What Does NoSQL Mean
       for You?
           Chris Lea
       (mt) Media Temple
      FOWA Dublin 2010
For Starters: What does it
       mean at all?
For Starters: What does it
       mean at all?

“NoSQL is a blanket term used to describe
structured storage that doesn’t ...
For Starters: What does it
       mean at all?

“NoSQL” DOES NOT mean “SQL is Bad”
MySQL does what I need, why
      should I care?
MySQL does what I need, why
      should I care?

 “If I’d asked my customers what they wanted,
they’d have said a faster ...
MySQL does what I need, why
      should I care?
     RDBMS                  NoSQL

  Designed for generic   Designed to s...
(the NoSQL umbrella)
Key / Value Caches
                        • Redis
(the NoSQL umbrella)    • Memcached
Key / Value Caches
                        • Redis
(the NoSQL umbrella)    • Memcached


           Key / Value Stores
   ...
Key / Value Caches
                        • Redis
(the NoSQL umbrella)    • Memcached


           Key / Value Stores
   ...
Key / Value Caches
                        • Redis
(the NoSQL umbrella)    • Memcached


           Key / Value Stores
   ...
Key / Value Caches
                        • Redis
(the NoSQL umbrella)    • Memcached


           Key / Value Stores
   ...
Should I be Thinking about
         NoSQL?
Should I be Thinking about
                NoSQL?
                                             Probably need
             ...
NoSQL Systems Typically
 Don’t do Transactions
       or Joins
NoSQL Systems Typically
     Don’t do Transactions
           or Joins
• If you really need transactions, stick with RDBMS...
NoSQL Systems Typically
   Don’t do Transactions
         or Joins

MongoDB is an excellent use case example
Why MongoDB?
• Comfortable if you are coming from MySQL
• Written in C++ means all machine code
 • no Erlang / Java / virt...
Why MongoDB?
• No complex transactions
 • If you don’t use them, this is a non-issue
• No joins
 • This turns out to not b...
Why MongoDB?
 Transactions and joins are a huge computational
       overhead, even if you don’t use them!

• No complex t...
Why MongoDB?
 Transactions and joins are a huge computational
       overhead, even if you don’t use them!

• No complex t...
Thinking About Your Data (RDBMS)
• Look at data, determine logical groupings
  • (hope structure never changes)
• Make tab...
Thinking About Your Data (RDBMS)
  user_t                  comment_t

                           comment_id
  user_id
    ...
Thinking About Your Data (RDBMS)

  This leads to queries such as:

SELECT post_title,post_body,post_id FROM post_t,user_t...
Thinking About Your Data (MongoDB)


• Figure out how you will eventually use the data
• Store it that way
• Create indexe...
Thinking About Your Data (MongoDB)

  from pymongo import Connection
  connection = Connection()
  db = connection['blog']...
Thinking About Your Data (MongoDB)


  from pymongo import Connection
  connection = Connection()
  db = connection['blog'...
Say Goodbye to Schemas

from pymongo import Connection
connection = Connection()
db = connection['blog']

posts = db['post...
Say Goodbye to Schemas
from pymongo import Connection
connection = Connection()
db = connection['blog']

posts = db['posts...
Say Goodbye to Schemas
from pymongo import Connection
connection = Connection()
db = connection['blog']
                  ...
Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options


from pymongo import Connection
connection = Connection()
db = connection['blog']

posts ...
Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options


from pymongo import Connection
connection = Connection()
db = connection['blog']

posts ...
Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options


from pymongo import Connection
connection = Connection()
db = connection['blog']

posts ...
Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options


from pymongo import Connection
connection = Connection()
db = connection['blog']

posts ...
Enjoy a Massive Performance Jump

• Mileage will vary, but 10x is not uncommon
  • For reads and writes
• Writes happen at...
Enjoy a Massive Performance Jump



 Ability to write bad queries is
     enormously reduced!
Ability to write bad queries is
       enormously reduced!

• No joins means need for complex indexes reduced
• Chances of...
Caveats for MongoDB

• Really should use 64bit machines for production
  • 32bit has 2G limit per collection (table)
• Hap...
Questions?
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Chris Lea - What does NoSQL Mean for You

