Notes On The Renaissance
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Notes On The Renaissance Notes On The Renaissance Document Transcript

  • Atlantic Cape Community College Heritage of the Western World I, II Keith Carson, Senior Adjunct Professor of History The Renaissance Giotto (d. 1337)Renaissance  Italy (14th/15th cs.)  Raphael (d. 1520)  Mannerism  Baroque Tintoretto (d. 1594)renaissance: means, literally, “rebirth”in search of origins:1. Giorgio Vasari, The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects (1550);pioneering history of the fine arts2. Ancient Greece/Rome3. religious orders: St. Francis of Assisi (Franciscans) and the Dominican Order, or Dominicans4. Nicola and Giovanni Pisano---sculpture5. Giotto6. Byzantine Empire: maniera greca (“Greek,” or Byzantine style)7. Duccio---painting8. Venice9. Northern EuropeItalians of the 15th and 16th cs. regarded their own times as immensely superior to all theages since the fall of the Roman Empire about one-thousand years earlier; idea of rebirthof arts & letters after a sleep of a thousand yearsGiorgio Vasari (1511-1574 AD)1. perpetuated the myth that the Renaissance (It: rinascita) was a rebirth, or return toAncient Greek and Roman civilization after a long period of aesthetic and artistic declineknown as the Dark Ages2. Vasari elevated the importance of his home region of Tuscany as central toRenaissance development and growth3. Vasari’s conception of the Renaissance as a return to the pure Graeco-Roman source ofhigher civilization is to be viewed with a critical eye a. distorts role Christianity played in the development of art b. while it is true that particular types of Christian enthusiasm posed a danger to the evolution of art, Vasari does not adequately acknowledge the positive, galvanic role the Christian Church played in the development of Western art
  • 4. Vasari’s historical account of Western art also rested on a misconception between theself-consciously new age of the Renaissance and the period that preceded it---Medieval,or Middle Ages; Vasari viewed medieval civilization as a time of more or lessundifferentiated ignorance and stasis punctuated by a few sparks of individual genius; amore complicated historical interpretation of the Renaissance sees this new age as theculmination rather than a refutation of medieval tendencies5. it is not possible to appreciate the energy that infuses many Renaissance works withoutacknowledging the debt such works owed not just to classical inspiration, but medievalChristian spirituality and devotion as well; Renaissance art is not just a classicallyinspired rejection of the medieval pastItalian humanism of 13th (1200s) – 16th (1500s) cs.1. Italy was the epicenter of a profound shift in human sensibilities between 1200 and1500 AD2. re-establishment of classical vocabulary of architecture3. revitalization of realistic interpretation in painting and sculptureWhat were the historical causes?myth: Vasari’s manufactured explanation of Renaissance as an Italian love affair withantiquity: Roman originfact: mixed origins and multiple cultural influences of Renaissance genius: Roman,Venetian, Byzantine, Northern European, Christian originsMarsilio Ficino (1492): “This century, like a golden age, has restored to light the liberalarts which were almost extinct: grammar, poetry, rhetoric, painting, sculpture,architecture, music, the ancient singing of the Orphic lyre, and all this in Florence.Achieving what had been honoured among the ancients, but almost forgotten since, theage has joined wisdom with eloquence, and prudence with the military art…this centuryappears to have perfected astronomy, and in Florence it has recalled the Platonic teachingfrom darkness into light…”Lorenzo Valla (c.1406-1457) proclaiming the perfections of the Latin language: “…theglory of Latinity was allowed to decay in rust and mould…in this age they have beenaroused and come to life again, so greatly increased is the number of good artists andmen of letters who now flourish.”Renaissance was thought of both as a revival of good Latin literature and of the figurativeartsLatin: language, or lingua franca, of all educated men in Europe; only a very smallproportion of the population in any given country were educated; with emergence ofmodern nation-states came the need for a professional administrative class well-groundedin Roman law (Latin); professional studies of both clergy and secular officials were basedon Latin
  • Giorgio Vasari (1550) Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Architects:important book on art history; Vasari shared the view of the revival of the arts as a rebirthof antiquity after the long sleep of the Middle Agesancient: works made before Constantine (r. 306-337 AD)old: after Constantinerenaissance: second birth of the artsFrench historian Michelet (1798-1874 AD) first used term “Renaissance” to describe awhole period of history and not confined to the rebirth of letters in Latin and classicallyinspired style in the artsopposing connotative meanings of “renaissance” Positive Negativeall statesmen are MachiavellianItalians as conscious exponents of “virtu”enlightened patrons: Julius II, Leo X monster: Alexander VIJacob Burckhardt (1860) Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy; John AddingtonSymonds (1875-1886) Renaissance in Italy: both present a rather romantic view of theperiodHeinrich Wölfflin (1899) Classic Art (Ger: Die Klassische Kunst): Burckhardt’s pupiland successor; deals with art of Italian Renaissance from an almost exclusively formalpoint of view; analyses of particular works almost unequaled; explains art of the period asaesthetic impulses (will-to-form)humanism: improper usage; Italian art of the 15th/16th cs., even when treating a“classical” subject, is entirely Christian in its roots and in its meaning; modern usage as“non-divine” is incorrect; a sort of substitute religion in which man is not only themeasure of all things but also his own endhumanism in the Renaissance: humanitas, a word adapted by Leonardo Bruni fromCicero and Aulus Gellius to mean those studies which are “humane”----worthy of thedignity of man (i.e. Greek & Latin literature); distinct from, but not in opposition to,theological studies; new secular learning of the renaissance was parallel to older clericalstudies; humanism focused on learning language, literature, philosophy, law, andmedicineshadow of Rome thus always lay over the Italy of the humanists
  • Italians of the Renaissance look back into classical history to find their spiritual ancestorsin ancient Rome because they were attempting something no feudal society couldunderstand let alone emulatemodern society---in its managerial, capitalist, and political aspects---was born in Italy inthe Late Middle AgesEastern origins of Western art1. Byzantine art was a dynamic force capable of renewal and transformation2. Byzantine artists preceded Italians in effecting a revolution in naturalistic, empatheticrepresentations of Christian subject matter3. Byzantine artists developed “volume style” method of depicting immediacy andcorporeality of human form4. Byzantine artists had also turned away from maneira greca and recovered Graeco-Roman naturalism before or contemporaneously with Italians5. Byzantium itself was the last culture with direct links with classical cultures: inheritorof schools of art (sculpture and painting) represented by Apelles and Phidias6. Byzantine wall painting demonstrates changes in evolution of their art most clearly(eastern European church of St. Pantaleimon, Nerezi, modern Macedonia)between the 12th and 14th cs. there was a constant stream of traffic in people, art, andideas between Byzantium and the WestItalian social transformation at end of the 12th c. : Medieval commercial revolution1. economic and technological change: a. banking b. textiles: required considerable workforce to maintain profitable production c. trade and commerce2. socio-economic change: break-up of old feudal order [feudal-manorial system]3. socio-cultural change: development and growth of cities as commercial centers andneed for Christianity to reach out to new urban poor4. political change: accumulation of regional princes bankrolled by emerging commercialclassdevelopment and growth of textile industry funded by banking interests spurred growthof urban towns (cities) to support it and threatened medieval feudal-manorial system;many impoverished laborers migrated from rural areas to towns seeking out betteropportunitiesSt. Dominic of Osma (1170-1221 AD) founder of the Order of Preachers (OP), orDominicansSt. Francis of Assisi (c.1181-1226 AD) founder of the Order of Friars Minor (OFM), orFranciscans
