Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5

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  • Richard Reid - British man accused of trying to blow up an airliner with explosives hidden in his shoes. In an e-mail Richard Reid sent to his mother two days before he boarded the Paris to Miami flight he defended his planned actions, calling himself a warrior against "oppressive" US forces in Muslim countries. He told her not to be upset with his actions because "what I am doing is part of the ongoing war between Islam and disbelief. The e-mail says: "I see it as a duty upon me to help remove the oppressive American forces from the Muslim land and that this is the only way for us to do so as we do not have other means to fight them." Reid allegedly told investigators he had acted alone. Investigators believe Reid is part of Osama Bin Laden's al-Qaeda network and could use statements to pass hidden messages to groups planning attacks on the US. Reid denies charges of attempted murder, attempted homicide and attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction. He was arrested in 22 December after being overpowered on American Airlines flight 63 while allegedly trying to ignite explosives concealed in his shoes. The flight was diverted to Boston. Prosecutors said forensic tests on a human hair and a palm print found inside the device did not belong to Reid, indicating that at least one other person had helped him. "(The) investigation since 22 December has established that Reid was not unassisted in his efforts to destroy Flight 63, and that his choice of a target was a deliberate and calculated act of international terrorism," government lawyers wrote. Prosecutors also noted that Reid - who had no known source of income - made journeys between July and December 2001 that took him from Belgium to Israel, Egypt, Turkey and Pakistan. Charges against Reid include: Attempted use of WMD - Attempted murder - Attempted homicide - Placing an explosive device on an aircraft - Interfering with a flight crew Attempted destruction of an aircraft - Using a destructive device - Attempted wrecking of a mass transportation vehicle The trial is scheduled to go ahead in November 2004. Reid faces a maximum life sentence in prison if convicted.


  • 1. Terrorism Understanding the Threat Course Text: Martin, Gus (2006). Understanding Terrorism . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • 2.  
  • 3. Chapter #4
    • State terrorism
      • Committed by governments & quasi-governments – externally & internally
      • Most organized & far-reaching
      • Official support for int’l & domestic policies
      • Characterized by official support for
        • Violence
        • Repression
        • Intimidation
  • 4. Characteristics of State Terrorism
    • Violence is directed against perceived enemies because of a threat to its interests or security;
    • The violence may be committed by either official or unofficial state agents.
    • Those who carry out the violence are often unofficial state agents.
  • 5. Known Sponsors
    • In the international policy domain, the united states has a list of nations known to be sponsors of international terrorism. The list includes Iran, Iraq, Syria; Libya, Cuba, north Korea, and Sudan.
  • 6. Cuba
    • Castro labeled the response to 9-11 “worse than the original attacks”
    • After being ostracized – signed off on all international countering attempts
    • Continues to denounce global effort
    • Castro views terror as a legitimate revolutionary tactic
    Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism (AE 05/06) Patterns of Global Terrorism-2001 (May 2002 Fidel Castro
  • 7. Iran
    • Most active state sponsor
    • Support a variety of groups
    • Support increased for Palestinians
    • Appears to have reduced support
    • Pledged to close borders
      • Afghanistan – block Taliban
      • Pakistan – block al-Qaida
    Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism (AE 05/06) Patterns of Global Terrorism-2001 (May 2002 Ayatollah Ali Khamenei President Mohammad Khatami
  • 8. Iraq
    • .
    • Al-Yawer .
    • The only Arab-Muslim country that did not condemn the attacks of 9-11.
    • Provided bases to several terrorist groups.
    • The U.S.-Led coalition transferred sovereignty to an interim Iraqi government June 28, 2004, and a new government led by prime minister Iyad Allawi and president ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer was sworn in.
    • Preparations are also to be made for democratic elections, to be held no later than Jan. 31, 2005.
    Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism (AE 05/06) Patterns of Global Terrorism-2001 (May 2002
  • 9. Libya
    • Called 9-11 attacks “horrific” and “gruesome”
    • Apparently curtailed support of terrorism
    • Past terrorist ties still hinders Qadhafi ’s efforts
    Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism (AE 05/06) Patterns of Global Terrorism-2001 (May 2002
  • 10. North Korea
    • Response disappointing
    • Did not respond to requests regarding implementation of UN resolutions
    • Did not report on efforts to find and block terrorists’ financial assets
    • Safe haven for Japanese Communist League and Red Army Faction
    • May have sold small arms to terrorist groups
    Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism (AE 05/06) Patterns of Global Terrorism-2001 (May 2002 President Kim Jong-il
  • 11. Sudan
    • Condemned 9-11 attacks
    • UN recognized positive steps by removed sanctions
    • Remains designated state sponsor
    • Safe haven for logistics operations and support for many terrorist groups
      • Al Qaida
      • Egyptian and Palestinian Islamic Jihad
      • HAMAS
    Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism (AE 05/06) Patterns of Global Terrorism-2001 (May 2002 Hasan al-Turabi
  • 12. Syria
    • Not implicated directly since 1986
    • Safe haven and logistics support for
      • PFLP-GC
      • Palestinian Islamic Jihad
      • HAMAS
    • Primary transit point for Hizballah
    Overview of State-Sponsored Terrorism (AE 05/06) Patterns of Global Terrorism-2001 (May 2002 Bashar Al Assad
  • 13. State Sponsorship: The Patronage Model
    • "State patronage for terrorism refers to active participation in, and encouragement of, terrorist behavior.“
    • Foreign Policy Domain
    • Domestic Policy Domain
  • 14. State Sponsorship (Patronage) - Foreign Policy
    • In the foreign policy domain, the terrorist group is a proxy for the government.
    • When state sponsorship of terrorist acts is discovered, the caught state usually claims one of these:
      • They accept the terrorism as a necessary tactic;
      • They deny that what occurred should be labeled as terrorism;
      • They deny that an incident occurred in the first place; Or.
      • They issue a blanket condemnation of all such violence as being unfortunate.
  • 15. State Sponsorship (Patronage) - Domestic Policy
    • The state overtly sponsors terrorism within its borders against a real or perceived domestic enemy. The personnel involved are agents of the state.
    • The state will make one or more of the following claims. The terrorism was "necessary" to:
      • suppress a clear and present domestic threat to national security;
      • maintain law and order during times of national crisis;
      • protect fundamental cultural values that are threatened by subversives;
      • restore stability to government institutions that have been shaken, usurped, or damaged by a domestic enemy.
  • 16. State Sponsorship: The Assistance Model
    • Tacit participation and encouragement of terrorist behavior.
    • Government support of terrorism is not openly stated but is quietly understood.
    • The state uses agents who are sympathetic to their cause, but who are not actual state agents.
    • State may arm, train, or provide safe havens - done indirectly.
    • Foreign policy domain.
    • Domestic policy domain.
  • 17. State Sponsorship (Assistance) - Foreign Policy
    • The government backs a terrorist organization that is serving as their proxy and will operate outside the boundary limits of the nation.
    • The government will make one or more of:
    • Deny a linkage exists between the state and the terrorist group;
    • Admit some linkage exists but the incident in question was outside the parameters of the relationship;
    • Admit or deny a linkage, but insist the cause is just and the proxy group consists of freedom fighters;
    • Blame the group's adversary for creating conditions requiring political violence.
  • 18. State Sponsorship (Assistance) - Domestic Policy
    • Government indirectly gives support to violent groups who will work against perceived internal enemies, or enemies within the borders of the nation.
    • If the government gets accused of such conduct, they:
    • Blame an adversary group for the breakdown and request the people of the state to help restore order;
    • Argue that the proxy violence is evidence of popular patriotic sentiment to suppress the perceived threat;
    • Call for all parties to cease violence but put the blame on the adversarial group;
    • Assure everyone that the government is doing all it can to restore law and order, but that it cannot do so immediately.
  • 19. State Terrorism As Foreign Policy
    • Direct application of violence outside the borders of the state.
