consisted of three parts.
    The first part contained indicators to determine the perceptions regarding the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions. The second part was designed for demographic data for both the respondents’ organization and the respondent. The third and final part was used to collect general written comments from the participants.
    The assistance of subject matter experts was requested to develop and refine the survey for length, format, and scope. Several retired high-ranking military leaders, university professors with professional experience in gangs, and law enforcement officials who were gang specialists were asked to assist with content validity. The questionnaire was modified and revised, resulting in the final draft of the survey for the study.

    Next slide
  • A pilot test was conducted with gang investigators outside the geographic area designated for data collection - the Northwest Gang Investigators Association.

    The statistical analyses used to test the hypotheses in the study were Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients, independent means t tests, and Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis.

    Assumptions were an inherent part of the research design. One assumption was that all participants completing the survey were forthright and unbiased in their responses. Another assumption was that every respondent had some level of active or passive experience with gang members, including those with military training. An additional assumption was that the respondents reported their personal perceptions, not information gathered from another source.

    A sample of convenience was used for the study.

    Next slide
  • One limitation of the research was that the survey was not sent to every gang investigator in Tennessee. Though the majority of members were gang investigators in Tennessee, membership in the association was not limited to Tennessee residents or gang investigators.
    It was even possible that some of the most knowledgeable gang investigators in Tennessee were not a part of the association. Since members included law enforcement officers, correctional officers and members of the courts, some of the estimates surrounding MTGM presence may have been less precise. Correctional officers may have only been aware of MTGMs that were convicted of crimes, while law enforcements investigators may have a broader understanding of the presence of these gang members in the public domain.
    Delimitations. Time and geographic constraints limited the participants to members of the Tennessee Gang Investigators Association.
    Ethical Assurances
    The research was conducted solely under the direction of Northcentral University faculty and was not affiliated with any other university, institution, or corporation.
    In the study, respondents remained anonymous, the data remained confidential, all participants were adults, participation was voluntary, and failure to complete the survey did not result in any negative consequences.

    Next slide
  • Data were sought from the population of 260 members of the association. The final sample consisted of 119 participants who answered all or almost all of the questions on the survey.
    The majority of participants worked at the local level of government (67.3%), with the second most employed by State government (19.1%).
    The majority were Police (61.5%), followed by Corrections (21.4%).
    The majority did not have a working relationship with military investigators (62.1%).
    Most were Caucasian (78.6%), followed by African-American (12.0%).
    A minority had served in the military (35.9%).
    The majority worked for city or town police agencies (33.9%).
    Respondents reported a mean of 11% of the gang members in their jurisdictions were MTGMs. The Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve were identified as the largest sources of these gang members and the Bloods, Crips, and Gangster Disciples were the gangs most represented.
    Of particular note was the apparent conflict between respondents’ agreement that gang members in their jurisdiction used military-type tactics (to which 1 in 5 agreed) and the percentage reporting agreement that gang members in their jurisdictions committed home invasions and bank robberies (to which 4 of 5 agreed).
    A majority (83.1%) agreed that MTGMs posed more danger to police and most (93.1) agreed that active gang members should not be allowed to join the military.

    Next slide
  • Alternate hypothesis 1, that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between gang investigators’ perceptions of the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions and the size of their jurisdictions, was accepted. There was a statistically significant positive relationship when MTGM presence was measured as a percentage.

    Null hypothesis 2 was accepted regarding participation in anti-gang activities.
    Next slide please
  • Alternative hypothesis 3, that there is a relationship between perceptions and proximity to a military installation, was not supported for seven of the correlations, but was supported when the percent presence score was correlated with the computed distance using a Spearman correlation. The Spearman correlation was more appropriate because the percent presence score was not normally distributed.

    Null hypothesis 4 was accepted regarding anti-gang experience.

    Next slide
  • Null hypothesis 5 regarding age was accepted .

    Null hypothesis 6 regarding race was accepted .

    And null hypothesis 7 regarding military experience was accepted.

    Please turn to the next slide
  • Evaluation of Findings
    Acceptance of alternative hypothesis 1 regarding the correlation between MTGM presence percent score and county (jurisdiction) size indicated that respondents from more populated counties were more likely to perceive the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions.
    This finding supported research suggesting the presence of street gangs was concentrated in medium and large cities (Weisheit & Wells, 2001). This association happened despite military training that would have reinforced non-gang behavior, as prior identification and present circumstances play key roles in our choices of associates according to differential identification theory (Glaser, 1956). Gang-related violent crime is increasing in smaller urban areas (CID, 2009a; NGIC, 2009), so the apparent addition of MTGMs to the community may increase the level of violent crime in those areas.
    As there was no relationship between perception and percentage of time spent on anti-gang activities, null hypothesis 2 was accepted.
    With the experience of concealing their gang affiliation while in the military, MTGMs in civilian communities would be experienced in avoiding detection, especially in the presence of civilian gang investigators. The indicators and effects of MTGMs may need to be incorporated into gang investigator training programs.