  • urban missions of Sts. Francis and Dominic---charismatic spiritual leaders---who reachedout to provide care to mass urban poor; church as source of charitable relief in medievalperiod and Renaissance prior to development of the nation-statepreaching of Sts. Francis and Dominic and the establishment of religious ordersfollowing their deaths led to a church-building boom in new cities in the early 13th c.(1200s) for example, Santa Croce, Florence [Franciscan church]teaching and preaching of St. Francis was rooted in pathos emphasizing vulnerability ofChrist (esp. Nativity, Passion); stigmata; physicality, morbidity, and eros of western artmay be traced to Francis’ influence: mortification of flesh and denial of bodyneed to make scripture visible to mass illiterate urban poortranscendent Christ (Christus triumphans) versus mortal Christ (Christus Patiens)body penitentialbody in painbody bleeding“The Franciscan faith did not only revolutionize the image of Christ: it also gave anentirely new status and urgency to narrative art. Emphasis was placed, in particular, onthe Passion of Christ, on his humiliation and isolation and suffering in the days leadingup to his death.” Graham-Dixon (24)the Great Schism of the 14th c. and the exile of the papacy in Avignon meant that onegreat central (but not hereditary) power was removed from central Italy, and theoligarchical societies of Florence and Venice were able to establish themselves as leadingpowers of Italy: ascendency of Venice was maritime, Florence was financialgrowth of city of Florence whose burgeoning textile industry was powered by the ArnoRiverFlorentine bankers and merchants (large scale international financing and commerce)traded with England and Burgundy which translated into a high percentage of educated,cultured Florentine elites; these ruling classes eventually became the patrons andsupporters of the new humanist arts, and, in due time, became the public which boughtthe books made accessible by the printing press; Renaissance aristocrats were able toexploit their own unique personal abilities much more so than the feudal aristocracy,confined as they were to the Church or to a relatively brutish military careerMedici produced cultured bankers, wool merchants, politicians, poets, popes, and acondottiere
  • Renaissance “articles of faith,” or aesthetics1. enhanced realism2. enhanced psychological penetration3. enhanced persuasivenessItalian schools of painting: numerous Italian schools of painting arose from the differentfactors in each town virtually dominated by the de Medici family from 1434 to 1494, Florence lies at the heart of the Renaissance probably, in part, because of its economic power and stability; after the fall of the Medici in 1494 leadership of Italy began to pass back to Rome Venice with its eastern interests would naturally be more Byzantine in outlook center of a new, rejuvenated papacy [Julius II (r.1503-1513)] that Rome was one of the great moments of western civilization and humanityVenice1. city on the edge of the terra firma2. trading and commerce center3. non-Western contacts4. Govanni Bellini (c. 1430-1516) “Madonna and Child with Saints” San Zaccaria,Venice (1505); classical framework bordering Christian thematic work
  • [above: structure of Venetian Republic]A New Movement in Art: it is not uncommon for a new style in the arts to exist alongsideand older one which it subsequently replacesin the first quarter of the 15th c. in Florence two new styles were seeking to assertthemselves in the face of traditional formsin the early 14th c. Giotto had imposed a new and more humanistic vision of the arts inWestern Europe: representations of scenes from the Bible, or the lives of the saints,depend upon the dramatic gestures and facial expressions of the actors, and the humanfigures who carry the action and make it vividly comprehensible to do so through theimmediacy of their naturalism; Giotto made amazing advances in the technique ofrepresenting the human body in a more realistic way than any practiced since classicalantiquity; heavily influenced by sculpture; in his truth to nature preceded by Nicola andGiovanni Pisano whose sculpture was inspired by antique artGiotto and Empathy1. Giotto simplified and reduced elements of art in order to get at the heart of emotionsand meanings of biblical stories2. Giotto’s sense of drama influenced by sacred theater and sermon, his sense of formwas influenced by sculpture of the time3. centrality of narrative events are…tinged by a sense of ritual; dramaturgical focus4. ability to communicate with nuance of gesture or expression; mastery of expression
  • 5. Giotto was the artist, according to Vasari, who decisively turned art away fromprimitive Byzantine influence and set western art in a new direction; so-calledannihilation of maniera greca (Greek or Byzantine style)from the beginning of the 14th c. representational arts in Italy were linked with the: 1. heritage of Roman art, and 2. dramatic possibilities inherent in Christian subject-matterBlack Death of 1348 cut short the movement initiated by Giotto; late 14th c. art tended tobe reactionary to the extreme partly as a result of the plague; not until the early 15th c. areGiotto’s ideas taken up once moreDuccio (c.1255-c.1319 AD)1. Cathedral of Siena; Maesta altarpiece (1308-1311) a. The Virgin and Child Enthroned (Oriental influence) b. The Transfiguration (spatial arrangement of figures)2. Siennese familiarity with Near East, China, Moors, and Muslim influences3. stylistic ambiguity; mix of naturalistic and non-naturalistic impulses in harmony andbalance4. fluidity of Duccio’s stylerise of new nation-states of Spain, France, Englandin 1494 the French learned how easy it was to invade Italy and to subjugate the small,individual city-states: the Italians learned the lesson of unity too late and, after theappalling sack of Rome in 1527, France and Spain fought for domination in the distractedpeninsula; not until the 19th c. did Italians again enjoy the liberty to decide their own fate,even though they continue to be the cultural leaders of the world throughout the 16th c.and in the 17th c the vast spiritual forces of the Counter-Reformation were directed fromRomeNorthern Europe1. patterns of influence connected the art/architecture of southern and northern Europe in13th through 15th cs.2. growth and development of Burgundian Empire; Ghent; Bruges; Dijon (modernFrance); Low Countries; Rhineland3. construction of French and German cathedrals4. Roger van der Weyden; Jacques Daret; Jan van Eyck; Robert Campin5. symbolism, illumination, mix of domesticity and sacredhistory of the court of Burgundy: small duchy between France and the Empire maintainedtheir independence in the hope of truly becoming the Middle Kingdom that they set out tobe; Burgundy was one of the reasons for the Franco-Spanish struggle fought out in Italyin the 16th c.
