How Do Adults Learn


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  • How Do Adults Learn

    1. 1. How do adults learn? Principles of Andragogy from Alexander Kapp to Malcolm Knowles
    2. 2. Andragogy <ul><li>‘the art and science of helping adults learn’ </li></ul><ul><li>built upon two central, defining attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learners are self-directed and autonomous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the teacher is a facilitator of learning rather than presenter of content </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Six Assumptions of Andragogy <ul><li>The Learner’s Need to Know </li></ul><ul><li>The Learner’s Self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>The Learner’s Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness to Learn </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation to Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to Learn </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Learner’s Need to Know <ul><li>adults need to know why they should learn something. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reason they need to learn something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how it will benefit them </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The Learner’s Self-concept <ul><li>adults resent and resist situations in which they feel others are imposing their wills on them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>previous schooling has made them dependent learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>move adult students away from their old habits and into new patterns of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help learners who are still moving into the self-directed mode </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Learner’s Experience <ul><li>adults want to use what they know and be acknowledged for having that knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>case studies, reflective activities, and group projects will facilitate the use of learners’ already acquired expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>adults’ self-identity (including habits and biases) are determined from their experience </li></ul>
    7. 7. Readiness to Learn <ul><li>adults must experience a need to learn something in order to solve real-life tasks or problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage learners’ readiness to learn by designing situations where the student will encounter a need for their knowledge or skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interactive role play will help them see how an understanding of the topic will benefit them in the future </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Orientation to Learning <ul><li>adults are life, task or problem-centered in their orientation to learning </li></ul><ul><li>use real-life examples or situations that adult learners may encounter in their life or on the job </li></ul><ul><li>allowing flexibility in the design of a lesson will permit student input on issues that need to be addressed </li></ul>
    9. 9. Motivation to Learn <ul><li>internal priorities are more important than external motivators </li></ul><ul><li>increased job satisfaction, self-esteem and quality of life are important </li></ul><ul><li>use activities that build students’ self-esteem or sense of accomplishment </li></ul>
    10. 10. References <ul><li>Fidishun, D., (2000) Andragogy and Technology: Integrating Adult Learning Theory As We Teach With Technology . Retrieved May 17, 2006 from </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles, M. S. (1980) The Modern Practice of Adult Education; From Andragogy to Pedagogy . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Cambridge Adult Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles, M., Holton, E., and Swanson, R. (1998) The Adult Learner . Houston: Gulf Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Pratt, D., & Associates (1998): Five perspectives on teaching in adult and higher education . Malabar, FL: Krieger. </li></ul><ul><li>Reischmann, Jost (2004) Andragogy. History, Meaning, Context, Function. At: Version Sept. 9, 2004. </li></ul>
    11. 11. How do adults learn? Principles of Andragogy from Alexander Kapp to Malcolm Knowles