    • Terrorism is utilized when the use of conventional military force is infeasible.
    • State sponsored terrorism is an acceptable risk for many state governments. A range of policy options include:
      • Ideological support;
      • Financial support;
      • Military support;
      • Organizational support;
      • Initiating terrorist attacks;
      • Direct involvement in terrorist attacks.
  • 20. State Terrorism As Domestic Policy
    • Direct support of terrorism within the borders of the state.
    • The force is committed by agents of the state or by unofficial paramilitary units or death squads.
    • To demonstrate the supreme power of the government & intimidate or eliminate opposition.
  • 21. Legitimizing State Authority
    • Examples of state domestic authority
      • Democracy
        • Authority from the people to the leaders
      • Authoritarianism
        • Authority comes from the state
      • Totalitarianism
        • Total government regulation
      • Crazy states
        • Irrational, at whim of dominant group
  • 22. Domestic State Terrorism
    • Vigilante
      • Columbia – social cleansing
    • Overt official
      • China – Tiananmen Square
    • Covert official
      • South Africa – elimination of ANC
  • 23. Domestic State Genocide
    • Rwanda – Tutsis
    • Cambodia – Buddhists
    • Bosnia – Muslims
    • United States – Native Americans
    • Germany – Jews
    • Iraq – Kurds
  • 24. Chapter #5
    • Dissident Terrorism
      • Nonstate movements/groups against governments and others
      • Three categories of Action/Terrorism
        • Revolutionary – striving for complete change
        • Subrevolutionary – striving for partial change
        • Establishment – fighting against opposition
      • Dissident Terrorist Model – Broad Categories
        • Nihilist
        • Nationalist
        • Criminal
  • 25. Dissident Terrorist Models
    • Revolutionary Dissidents
      • To destroy existing order through armed conflict & create new society
      • e.g. Castro & Guevara
    • Nihilist Dissidents
      • Dislike current social order, but have no alternative
      • e.g. Red Brigade, Weather Underground Organization, Abu Nidal, possibly al Qaeda
  • 27. Dissident Terrorist Models
    • Nationalist Dissidents
      • Mobilization of a particular demographic group against another group or government
        • e.g. Provisional Irish Republican Army, ETA
    • Criminal Dissidents
      • Transnational Organized Crime
      • Goal - protect illegal enterprise
        • Medellin & Cali Cartels in Columbia
  • 28. Terrorist Cells
    • The Cell
      • Horizontal, indistinct command structure
      • Hub/Node configuration with autonomy
      • Often dormant for many years
      • More on Blackboard & Video (and next)
  • 29. Richard Reid
    • Tried to blow up an airliner.
    • Believed to be part of al-Qaeda network.
    • The flight was diverted to Boston.
    • Had no known source of income.
    • Between July and December 2001 traveled.
      • From Belgium to Israel, Egypt, turkey and Pakistan.
    • Charges:
      • Attempted use of WMD.
      • Attempted murder.
      • Attempted homicide.
      • Placing an explosive device on an aircraft.
      • Interfering with a flight crew.
      • Attempted destruction of an aircraft.
      • Using a destructive device.
      • Attempted wrecking of a mass transportation vehicle.
    • Convicted.
  • 30. Anti-state Dissident Terrorism
    • Directed against specific governments or interests
      • Anti-war movement 1970s (US)
      • Racial Supremacists & Patriot Movement (US)
      • Provisional IRA (UK)
      • Red Army Faction 1960s-1980s (GE)
      • Neo-Nazis 1990s – present (GE)
      • ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna, “Basque Fatherland and Liberty” in the Basque language) 1960s – present – SP
      • PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
  • 31. Communal Terrorism
    • Group versus Group.
    • May be characterized by extreme repression and violence, and occurs in varying degrees of intensity in different cultures.
      • Ethno-Nationalist.
      • Religious.
      • Ideological.
  • 32. END
  • 33. Terrorism Understanding the Threat Class #16 Final Examination