  • new emphasis on the joy of living and in the vanities of this world made their appearanceat the court of Burgundy, centered on Dijon, at the very end of the 14th c.: gayer, moresophisticated deliberately elegant and even precious approach to the world spreadingquickly into France and Italyexamples from the court of Burgundy show this new so-called International Gothic:1. altarpiece probably commissioned by Melchior Broederlam in the early 1390s for theCharterhouse at Champmol near Dijon2. products of the Giottoesques3. Sienese painters such as Simone Martini and the Lorenzetti brothersresults of the pervasive influence of widespread trend in thought and culture; in thesecases it indicates the rather widespread pervasiveness of ideas from Italy to Avignon,which as seat of the exile papacy at Avignon for over seventy years, was a center for thedissemination of Italian ideas and the permeation of the Gothic North which eventuallybore its fullest fruit in the conjunction of North/South in International Gothicblending of Christian themes with secular groups (e.g. aristocracy/nobility and rulingclass) and figure (e.g. main portico of Charterhouse at Champmol has sculpted figuresrepresenting Duke Philip and his Duchess presented by their patron saints to the VirginMary) resolved the inherent tensions, at least temporarily, between empty Romanmaterialism and secularism, and Christian idealism and theology; the association ofimportant noble or ruling figures with religious figures plays some role in theconceptualization and development of what eventually came to be called “divine right;”the equation of the divine with the imperial is perhaps best embodied in the monarchy ofthe early modern nation-statedevelopment of court art: commissioning of artists to produce works of art for wealthypatrons who knew little and cared less about the nobler qualities of painting and sculptureLorenzo Monaco (c.1370/72 – 1425 AD) his work from 1414 marks the arrival of art inFlorence; art was in the Giottoesque style; Lorenzo was Sienese, but settled in Florenceand became a Camaldonesian in the Monastery of St. Maria degli Angeli where there wasa famous school of manuscript illuminators; influenced by Giotto and Sienese art of thebeginning of the 14th c.; traditional style popular in Florence at the timecontent of court art: content of the pictures is expressed in a style which in itself is anelaboration of something fundamentally old-fashioned and therefore more easilyacceptable because more easily assimilable; thin, elegant figures have no real weight; theartist has been more concerned with the rich, elaborate costumes than with any attempt torepresent figures in three-dimensions
  • works of Lorenzo Monaco and Limbourg brothers1. Adoration of the Magi – Monaco2. Month of May from The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry – Limbourg Brothers3. Coronation of the Virgin – Monacotriumph of International Gothic1. marked arrival in Florence of Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1370 – 1427); commissioned byPalla Strozzi to paint an adoration of the Magi2. Antonio Pisanello (c. 1395-1455) supreme exponent of international gothic; may haveworked under Gentile3. use of drawings in international gothic as the raw material for the details of picturesGreat divide of the 15th c: battle between two competing styles seeking to replace thedying Giottoesque tradition in Florence at the beginning of the 15th c.  Gentile v. Masaccio  Ghiberti v. Donatellocrucial difference is between the interest in purely decorative naturalism to a new andvivid realism: move from flat patterns to use of chiaroscuro (play of black and white) instriking realism of heavy, un-idealized features and massive bulkGhiberti represents a continuation in the sculpture of International GothicDonatello: highly charged emotional character of his depictions of people introduces yetanother element---influence of Gothic survives in Donatello’s use of silhouette;Donatello’s work is permeated by an ultra-powerful realism and even a cult of uglinessused for expressive reasonsDonatello, statue of St. George sculpted for a niche on the outside of Orsanmichele(c.1420)1. free-standing statue personifying the Christian virtues of knighthood2. its importance is less the statue itself as for the small relief under the statue whichheralds things to come3. Donatello’s use of delicately graded depth of relief is apparent in “The Feast of Herod”the creation of an ideal space and of a complete illusion of a true world; this identity ofpurpose between the painter and the sculptor coming at about the same historical momentmarks clearly the break between the older forms represented by Gentile and the new ideasdeveloped by Renaissance artists
  • Formal Properties of Renaissance Art1. chiaroscuro2. atmospheric perspective3. one point perspective4. monothematicDonatello’s David was the first nude cast in bronze since classical times1. easily relaxed pose2. tender modeling of the forms rippling softly, smoothly under the bronze skin3. sharply shadowed under the strange peaked hat4. David is also evidence of the rebirth of the classical pastDonatello’s David is evidence of the final emergence of that new spirit which was toinform the Renaissance: sense, not of a lesson learned by rote, not of a model to beimitated, but of a parity of creation, of equality with the tradition that inspired it, ofcontinuity of thought and feeling, even though the purpose to which the art was dedicatedwas entirely differentDonatello “Gattamelata” : heavy figure of the successful mercenary soldier, relaxed andconfident in his conqueror’s pose on his huge and richly harnessed horse stems ultimatelyfrom the Imperator type of Roman portraits; and the ugly face, full of character, derivespatently from the astonishing realism of Roman funerary bustsMasaccio (b.1401)1. entered Guild of Painters in Florence (1422)2. in 5 or 6 years work was able to revolutionize Florentine painting and achieve ameasure of fame carried on by Michelangelo in the next century3. Masaccio died in Rome at the age of 27 years4. major works a. Carmelite polyptych (Pisa); also Pisa Polyptych (1426-1427) b. Carmelite frescoes (Florence) in the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine (1425-1426)Masolino: flaccid indefiniteness of form and lack of solidarityMasaccio: directness of lighting and clarity of spatial position
