Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat6


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Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat6

  1. 1. Terrorism Understanding the Threat Course Text: Martin, Gus (2006). Understanding Terrorism . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  2. 2. Chapter #6 <ul><li>Religious Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>– belief than an otherworldly power sanctioned/commanded violence </li></ul>
  3. 3. Primary & Secondary Motives for Religious Terrorism <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the core of political, social & revolutionary agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important, but ultimate goal grounded in secular identity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Jihad <ul><li>A sacred struggle or effort </li></ul><ul><li>The duty of Muslims to personally strive in the way of God </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Religious/Sociological Outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatalism: Guaranteed Victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(on earth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guarantee of “Heaven” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sociological Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppressed = Good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good = Assured Victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory = “Heaven” </li></ul></ul>The (Radical) Jihadi Mind Oppressed are Good; oppressors are Evil. The Good (the oppressed) are assured a predestined victory over the Evil (the oppressors). Victory in the ultimate sense will be established when Islam rules the earth and has subdued all of Allah’s enemies (the rich, oppressor nations).
  6. 6. Different Views of Jihadist &quot;Strategy&quot; <ul><li>Brian Michael Jenkins - April 1, 2004 - Briefing for Army Science Board </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad as insurgency: control a state (or, at least portion of a state) as a safe base </li></ul><ul><li>Jihad as a mission: keep fighting to be worthy of Allah--only he will award victory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commitment to &quot;strategy&quot; is weak; political aims are opportunistic recruiting appeals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What Are the Sources of the Jihadists' Operational Code? <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of pre-Islamic warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal warfare in Arab world, Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Selected history and myth (Saladin, assassins, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Current circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorist tactics observed and discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Their own playbook </li></ul>Brian Michael Jenkins - April 1, 2004
  8. 8. The Protocol of the Learned Elders of Zion <ul><li>takes the form of a speech describing how to dominate the world, the need to control the media, finance, replace traditional social order, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>one of the best known and discussed examples of literary forgery </li></ul>
  9. 9. Historical Foundation <ul><li>Joshua’s conquest of Canaan </li></ul><ul><li>Christian crusades to capture holy lands </li></ul><ul><li>The Assassins – 11 th Century Persia </li></ul><ul><li>Thuggee cult followers of Hindu goddess Kali – 13 th -19 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Cold War radical Islamists </li></ul>
  10. 10. Middle East The Holy Land <ul><li>The Holy Land refers to Israel and the historic geographical region of Palestine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns the areas that hold significant religious importance to the three monotheistic Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of its sanctity stems from the religious significance of Jerusalem and its importance as the Land of Israel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul> /.../ holy_sites/html/default.stm
  11. 11. Yitzhak Rabin <ul><li>Yitzhak Rabin, the first native-born Prime Minister, displayed a leadership style which was candid, direct and at times unadorned to the point of bluntness. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1975, Rabin concluded an Agreement with Egypt, which led to Israeli withdrawal from the Suez Canal. As a result of this agreement, the first Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Israel and the United States, ensuring American support for Israeli interests in the international arena and renewed American aid. </li></ul><ul><li>In July 1976, the government ordered the &quot;Entebbe Operation&quot; for the rescue of Air France passengers hijacked by terrorists to Uganda. In this daring operation, thousands of miles from home, the hostages were released and flown to safety in Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabin's second term as Prime Minister included two historic events - the Oslo Agreements with the Palestinians and the Treaty of Peace with Jordan. Working closely with Shimon Peres, he masterminded negotiations on the Declaration of Principles signed with the PLO at the White House in September 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>This won Rabin, Peres and Arafat the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize and opened negotiations with the Palestinians on autonomy in Gaza and some areas of Judea and Samaria and on the establishment of a Palestinian Authority. </li></ul><ul><li>On November 4, 1995, on leaving a mass rally for peace held under the slogan &quot;Yes to Peace, No to Violence,&quot; Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Aum Shinrikyo <ul><li>Aum Shinrikyo (also spelled Om Shin Rikyo) was a religious group which mixed Buddhist and Hindu beliefs and was based in Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>It gained international notoriety in 1995, when its founder, Shōkō Asahara, and a group of followers were accused of carrying out a sarin gas attack on a Tokyo subway. Since 2000, it has been called Aleph . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sarin <ul><li>Sarin or GB is an extrememely toxic substance that is one of the world's most dangerous weapons of war. </li></ul><ul><li>As a chemical weapon, it is classified as a weapon of mass destruction by the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Its production and stockpiling was outlawed by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. </li></ul>
  14. 14. END
  15. 15. Terrorism Understanding the Threat Class #16 Final Examination