  1. 1. What Does NoSQL Mean for You? Chris Lea (mt) Media Temple FOWA Dublin 2010
  2. 2. For Starters: What does it mean at all?
  3. 3. For Starters: What does it mean at all? “NoSQL is a blanket term used to describe structured storage that doesn’t rely on SQL to be accessed in a useful way”. -- Chris Lea
  4. 4. For Starters: What does it mean at all? “NoSQL” DOES NOT mean “SQL is Bad”
  5. 5. MySQL does what I need, why should I care?
  6. 6. MySQL does what I need, why should I care? “If I’d asked my customers what they wanted, they’d have said a faster horse.” -- Henry Ford
  7. 7. MySQL does what I need, why should I care? RDBMS NoSQL Designed for generic Designed to solve workloads specific problems Large (and growing) Trades features for feature sets performance
  8. 8. (the NoSQL umbrella)
  9. 9. Key / Value Caches • Redis (the NoSQL umbrella) • Memcached
  10. 10. Key / Value Caches • Redis (the NoSQL umbrella) • Memcached Key / Value Stores • Tokyo cabinet • Memcachedb • Project Voldemort • Cassandra
  11. 11. Key / Value Caches • Redis (the NoSQL umbrella) • Memcached Key / Value Stores • Tokyo cabinet • Memcachedb • Project Voldemort • Cassandra Tabular • HBase • Hypertable
  12. 12. Key / Value Caches • Redis (the NoSQL umbrella) • Memcached Key / Value Stores Document • Tokyo cabinet • Memcachedb • CouchDB • Project Voldemort • MongoDB • Cassandra • Jackrabbit Tabular • HBase • Hypertable
  13. 13. Key / Value Caches • Redis (the NoSQL umbrella) • Memcached Key / Value Stores Document • Tokyo cabinet • Memcachedb • CouchDB • Project Voldemort • MongoDB • Cassandra • Jackrabbit Tabular • HBase • Hypertable
  14. 14. Should I be Thinking about NoSQL?
  15. 15. Should I be Thinking about NoSQL? Probably need RDBMS. Yes Can you sanely do what you need in the app? No Do you need transactions? Yes No Think about NoSQL.
  16. 16. NoSQL Systems Typically Don’t do Transactions or Joins
  17. 17. NoSQL Systems Typically Don’t do Transactions or Joins • If you really need transactions, stick with RDBMS • Not having joins turns out to be not such a big deal
  18. 18. NoSQL Systems Typically Don’t do Transactions or Joins MongoDB is an excellent use case example
  19. 19. Why MongoDB? • Comfortable if you are coming from MySQL • Written in C++ means all machine code • no Erlang / Java / virtual machines • Tools like mongo (shell), mongodump, mongostat, mongoimport • Native drives in languages you care about • no Thrift / REST / code generation steps
  20. 20. Why MongoDB? • No complex transactions • If you don’t use them, this is a non-issue • No joins • This turns out to not be a big deal generally, because we’re going to rethink our data modeling
  21. 21. Why MongoDB? Transactions and joins are a huge computational overhead, even if you don’t use them! • No complex transactions • If you don’t use them, this is a non-issue • No joins • This turns out to not be a big deal generally, because we’re going to rethink our data modeling
  22. 22. Why MongoDB? Transactions and joins are a huge computational overhead, even if you don’t use them! • No complex transactions • If you don’t use them, this is a non-issue • No joins • This turns out to not be a big deal generally, because we’re going to rethink our data modeling
  23. 23. Thinking About Your Data (RDBMS) • Look at data, determine logical groupings • (hope structure never changes) • Make tables based on groups, link with ID fields • Break up data on insert, put into appropriate tables • Use joins on select to re-assemble data • Create indexes as needed for fast queries
  24. 24. Thinking About Your Data (RDBMS) user_t comment_t comment_id user_id post_t post_id user_name post_id comment_body user_id post_title post_body
  25. 25. Thinking About Your Data (RDBMS) This leads to queries such as: SELECT post_title,post_body,post_id FROM post_t,user_t WHERE user_t.user_name = “Lorraine” AND post_t.user_id = user_t.user_id LIMIT 1; SELECT comment_body FROM comment_t WHERE comment_t.post_id = $post_id;
  26. 26. Thinking About Your Data (MongoDB) • Figure out how you will eventually use the data • Store it that way • Create indexes as needed for fast queries
  27. 27. Thinking About Your Data (MongoDB) from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] post = {"author": "Lorraine", "title": "Who on Earth lets Chris Lea Talk on Stage?", "post": "Seriously. That's just not cool.", "comments": ["Is he really that bad?", "Yes, he really is."], "date": datetime.datetime.utcnow()} posts.insert(post)
  28. 28. Thinking About Your Data (MongoDB) from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] post = posts.find_one({“author”: “Lorraine”})
  29. 29. Say Goodbye to Schemas from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] post = {"author": "Lorraine", "title": "Who on Earth lets Chris Lea Talk on Stage?", "post": "Seriously. That's just not cool.", "comments": ["Is he really that bad?", "Yes, he really is."], "date": datetime.datetime.utcnow()} posts.insert(post)
  30. 30. Say Goodbye to Schemas from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] post = {"author": "Lorraine", "title": "Who on Earth lets Chris Lea Talk on Stage?", "post": "Seriously. That's just not cool.", "comments": ["Is he really that bad?", "Yes, he really is."], "tags": ["fowa", "nosql", "nerds"], "date": datetime.datetime.utcnow()} posts.insert(post)
  31. 31. Say Goodbye to Schemas from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] If you want new fields... just start posts = db['posts'] using them! post = {"author": "Lorraine", "title": "Who on Earth lets Chris Lea Talk on Stage?", "post": "Seriously. That's just not cool.", "comments": ["Is he really that bad?", "Yes, he really is."], "tags": ["fowa", "nosql", "nerds"], "date": datetime.datetime.utcnow()} posts.insert(post)
  32. 32. Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] posts.find_one({“author”: “Lorraine”})
  33. 33. Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] posts.find({“author”: “Lorraine”}).limit(5)
  34. 34. Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] posts.find({“author”: /^Lor/})
  35. 35. Enjoy a Wealth of Query Options from pymongo import Connection connection = Connection() db = connection['blog'] posts = db['posts'] posts.find({“author”: {$not: “Lorraine”} })
  36. 36. Enjoy a Massive Performance Jump • Mileage will vary, but 10x is not uncommon • For reads and writes • Writes happen at near disk native speed • Logging to MongoDB is perfectly acceptable • Reads for active data near Memcached speeds
  37. 37. Enjoy a Massive Performance Jump Ability to write bad queries is enormously reduced!
  38. 38. Ability to write bad queries is enormously reduced! • No joins means need for complex indexes reduced • Chances of index / query mismatches vastly lower • Disk I/O much less complex, and therefore much faster
  39. 39. Caveats for MongoDB • Really should use 64bit machines for production • 32bit has 2G limit per collection (table) • Happiest with lots of RAM relative to active data • Under heavy development • Features / drivers / docs changing rapidly
  40. 40. Questions?
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