  • architecture of Brunelleschi and the writings and architecture of Alberti1. other great controlling factor in the revival of the arts in Florence in the 15th c.2. Brunelleschi’s greatest achievement was building of the dome of Florence Cathedral;work which he could never have completed without knowledge of Roman constructionmethods acquired from his study of the ruins of antiquity3. Alberti’s significance lies in his architectural writings; De Re Aedificatoria first printedin 1485, although written about 1450, became the first theoretical work on the subject ofarchitecture since the Roman Vitruvius (died c. 15 BC)Dome of the Florence CathedralBrunelleschi (b. 1577)1. never touched by those qualities of smallness and preciousness characteristic ofinternational gothic; all his thinking was large in scale2. inspired by the repertory of classical Roman architecture in form and detail; likeDonatello, Brunelleschi absorbed and recreated those forms without being slavishlybound to the sources that inspired him3. great dome is more a feat of engineering than architecture; huge cavity demandedengineering innovations for its covering qualities beyond those of architecture aloneAlberti’s architectural writing and aesthetic works1. treatise on paiting (p. 1435) dedicated to Brunelleschi, Donatello, Ghiberti, Luca dellaRobbia, and Masaccio2. established two great principles: a. naturalism could be achieved by the use of perspective b. figures could be composed into dramatic groups so as to make the narrative clear rather than to form a pious tableau3. Alberti’s importance as an innovator is attested to by the consistency with which thesetwo principles are worked out in 15th c. Florentine painting and sculpture
  • both Brunelleschi and Alberti represent a transition from wall architecture to spacearchitecture: in both artists this change came late in their careers Artist/Sculptor Architectural Type Description Loggia degli Innocenti; Old Sacristy, or the Brunelleschi wall architecture nave of Santa Lorenzo treats the wall as the most important element: the arches of an arcade are but sections cut away from the plane of the wall Palazzo Rucellai concentrates on elevations as a solid piece of masonry the parts of which are coordinated so as to stress the coherence of the Alberti wall architecture plane surface; also, in the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini (started about 1450) was never finished, but where side arcades of arches borne on piers instead of columns stress the continuity of the wall area Santa Maria degli Angeli (1430s) Florence concentrates on the shapes of spaces to be enclosed by the walls: it is the richness and complexity of the internal space that is important and the wall is merely the means by which this is manifested; Santa Spirito uses half columns instead of pilasters between the side Brunelleschi space architecture chapels and the curve of the wall at the back of the chapels create a succession of undulations; vistas of receding arches one within the other in the aisle elevations, and the recession of the aisles themselves as they form an ambulatory round the church and enclose the central large cruciform space within their smaller and more complex units; all create an impression of spaces flowing out from each other and being conceived by the architect for their spatial significance rather than the concentration on the walls as a limiting and defining element Basilica di SantAndrea in Mantua links the forms of the façade, those of the loggia immediately within it, and those of the interior Alberti space architecture of the church in one interlocked sequence of shapes each part being significant through its relationship to another and not as individual elementsSt. Francis (d. 1226) was canonized in 1228 ADSt. Dominic (d. 1221) was canonized in 1234 ADFranciscans and Dominicans were two great missionary orders that fell outside of theframework of existing religious life
  • Franciscans: preaching and missionsDominicans: abandoned rule of corporate poverty; education, learning, extirpation ofheresyreligious revival of the 12th/13th cs.1. focus on practical issues resulting from a renewal of social conscience2. rise of new more popular form of mysticism among religious3. new iconography of the Life of Christ and, in particular, the Life of the Virgin:assumed a new importance through the intensification of her cult accompanying thespread of mendicant ordersgreat devotional books of the era: circulated in manuscript enjoying enormous popularityand influenceJacopo da Varagine (1255-1266) Golden LegendAnonymous Italian Franciscan (end of the 13th c.) Meditations on the Life of ChristLudolf the Carthusian (mid-14th c.) Life of ChristJan van Ruysbroeck (2nd half of the 14th c.) Mirror of Eternal SalvationThomas a’Kempis (1418) Imitation of ChristNetherlands: in the late 14th c. and early 15th c. a lively center of religious revivalimpact of Devotio Moderna on the art of the century (14th-15th cs.)1. clearest influence is in the new iconography2. importance of mystery plays3. from dramatic representations to complex Biblical plays of nativity, ApocryphalGospels (cont: account of childhood of the Virgin); legends and miracles of the saintsemergence of new iconography preceded in Germany and Bohemia by aftermath ofItalian Trecento (14th c.) painting; outstanding quality of Italian---Tuscan---art during the14th c. slowly permeated the whole of western European paintingin France and Flanders a complete break with current flowing from Italy is marked byemergence of Claus Sluter in Dijon in last 15 years of the centuryFlemish 15th c. painting1. Master of Flémalle2. Robert Campin3. Jan van Eyck
  • Jan van Eyck: outstanding characteristic of van Eyck’s works are the shimmering qualityof the light, a magic blending of realism and poetry in the treatment of nature, and use ofcertain perspective devices; in 1425 van Eyck entered service of Philip III, Duke ofBurgundy serving him until the end of his life; realism---minute concentration on detail---that is the striking aspect of van Eyck’s workFlemish technique of oil in painting is ahead of other regions of western Europemost Florentine artists working at about the middle of the 15th c. who were trained in theInternational Gothic were attracted to the new classical realism of Masaccio, but on thewhole they tended to eventually be more deeply influenced by the aggressively dramaticrealism of Donatello than by the more classical forms of Masaccio; in many ways bothstyles can be observed working in many of the major figures of the period; Fra Angelico,Fra Filippo Lippi, Uccello, Domenico Veneziano, and Castagnoarts in Florence in the period from about 1430 to 1460 show that the development ofideas was complicatedoutside Florence four separate strands developed:1. Siena (main currents derived from Florence)2. Central Tuscany and Urbino with Piero della Francesca3. Padua and Mantua with Mantegna4. FerraraRoger van der Weyden (b. 1399/1400 in Tournai) painter to the city of Brussels until hisdeath in 14641. different from Jan van Eyck in greater elegance of van der Weyden’s figures and theprofound pathos of his characterization2. Roger captures a more relaxed humanity than van Eyck’s “Als Ich Kan” --- that mottoof pure pride with its intense impassiveness; Roger van der Weyden has a tenderness offeeling, and adventurousness of spirit, and ease that van Eyck lacks3. van der Weyden is a supreme portrait painter (e.g. Magdalen)4. van der Weyden’s sympathy rather than van Eyck’s impassive chill was the touchstonefor a generation of artists5. it was not van der Weyden’s actual forms, his style, or his ideas that were so pregnantfor the next generation as his power lay in his emotional quality, in the feeling that hehimself released in his works and stimulated in others, and his profound humanity andsensitiveness to sorrow is one of his links to Robert Campin, and one of the dividingfactors between him and Jan van Eyck