    Next slide
  • Testing of Hypothesis 3 indicated a relationship between proximity of the jurisdiction to a military installation and perception regarding presence.
    The finding supported McMaster’s (1994) determination that many (30.5%) communities on or near military installations have gang members. The phenomenon was explained by the theory of organizational commitment, which suggested that separation from a group with which an individual had a psychological attachment was difficult (Mowday et al., 1982). The study tended to support Knox’s (2006) finding that the strength of the relationship between the gang member and the gang was stronger than the relationship between the gang member and his employer.
    Null Hypothesis 4 was accepted. Testing showed there was not a relationship between perception and anti-gang experience.

    Next slide
  • Null hypothesis 5 regarding age was accepted.

    Null hypothesis 6 was accepted.

    And, null hypothesis 7 was accepted.

    Next slide
  • The survey results supported alternate hypothesis 1, indicating the maturity of the gang problem in larger urban areas appeared to have attracted MTGMs, or at least made them more visible to gang investigators. The implication was that gang investigators in large jurisdictions appear more likely to perceive MTGMs in their jurisdictions.

    Null hypothesis 2 was accepted and the implication appeared to be that extensive anti-gang experience was not needed to be able to identify MTGMs.

    Alternative hypothesis 3 was supported with the computed distance using a Spearman correlation.

    The results indicated that gang investigators who worked closer to military installations were more likely to perceive MTGMs in their jurisdictions. That may have been because the military installations identified were all in close proximity to large jurisdictions. The implication was that jurisdictions in close proximity to a military installation are more likely to contain MTGMs.

    Next slide, please
  • Null hypothesis 4 was accepted. The implication was that experienced gang investigators were not more likely to perceive MTGMs in their jurisdiction than gang investigators with less experience.

    Null hypothesis 5 was accepted. The implication was that the age of the gang investigator did not affect their perception regarding the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdiction.

    Null hypothesis 6 was accepted. The implication was that the race of the gang investigator did not affect their perception regarding the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdiction.

    Null hypothesis 7 was accepted. The implication was that the military experience of the gang investigator did not affect their perception regarding the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdiction.

    Next slide
  • For government leaders, I recommended compliance with the 2008 Public Law directing the prohibition of active participation in criminal street gangs.
    The federal government and all branches of the military should adopt a uniform definition of gangs to complement the legal definitions of their activity.
    Policy makers should consider identifying gangs as Security Threat Groups (STGs),
    and the effort to consistently evaluate the gang problem should extend beyond the Army to the Army National Guard, Reserve, and all other branches.

    For military commanders, I recommended acknowledgement of the increase in gang-related crime affecting the military without attempting to quantify the threat level.
    I recommended cumulative tracking and analysis, and an all-hands approach to identifying gang members in the military.
    I recommended continuous examination of the activities of all suspected military gang members to determine active gang affiliation for retention purposes while evaluating any gang affiliation for security clearances.

    For law enforcement. I recommended that Military Law Enforcement liaison for recruiters develop effective communication with local, state, and federal agencies.
    I recommended that gang activity threat assessments distinguish between youth and adult gang activity, and that efforts that succeed at lowering levels of gang activity be identified and shared.

    Finally, for future research. I recommended an extended longitudinal examination of the effect of MTGMs on the community , including other state and national levels, with more of a focus on size of jurisdiction and proximity to a military installation.
    Also, research should be conducted service wide for the Army and other branches to determine the perceptions regarding the presence of gang members in military service.

    Next slide
  • In conclusion, the problem addressed was the presence of military-trained gang members in civilian communities. The purpose was to determine the perceived presence of military-trained gang members and to examine whether there was a relationship between the perceptions of gang investigators regarding that presence and the size of their jurisdictions, proximity of jurisdictions to military installations, and extent to which investigators participated in anti-gang activities.

    The Military Gang Perception Questionnaire collected responses from the 260 active members of the Tennessee Gang Investigators Association. Respondents reported a mean of 11% of the gang members in their jurisdictions had military training. The Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve were identified as the largest sources of MTGMs, and the Bloods, Crips, and Gangster Disciples were most represented.

    There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MTGM presence percent score and jurisdiction size. There was also a statistically significant positive correlation between MTGM presence percent score and the distance from the nearest military installation (computed).

    Recommendations included that military leadership conduct cumulative tracking and analysis, and apply an all-hands approach to identifying gang members in the military. When there is a decrease in gang-related activity, solutions should be identified. Military leadership should examine all suspected gang members and policy makers should identify gangs and related groups as Security Threat Groups.

