Military Weapons• Military tactics not only concern.• Gang members with military weapons escalate threat. –Even soldiers with no clear ties to gangs make military-style assault weapons available to street gang members.
Unconventional Weapons• December, 2008: former soldier in Oklahoma City, OK tried to sell IEDs to gang members for $100.00.
• Ft. Bliss, TX (CID, 2009): soldier and three non-DoD civilians arrested for murder of known drug cartel member in El Paso, TX. “Crazy Mexican Killers” affiliation – feeder for Barrio Azteca gang.• Ft. Meade, MD (CID, 2009): Armed robbery at Burger King on post. Suspect family member linked to a local gang called “All Bout Money.” – affiliated with Bloods 7
• Ft. Stewart, GA (CID, 2009): Soldier robbed at gunpoint in his barracks room by 3 unidentified males wearing ski masks. – Numerous “Folk Gang Nation” tattoos and gang paraphernalia found in barracks room.• Ft. Wainwright, AK (CID, 2009): Assault with deadly weapon. Soldier stabbed another off-post after victim stated no real gangs in Fairbanks. – Suspect identified as Bloods gang member. 8
Summary of the problem• Gang members have primary loyalty to the gang• Military training includes tactics that gang members can teach to others• Civilian Police Officers are not regularly trained to respond to military tactics
It’s important for you because• All gang members in the military return to civilian communities . . . eventually.• Crimes by MTGMs increased since 2002.• MTGMs enter communities and teach tactics to local gang members.• MTGMs have committed murder, racketeering, and drug distribution. 10
Gang-related Investigations and Intelligence Reports Gang-related % of TotalYear Investigation & with DON Intel Rpts Nexus2011 115 1.1114%2010 120 1.1878%2009 130 0.0891%2008 67 0.2037% • Gang activity represents less than two percent of all NCIS investigative and intelligence reports. • In 2011, 1.1114% of felony crime & criminal intelligence reports were gang-related; thus, gang threat assessed LOW. 12
Literature Review ESTIMATES OF THE % WHO ARE CURRENT OR FORMER• Military & civilian GANG MEMBERS BY BRANCH Low High Mean community unaware of MTGMs.• Estimates of gang membership in the military mean of George W. Knox, Ph.D. 21.5%. * 13
DOD Instruction 1325.6, Nov 2009 Change 1, February 22, 2012• Active participation in gangs is prohibited. – Active participation includes. . . fundraising; demonstrating or rallying; recruiting, training, organizing, or leading members; distributing material (including posting on-line); knowingly wearing gang colors or clothing; having tattoos or body markings associated with such gangs or organizations; or otherwise engaging in activities in furtherance of the objective of such gangs or organizations that are detrimental to good order, discipline, or mission accomplishment or are incompatible with military service
The problem is they are looking for 1 Generation gangs . . . st 15
LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH (Gang-Related)• 5% or less of felony crime - LOW• 6% to 10% of felony crime - MEDIUM• 11% or more of felony crime - HIGH• In 2009, .4% of the felony crime investigated by CID was gang-related• At the current rate, MEDIUM by 2017
Relevant responses (MTGM presence) Strongly Disagree Disagree No opinion Agree StronglyAgree4. Gang members in my jurisdiction use military/military-type weapons. +38.2% 3 (2.6%) 29 (24.8%) 40 (34.2%) 30 (25.6%) 15 (12.8%)5. Gang members in my jurisdiction use military equipment. -56.9% 26 (22.4%) 40 (34.5%) 29 (25.0%) 15 (12.9%) 6 (5.2%)6. Gang members in my jurisdiction use military-type tactics. -46.5% 15 (12.9%) 39 (33.6%) 36 (31.0%) 17 (14.7%) 9 (7.8%) 17
Relevant responses (MTGM presence) Strongly Disagree Disagree No opinion Agree StronglyAgree9. Gang leaders in my community demonstrate military training. -36.8% 12 (10.3%) 31 (26.5%) 42 (35.9%) 22 (18.8%) 10 (8.5%)10. Some gang members in my jurisdiction have no ties to local gangs. +72.6% 1 (0.8%) 7 (6.0%) 24 (20.5%) 48 (41.0%) 37 (31.6%)12. There are gang members in my jurisdiction currently in the military.-36.8% 11 (9.4%) 32 (27.4%) 39 (33.3%) 26 (22.2%) 9 (7.7%)13. There are gang members in my jurisdiction that served in military. +48.7% 5 (4.3%) 19 (16.5%) 35 (30.4%) 33 (28.7%) 23 (20.0%) 18
• Death of Juwan L. Johnson in 2005 – Eight service members are suspects.• Investigators conclude that Johnson was beaten to death during a “jumping in” gang initiation ceremony. linked to suspected Gangster Disciples
“I just don’t picture my son joining a gang” . . . “Does it make any sense that he would join a gang in Germany just weeks before he’s going to leave?”
5 top Tijuana cops accused of working with gang• Five high-ranking officers in 2,100-officer Tijuana PD detained by Mexican federal forces.• Two were military captains on leave, hired as part of major anti-corruption campaign spearheaded by Tijuana’s secretary of public safety. – Ties to Sinaloa cartel.• One was former member of the ministerial police. 22
How Big a deal is it?Gang members trained for these roles• Infantry • Medical• Telecommunications • Intelligence and• Paralegal Electronic Warfare• Military Police • Psychological Operations• Intelligence Analyst • Finance• Transportation • Chemical Munitions• Logistics • Explosive Ordnance• Communications •
How Big a deal is it?Gang members trained to use• Weapons• Ammunition• Grenades• Night Vision Goggles• Ballistic Vests M4A1 Carbine Police: Same Man Robs 2 So. Fla. Burger Kings With AK-47
April 2011: U.S. State Department issued warnings advising to defer non-essentialtravel to much of Mexico due to threat of armed robbery, carjacking, kidnapping and murder by Zetas. 25
• Three Mexican nationals in conspiracy to trade drugs and cash for military- grade weapons in Feb 2010.• Sinaloa drug cartel – largest drug-smuggling gang in Mexico.• Anti-aircraft missiles, anti-tank weapons, grenade launchers and M-60 machine guns• Arrest while attempting to deliver nearly 12 pounds of methamphetamine as partial down payment for military- grade weapons. 26
• More than 38,000 people killed since Mexico launched war on drug gangs in December 2006.• April 2011 was most violent month yet, with 1,402 deaths• Soldiers found mass graves of the drug war.• Many gang leaders infiltrated police, courts, prisons and town halls.• Drug hitmen killed U.S. agent and wounded another in central Mexico – worst attack on U.S. officials in more than a decade. 27
For law enforcement• Military Law Enforcement liaison for recruiters – effective communication with local, state, and federal agencies.• Gang activity threat assessments distinguish between youth and adult gang activity• Efforts that succeed at lowering levels of gang activity identified and shared. 34
What’s the problem?• Military Law Enforcement does not adequately address the “gang problem.” – Reactive response in most cases – no centralized effort – Sporadic interest depends on grassroots effort. – More often “it’s not our responsibility.”• Military fails to recognize gang-drug connection.• Military Law Enforcement changes duty assignments & locations often (unless civilianized).
• Many felt anti-gang prohibitions would limit activity of MTGMs.• Mean (average) of 11% of their gang members were MTGMs.• Army, including (NG & AR) largest source MTGMs• Bloods, Crips, and Gangster Disciples most represented 36
Gangs and the Military Carter F. Smith, JD, PhD U.S. Army CID (Retired) email@example.com 615-656-3505 http://www.gangsinthemilitary.com
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.