  • Dieric Bouts (1415-1475) influence was more widespread than the limited number of hisworks suggestEyckian approach to the representation of nature, informed by quite another spirit ofhumanity, runs through the second half of the 15th c. and well into the 16th c; EyckianrealismThe Avignon Pieta is the greatest French painting of the 15th c. and one of the mostsublime representations of the subject in all artGerman art of the 15th c.1. not studied much outside German-speaking countries2. fragmentary nature of 15th c. German art; even more so than France3. extreme provinciality of the idiom4. followers of fashion set in Flanders5. level of artistic competence of regional styles is far lowerprinting, like the wheel, is one of the half dozen great inventions of mankindinvention of moveable type together with the use of the screw press made up the basic artof printing, unchanged for centuries , and it was certainly established as a commercialproposition by 1450Johannes Gutenberg (c.1394/99-1468 AD) Mainz goldsmith who perfected his processfor printing in exile at Strasbourg about 1440; by 1450 he was in business in Mainz;within thirty years (1480) presses were established all over Europe, largely run byGermans, and the modern age had begunin fact, printing dates from much earlier, since the woodcut principle was known longbefore the 15th c. or even the end of the 14th c.; so far as is known, block-books wereproduced by about 1430, although the earliest datable example is from 1470, a goodtwenty years after the invention of printing; block-books seemed to have died out by1480 replaced by the more satisfactory method of combining woodcut illustration withtype first attempts to illustrate a book with engravings on metal date as early as 1477; thistechnique was unsuccessful, for technical reasons, and was not revived until much lateras a means of illustrating books Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528 AD): incomparably the greatest artist to practice extensivelyas an engraver; heir to all the technical advances in Germany; produced some 200woodcuts and 100 line-engravings in 1486 he was apprenticed to Michael Wolgemut whoproduced all kinds of art, including painting and woodcuts for book illustration whichwere printed by Anton Koberger, the greatest printer in Germany; worked as a bookillustrator from 1492 (Basel) to 1494 (Strasbourg); 1494-1495 traveled to Venice and,perhaps, also Mantua and Cremona; during this travel-year he first came into contact with
  • Italian Renaissance work of sufficient quality to change course of Dürer’s development;particularly, the work of the engraver Mantegna, including Battle of the Sea Gods and theDeath of Orpheus; Dürer was great graphic artist, which had certain advantages overprinting; prints could be finished in less time than paintings; subject of prints could beanything whereas paintings were of two types at that period in Germany---religiousthemes or portraits; prints were not historically tied to traditional iconography because itwas a new medium; Dürer combined great rapidity of thought with teeminginventiveness; he also had a bent for the linear; examples of Dürer’s large woodcuts: TheMen’s Bath House (1497); Prodigal Son (1498); The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse(1498); 1500 marks turning-point for Dürer towards theory: study of proportion inhumans/animals as well as perspective and his innate feeling for physical qualities andnatural detail; Adam and Eve (1504) influenced by Leonardo da Vinci even if he waslimited in his knowledge of da Vinci’s workin Venice, Dürer studied mathematics, geometry, and Latin as well as humanist literature;he also consorted with scholars and humanistsduring this period a new kind of engraving evolved based on Italian chiaroscuro print;that is, a print, usually a woodcut, printed in more than one color so as to give the effectof tone; Dürer now began to make prints which, while still purely in black and white, alsomanaged to convey the idea of a middle tone; this was achieved by evenness of cuttingand by planning the print in zones of light, middle tone, and shadow [e.g. Great Passion(1511); St. Jerome in his Study (1513-14); Melancholia (1513-14)]in his painting of Adam & Eve of the same period, Dürer makes an over-consciousattempt to reconcile gothic forms and proportions with renaissance canons of idealbeauty; Trinity Altar based on Augustine’s City of Godmainspring of Dürer’s life and work is to be found in the basic dichotomy of his mind:patient, humble observer of realistic detail, visionary in art embedded with idea ofusing as a best-loved technique line- artist as a creator inspired by Godengraving on copper---a techniquedemanding an exacting and objectiveaccuracyRenaissance views of artDürer viewed art as an unteachable mystery; he sought to rationalize his inspiration byprinciples and recognized that unrestrained fantasy and impulsive imitation of naturewere not enough; art must also be controlled by knowledge; Dürer recognized that hiscontemporaries were lacking sound training in theory and he tried to remedy this inhimself; yet he was equally convinced that theories in-themselves were incapable ofdoing justice to the immensity of God’s creation and that any good results derived fromsound theoretical foundations in the arts was still entirely dependent on the artist’s ownintelligence and ability to reshape and transcend theory
  • Alberti and Leonardo da Vinci had taken for granted that ideal beauty could be created bythe artist; Dürer lays down as a law that it can not: man may not enter in so close acommunion with God as to be able to recreate ideal beauty; the artist may create betterfigures, but not the best first half of the 15th c. Florentine sculpture is dominated by Ghiberti and Donatello Florentine sculpture became a matter either second half of the 15th c. of the acceptance of Donatello’s ideas, or a reaction against them most important early 15th c. Italian sculptor outside Florence was Jacopo della Quercia (1374/5-1438) of SienaDonatello: robustness of form; use of linear effects for their emotive or dramatic force;Donatello’s work characterized by energy and inventivenessGhiberti: delicacy of form; use of linear effects for their decorative and poetic qualitiesRossellino brothers, Benardo (1409-1460) and Antonio (c.1427-1479), were architectsand building contractors as well as sculptors: major works are two large, important tombswhich involve architecture almost as much as sculptureBernardo Rossellino: Bruni Tomb, Santa Croce, FlorenceAntonio Rossellino: Tomb of the Cardinal of Portugal, San Miniato, Florencesee also: paintings of Domenico Veneziano; works of Fra Filippo; Desiderio daStettignano (c.1430-1464), Tomb of Carl Marsuppini; Mino da Fiesole (1429-1484)last quarter of the 15th c. the two most important Florentine workshops were run by Piero(d.1496) and Antonio Pollaiuolo and Andrea Verrocchio; Pollaiuolo brothers are firstrecorded as painters in the 1460sAndrea Verrocchio (c.1435-1488): David (made before 1476) compared with Donatello’sDavid (c.1431-1433)Piero Pollaiuolo was an artist of no more than moderate competence as witnessed by thetrouble caused by his Virtues commissioned by the Florentine Chamber of CommerceAntonio and Piero Pollaiuolo:1. Tomb of Sixtus IV, St. Peter’s, Rome (contains reliefs of Virtues, Liberal Arts)2. Tomb of Innocent III, St. Peter’s, Rome