    This concludes the presentation.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Perceptions of Gang Investigators Regarding Presence of Military-Trained Gang Members Dissertation by CARTER F. SMITH Submitted to Northcentral University Chair: John House, Ph.D. Member: Yvonne Doll, DM Member: Joe DiRenzo III, Ph.D. 1
    • 2. Outline • Introduction • Literature Review • Research Method • Findings • Implications & Recommendations • Conclusion 2
    • 3. Introduction • 80% of all crimes in U.S. committed by gang members (NGIC, 2009). • Roughly one million gang members in U.S. (NGIC). • Gang members enlist as alternative to incarceration, to recruit, obtain access to weapons, and learn to respond to hostile gunfire (NGIC). • Assessment of presence of MTGMs in communities • Crimes committed by MTGMs increased significantly since 2002 (CID, 2006-2009; NGIC 2009). – 265% increase from 2005 to 2006 (CID, 2006). – Twofold increase 2006 to 2009 (CID, 2009). 3
    • 4. Introduction • Purpose to examine perceptions of gang investigators regarding presence of MTGMs. • Military Gang Perception Questionnaire (MGPQ) used. • Participants were 260 active members of the Tennessee Gang Investigators Association with e-mail addresses. • May provide tangible evidence necessary to ascertain level of perception gang investigators have of MTGMs and advanced combat tactics within their communities. – May provide support for continued research to document level of military tactics used by gang members in other areas of the United States. – Assist with developing training for law enforcement agencies increasing their awareness and safety when they encounter MTGMs. 4
    • 5. Research Questions To what extent is there a statistically significant relationship between gang investigators’ perceptions of the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions and Research question 1. Size of jurisdiction Research question 2. Level of participation in anti-gang activities Research question 3. Proximity of gang investigators’ jurisdiction to a military installation Research question 4. Anti-gang experience? Research question 5. Age Research question 6. Race Research question 7. Military experience 5
    • 6. Literature Review • Existing literature 1) traditional street gangs 2) differences between juvenile and adult members of street gangs 3) advanced organized crime groups 4) MTGMs 5) conflicting loyalties 6) methods used to restrict non-criminal gang activity • Members of traditional street gangs represent major variations in age, ethnicity, criminal pattern, and duration of allegiance to the gang (Klein, 1995; Thrasher, 1927). • Many gang scholars considered street gang members to be primarily youth 6
    • 7. Literature Review • Military and civilian community members unaware of MTGMs (CID, 2006; McMaster, 1994; NGIC, 2007). • Estimates of gang membership in the military mean of 21.5%. • Task Force found gang-related activities more pervasive than extremist activities (U.S. DoD, 1996, para. 16). • 1998 follow up study – three primary areas in need of attention - policies used by recruiters , connectivity and coordination with local law enforcement, and access to the juvenile records (Flacks & Wiskoff, 1998). • Flacks and Wiskoff (1999) recommended Tierney’s (1998) research on gang members and military acculturation should be expanded to include non-incarcerated personnel. 7
    • 8. Literature Review • Increase over previous years. • Most common involved drug trafficking (CID, 2006). • Gang members in all ranks. • Murder, racketeering, and drug distribution (NGIC). • Standards for threshold evaluation: – Up to 5% - low – 6% to 10% - medium – 11% or more - high • Conflicting loyalties explained by differential identification (Glaser, 1956) and organizational commitment (Mowday et al., 1982). • Restrict with formal anti-gang teams, sections, and task forces (NAGIA, 2005), injunctions (Grogger, 2005) and restrictive ordinances (Strosnider, 2002). 8
    • 9. Research Method • Quantitative correlational cross-sectional design • Military Gang Perception Questionnaire – Three sections • indicators to determine perceptions of respondents regarding presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions • demographic data for organization and respondent • general written comments – Development • sought assistance of subject matter experts – military leaders, university professors, and gang specialists • review cover letter & survey for face and content validity • modified and revised 9
    • 10. Research Method • Pilot test using online survey of Northwest Gang Investigators Association members. • Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients, independent means t tests, and Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis. • All participants forthright and unbiased, some experience with gang members including MTGMs, personal perceptions. • Convenience Sample. 10
    • 11. Research Method Limitations. • Not every gang investigator in Tennessee. • Some less precise. Delimitations. • Time and geographic constraints. Ethical Assurances • Best interests of participants and organization. • Respondents remained anonymous, data remained confidential. – Participation voluntary, no deception and nothing purposely withheld. 11
    • 12. Findings • Population - 260 members of TNGIA • Final sample N = 119 participants • Majority local police • Majority no working relationship with military investigators • Most Caucasian • Minority served in military 12
    • 13. To what extent is there a statistically significant relationship between gang investigators’ perceptions of the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions and Research question 1. Size of jurisdiction • Alternate hypothesis 1 accepted - statistically significant positive relationship between perceptions and size of jurisdictions. Research question 2. Level of participation in anti-gang activities • Null hypothesis 2 accepted - no statistically significant relationship between perceptions and level of participation in anti-gang activities. 13