  • Donatello’s David (1431-33): classical antiquity is still standard by which sculpture wasto be judged; relaxed pose and understated expressionVerrocchio’s David (before 1476): tense, alert; mischievous expression; minute details ofveins and the thin forms of elbow, neck, and the hair given the sharpest reliefDonatello’s Gattamelata, Padua: heavy figure of successful mercenary soldier relaxedand confident in a conquering pose on his huge, richly harnessed horse; stems fromImperator type Roman portraits; less skilled in casting Donatello had to support all fourof the horse’s hoovesVerrocchio’s Colleoni Monument, Venice: attempts to render military bravado bytechnical feats such as horse with one foot raised; portentous frown and stiff-leggedswagger of condottiere seated high in saddle and half-turned in a strained attitude; villagebullytendency toward overstatement as is seen in Verrocchio is sometimes called QuattrocentoMannerism which conveys the slightly exaggerated quality of much of the best workdone in the last quarter of the 15th c.----a period in Florence of great political upheavaland confusion; best examples are found in the works of Botticelli and Filippino Lippi; notnecessarily unique to Florence as is observed in the works of Northerners Bosch andGrünewald exhibiting the same general outlookHieronymous Bosch (c.1450-1516 AD) Crucifixion; The Ship of FoolsMathis Nithardt-Gothardt, known as Grünewald, (1470-1528 AD) Crucifixion stands asabsolute extreme pole from the elegiac serenity of the High Renaissance which was in itsfinal stage in Rome at the time; harkens back to expressive violence of Romanesque,portrayal of ghastly wounds, agonized feet and hands, dying faceBotticelli (c.1445-1510 AD) artist who also crosses the dividing line between hopefulconfidence of the 15th c. and the dark fulfillment of the Savonarola period; urgency andpassionate desire to express emotion in his works; perhaps was a student of Fra Filippo sothat he would have inherited the skills of the Italian Renaissance before his firstidentifiable commission in 1470; elaborate images of Neoplatonist interpretations ofpagan ideals (e.g. Venus) allegorical, contemplation of Divine Beauty; imagery becomesless esoteric and more clearly ChristianBotticelli’s works:Birth of VenusMadonna of the MagnificatDepositionMars and VenusLeonardo da Vinci: regarded even by his contemporaries as an astonishing virtuoso; tothe men of the 16th c. he seemed have been the last of the primitives, or the first of thegeneration active around 1500 which they regarded as the culmination of the wholeprocess of the Renaissance
  • frequently Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo are taken together in these terms, butit is important to remember that Leonardo was born about 1452 and was already,therefore, at work long before the others who are usually thought of as hiscontemporariesbetter parallel might be with Bramante with whom Leonardo was in contact with in Milanin the 1480s-1490s, and was probably decisive for many aspects of Milanese art around1500Leonardo has always been famous because of the fantastic range of his genius: artist,anatomist, natural scientist, aeronautical designer, etc.Leonardo apprenticed with VerrocchioLeonardo becomes a Master in the Guild of Painters (1472); he was living withVerrocchio in 1476 “when an anonymous accusation of homosexuality was made againsthim. The accusation was almost certainly true, and may explain some of Leonardo’scharacteristics such as his tendency to live as a recluse, and his proneness to abandonthings half done.” ????? neutrality of last claim is specious at best, laughable at worstwhat does homosexuality have to do with the “…proneness to abandon things half done.”How does Leonardo’s sexual orientation, his alleged gayness, help to explain this habit?Or, rather, does the fact that this book on the history of art (Linda and Peter Murray) inthe Renaissance---published in 1963, when homosexuality was still incorrectly viewed asdisordered---helps to explain a thinly veiled, patently offensive homophobic reference tohomosexuality as if it were some sort of mental disorderwide-ranging use of and experimentation with broad spectrum of techniques: wax, oil,etc.renowned for his angel wingscopius, detailed notes and drawings on anatomy [both human and animal 9esp. horse)],botany, architecture, and other subjectsAdoration of the Magi (commissioned in 1481) Leonardo left it unfinished; solution tothe problem of representing a large group of figures crowded around a central groupingof Madonna and Child; sometimes considered watershed of Renaissance art
  • Last Supper: in the refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie (known tohave been working on it in 1497)1. first painting of the High Renaissance2. way in which Leonardo goes far beyond his predecessors in the attempt to render theinner drama of the precise moment at which Christ announces that one of his disciplesshall betray him3. earlier examples, like Castagno’s, or even a contemporary one such as Ghirlandaio’s,simply dispose of the disciples on either side of the central figure; Judas singled out onthe other side of the table4. in Leonardo’s picture there is for the first time a grouping of the Apostles not merelysymmetrically, but in small groups of three contrasted types that balance each other asthey turn questioningly one to the other, and yet interlock through the whole compositionas the meaning of Christ’s words and the emotions they evoke through them; Judas issingled out not only by being made villainous looking, but by the way he starts back athis own guilty knowledge, and his head so placed that, alone among all the figures, hisface is in the shadows5. when the Pryor complained to Leonardo that the artist would come in the morning,stand looking at the picture for half an hour, put on a dozen brush strokes, and leave forthe day, Leonardo explained he was having trouble in visualizing the face of anyone aswicked as Judas, but he also suggested that if there was a great hurry he could substitutethe Pryor’s portrait6. idea of artist as meditative philosopher and not simply as a highly skilled workmanwho covered so many square feet of wall per day was strange to his contemporaries16th c. conception of artist as a creative genius, like the poet and unlike the ordinarycraftsman, can certainly be traced back to LeonardoLeonardo’s anatomical drawings were made from actual dissection on bodiesMadonna and Child with Saint AnnMona LisaRaphael and Michelangelo were executing their greatest works in 1513 whichcommenced a four year stay in Rome at the Vatican for Leonardo, but nothing came of itand it was an unproductive period for da Vinci; he went to France accepting an offer fromFrancis I, but died two years later in 1519Leonardo’s overworked surface and compound of naturalism, tenderly idealized andreticent smilesdiversity of styles of the last years of the 15th c; two followers of Piero della Francescaafford a good example of this diversity of styles:1. Signorelli: developed powerful linear style; almost obsessive with outline and with thedramatic possibilities of the male nude that looks forward to Michelangelo2. Perugino: master of Rafael; originator of a phase sometimes called Early Classicism
  • Signorelli (b. 1440s at Cortona) active as painter by 1470; early influence of Piero dellaFrancesca; soon went to Florence where he became absorbed by new ideas regardingmovement and anatomy; received commission for one of the frescoes of the SistineChapel; died in 1523; typical example of Signorelli’s art work and one of thecharacteristic works of the Late Quattrocento is the fresco cycle which he painted for theCathedral of Orvieto between 1499 and 1503during the 1490s the political state of central Italy had been more than usually upset, andFlorence, in particular, had passed through the extraordinary episode following the deathof Lorenzo de Medici and the expulsion from the city of his heirsapocalyptic preachings of Savonarola had set the city afire with intrigue and bought it tothe brink of civil war; Savonarola provoked the pope to such a degree that he wasexcommunicated; sought to establish a theocracy in Florence; martyr to causeFrench invasion and conquest of Italy in 1494 seemed to fulfill Savonarola’s prophecyand the reputation of the Italian princes as great professional soldiers and commanderswas irretrievably shattered; it became clear that a modern centralized state, like France,could easily dominate a loose federation of Italian city-states, none of which could everbe trusted to keep faith with its temporary allies; 1499 French took possession of Duchyof Milanhalf of the 16th c. was spent in warfare between France and Spain fought out in Italy forcontrol of the peninsula; warfare provided living example of the apocalypse as law andorder collapsedto many Italians at the time, it seemed as if the Antichrist had arrived and the End of theWorld was at handSignorelli’s frescoes The Damned, Resurrection of the Flesh at the Cathedral of Orvieto(1499-1503)1. normally strident and harsh color sense has here an appropriateness markedly lackingin his more pacific subjects2. Resurrection scene provides a fascinating commentary on the difference between theempirical anatomy that so obsessed Florentine artists of the 15th c. and Leonardo’s reallyprofound studies in anatomy3. he anticipates Michelangelo’s work in the Sistine Chapel, both in the ceiling, and evenmore in the Last Judgement: the difference between them is not simply that Michelangelohad a deeper imagination and greater technical mastery; Signorelli’s figures, in fact, sumup all the advances in knowledge that had been made since Masaccio onwards and theyhave forcefulness and clarity4. problem with Signorelli, like that of Botticelli or Filippino, is that all the parts competeagainst one another so that the fresco as a whole becomes filled with a multiplicity ofgesticulating figures and it is impossible amid the uproar to determine which is theimportant figure and which are the subordinate ones
  • Perugino: offers precisely this feeling of lucidity and simplification of narrative in hiswork; 1481 commissioned to point the key frescoes in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican;this was the most important commission of the 15th c; focused and balanced so as to drawthe eye to the central figure in a calm, orderly gazeMichelangelo learned the techniques of fresco painting in the studio of DomenicoGhirlandaio (1449-1494 AD); Ghirlandaio painted a number of large frescoes in variousFlorentine churches as well as the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican; Raphael learned to paintfrescoes from Peruginoin the late 15th c. the Christian world was thought of as a growing naturally out of paganantiquitystylistically Ghirlandaio’s art was sober, and somewhat old-fashioned, but his essentialprosaic mind made him open to influence from Flanders and left him comparativelyuntouched by the emotional enthusiasms of stimulated painters like BotticelliAdoration of the Shepards on the altarpiece of the Sassetti Chapel--- Ghirlandaio: showsclear traces of Flemish naturalism and especially the influence of Hugo van der GoesGhirlandaio was obsessed with the idea of the antique world; classicismAntonello da Messina (1430-1479 AD) Italian painter of the 15th c. who achieved highdegree of skill in oil paiting comparable to Flemish oil paintings; for example, St. Jeromein his Study would seem to indicate some training in Flanders (possibly Roger van derWeyden, or Jan van Eyck); San Cassiano altarpieceVenetian painting of the late 15th c. derives very largely from a fusion between the workof Mantegna and that of Antonello da Messina; fusion found expression in GiovanniBellini---most important and typical Venetian painter of the late 15th c.enshrinement; enthronement of Madonna and Child surrounded by saints so that allfigures appear to be emotionally related ; idea that occurs by the mid-15th c. in works ofFra Angelico, Fra Filippo Lippi, and Domenico Venezianostudies in perspective by Jacopo Bellini in sketch booksimage and symbolism of the Madonna figure and the cult of the Virgin1. varies from human mother with child to the divine figure of universal motherhood(more than human)2. humanist attitude towards things divine; accessibility of and convergence of the divineand the human3. Virgin represented as Glory: simple humanity is entirely replaced by the effulgentmajesty of a celestial virgin
  • 4. acquisition by the Madonna of many non-human attributes: Queen of Heaven [e.g.Raphael’s Madonna di Foligno (1512)]5 development of less exalted though equally separating qualities of otherness:sophistication, fashionably languorous grace, deliberate consciousness of role, and an airof attainability that she (Madonna) communicates to her sonHigh Renaissance: Synthesis and Evolutionthe preceding developments culminated, in the generation after 1500, in a brief floweringof all arts in Italy, usually called the High Renaissancebeginning of High Renaissance corresponds with the pontificates of Julius II (r.1503-1513) and Leo X (1513-1521) disaster of the sack of Rome by theend of High Renaissance Imperial Troops of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire in May, 1527 just as decisively ended italthough it is true that Michelangelo’s work in the Medici Chapel, the Last Judgement,the Rondanini Pitea, and above all his conception of St. Peter’s, are all much later than1527; however, what is most important is that they are fundamentally different in styleand form from St. Peter’s Pieta, David, and the Sistine Chapel as well as different fromBramante’s ideal for St. Peter’sBramante (d. 1514); Leonardo da Vinci (d. 1519), and Raphael (d.1520): with them theRenaissance passed into historywatershed which divides:Giovanni Bellini (c.1430-1516) Michelangelo (1475-1564)Piero della Francesca (c.1415-1492) Tintoretto (1518-1594)Giorgione Titian El Greco(c.1477/8-1510) (c.1473/90-1576) (1541-1614)salient characteristics of High Renaissance: harmony, symmetry, and above allunderstanding and a recapturing of classical antiquity in the service of new idealstempietto in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio in Rome [Bramante (1502)]:  perfect symmetry  mysterious effect of the harmony of its elements  classical purity in individual proportionsEarly Classicism prepared way for Raphael’s simple compositions