    • 14. To what extent is there a statistically significant relationship between gang investigators’ perceptions of the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions and Research question 3. Proximity of gang investigators’ jurisdiction to military installation • Alternative hypothesis 3 accepted - statistically significant positive relationship between perceptions and proximity to military installation. Research question 4. Anti-gang experience • Null 4 accepted - no statistically significant relationship between perceptions and anti- gang experience 14
    • 15. To what extent is there a statistically significant relationship between gang investigators’ perceptions of the presence of MTGMs in their jurisdictions and Research question 5. Age • Null 5 accepted - no statistically significant relationship between perceptions and age Research question 6. Race • Null hypothesis 6 accepted - no statistically significant difference in perceptions by race Research question 7. Military experience • Null hypothesis 7 accepted - no statistically significant difference in perceptions by military experience 15
    • 16. Evaluation of Findings Research question 1. Size of jurisdiction • Alternate hypothesis 1 accepted - positive relationship between perceptions and size of jurisdictions. • Larger jurisdictions appropriate locations in which MTGMs find other gang members with whom to associate. Research question 2. Level of participation in anti-gang activities • Null hypothesis 2 accepted - no statistically significant relationship between perceptions and level of participation in anti-gang activities • With experience of concealing affiliation, MTGMs avoid detection. 16
    • 17. Evaluation of Findings Research question 3. Proximity of gang investigators’ jurisdiction to a military installation • Alternative hypothesis 3 accepted - statistically significant positive relationship between perceptions and proximity to military installation. • Supported McMaster’s (1994) finding that many military communities have gang members. • Separation from group with psychological attachment difficult (Mowday et al., 1982). • Strength of relationship between gang member and gang stronger than relationship between gang member and employer (Knox, 2006). Research question 4. Anti-gang experience • Null 4 accepted - no statistically significant relationship between perceptions and anti-gang experience 17
    • 18. Evaluation of Findings Research question 5. Age • Null 5 accepted - no statistically significant relationship between perceptions and age Research question 6. Race • Null hypothesis 6 accepted - no statistically significant difference in perceptions by race Research question 7. Military experience • Null hypothesis 7 accepted - no statistically significant difference in perceptions by military experience 18
    • 19. Implications & Recommendations • Alternate hypothesis 1 accepted - relationship between perceptions and size of jurisdictions. – Implication that gang investigators in large jurisdictions more likely to perceive MTGMs. • Null hypothesis 2 accepted - no relationship between perceptions and level of participation in anti-gang activities. – Implication that extensive anti-gang experience not needed to identify MTGMs. • Alternative hypothesis 3 accepted - relationship between perceptions and proximity to military installation. – Implication that jurisdictions in close proximity to military installations more likely to contain MTGMs. 19
    • 20. Implications & Recommendations • Null 4 accepted - no relationship between perceptions and anti-gang experience • Null 5 accepted - no relationship between perceptions and age • Null hypothesis 6 accepted - no difference in perceptions by race • Null hypothesis 7 accepted - no difference in perceptions by military experience 20
    • 21. Recommendations • Recommendations for government leaders – Compliance with Congressional instruction, uniform definition, STG • Recommendations for military commanders – Acknowledge and address increase, tracking and analysis, all-hands approach, evaluate for retention and security classification • Recommendations for law enforcement – Use law enforcement to coordinate with recruiting, distinguish between youth and adult gang activity, share successes • Recommendations for future research – Conduct extended longitudinal examination, broaden population while narrowing focus 21
    • 22. Conclusion • Problem was presence of MTGMs in civilian communities. • Purpose was to determine perceived presence of MTGMs and examine whether relationship between perceptions regarding presence and size of jurisdictions, proximity of jurisdictions to military installation, and extent to which investigators participate in anti-gang activities. • Military Gang Perception Questionnaire (MGPQ) created to collect responses. • Respondents reported mean of 11% of gang members were MTGMs. • Army largest, Bloods, Crips, & Gangster Disciples most represented. • Correlation between MTGM presence percent score and jurisdiction size and between MTGM presence percent score and distance from military base (computed). • Recommendations included – Tracking and analysis of threats, all-hands approach. – When installation decrease in activity, solutions should be identified. – Identify and examine all suspected military gang members – identify gangs and related groups as Security Threat Groups. 22
    • 23. Perceptions of Gang Investigators Regarding Presence of Military-Trained Gang Members Dissertation by CARTER F. SMITH Submitted to Northcentral University Chair: John House, Ph.D. Member: Yvonne Doll, DM Member: Joe DiRenzo III, Ph.D. 23

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