  • Michelangelesque complexity of Late Mannerism are illuminated by Signorelli’s torturednudesRaphael was born in Urbino in 1483; received provincial training under Perugina; went toFlorence to transcend his provincialism by studying Leonardo and Michelangelofull development of Raphael’s style: School of AthensMedici were early patrons of MichelangeloDavid (completed in 1504): this raw-boned youth, arrogant in his strength and superblyconscious of the impending victory over his unseen opponent has always been a sort ofideal Florentine; ideal creation of purest strain of 15th c. Florentine art beginning withMasaccio, Donatello, Castagno, and going through Pollaiuoloideal of High Renaissance in Florence: male nude, tensed in the anticipation of violentaction, every muscle gliding under the skin so that the spectator feels only that he is in thepresence of perfection and serene confidence; and always the tragic sense of the humancondition was, for Michelangelo, yet to come, but in 1504 was still in the futurein 1508 Michelangelo began his huge task in the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican lying onhis back for years on end interpreting and expressing the story of Divine CreationCreation of Adam: simply as the spark of life given Man by Godtwenty years earlier nobody would have had the technical mastery to create so perfect ahuman form; only Leonardo’s Last Supper had attempted to render psychologicalsituations in terms of gesture and expressionMannerist art is inconceivable without the impulse given by Michelangelo to virtuosity“…enlightened by such a fount of life, removing darkness from your eyes…” – VasariMichelangelo sets a standard primary to all other factors economic, political, and evenreligious being secondarypolitical situation in Venice, remaining as only Italian city-state independent of HolyLeague of 1508, allowed Titian to lay new territory in arts in richness of color and depthof tone; opulence and subtlety of oil medium; provided Giorgione with medium toexplore new ideas and to experiment with new effects [e.g. Giorgione, Tempest (c.1508)]increasingly complex nature of content
  • Giorgione, Sleeping Venus (c.1510) left unfinished by Giorgione’s premature death in1510; completed by Titian; with it dawned a new era in the arts; choice of a nude womanmarked a revolution in art, and is considered by some authorities one of the startingpoints of modern artrise of secular education; secular patronage (Medicis, etc) v. clerical patronageMannerism: European art style that developed between 1520 and 1600; rejected the calmbalance of High Renaissance in favor of emotion and distortion; works of art reflectedtension that marked Europe at this critical transition in historyexamples of Mannerism:Michelangelo (1475-1564) Dying Slave (1513) marble, LouvreMichelangelo The Dead Christ (1536-1541) black chalk, LouvreRoss Fiorentino (1494-1540) Allegory of Salvation (1521) oil, LA County Museum of ArtJacopo Carrucci da Pantormo Halberdier (c.1528) oil (and tempera) transferred to(1494-1557) panel, J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CASchool of Fountainbleau Dianna the Huntress (mid-16thc.) canvas, LouvrePaolo Veronese Mars and Venus united by Love, oil on canvas, Louvremannerism: Italian “manierismo” from maniero – manner, or style [1520-1590]originated as a reaction against harmonious classicism and idealized naturalism of theHigh Renaissance; standards of formal complexity of the male nude had been set byMichelangelo and norm of idealized beauty by Raphael versus mannerist successors forwhom “an obsession with style and technique in figural composition often outweighedthe importance and innate meaning of the subject matter”for the mannerists, highest value was placed upon the apparently effortless solution ofintricate artistic problems, such as the portrayal of the nude in complex and artificialposesMannerist characteristics:artificiality pictorial fantasy; visual references to antique; strange, jarring spatial relationshipsartiness constricting spacescultivation of elegance juxtaposition of unnatural, intense colorsself-conscious abnormality of scaletechnical facility irrational mix of classical motifssophistication indulgence in the bizarre, or grotesqueexaggeration elongation and stylized features
  • High Renaissance: deep, linear perspectiveMannerism: flattened, obscure perspectiveRichard Feigen: “Mannerism exploits the improbable, it has a linear elegance that bringsit to the edge of distortion. It celebrates grace over reality and form over content.Mannerism began the journey into the world of the mind, of metaphor that eventuallyculminated in the Symbolism of the Nineteenth Century and the Surrealism of theTwentieth Century.”mythological to religious to symbolic to abstractGiorgio Vasari: maniera, de maniera, “the hand” - refers to three great artists ofRenaissance[i.e. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael] Attribute High Renaissance Mannerism abnormal, exploits content normal, supernormal, ideal strangeness of subject universal sometimes with uncontrollable emotion direct, compact, elaborate, involved, narrative comprehensible obstruse, deliberately hidden meaning controlled, measured, space is disjointed, formal space harmonious, symmetrical, spasmodic, just foreground ideal, balanced, logical plane or hidden middle plane composition integrated, centralized (core conflicting, acentral, seek or composition) violate frame easily posed with possibility tenseness; tensely posed; figures of movement with confined; sometimes anatomical correctness extended contra posta proportions normative, idealized, attenuated, exaggerated, proportionate elongated color order, harmony, balance contrasting; surprising use and placement substance natural artificialcomparison of David as subject of art: Donatello, Michelangelo, BerniniSources: Andrew Graham-Dixon (1999). Renaissance. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; Linda and PeterMurray (1963). The Art of the Renaissance. New York: Thames and Hudson, Inc.; [websites]: www.artlex.com;www.artnet.com; www.britannica.com.© Keith Carson (2010) All rights reserved.