Map 12.1: Distribution of Slaves, 1790 and 1860 (cont’d)
Map 12.2: The Internal Slave Trade, 1810–1860
Figure 12.1: Value of Cotton Exports as a Percentage of All U.S. Exports, 1800–1860
Figure 12.2: Growth of Cotton Production and the Slave Population, 1790–1860
The Peculiar Institution
Article IV of United States Constitution does not mention the words “slave” or “slavery”
Northwest Ordinance (1787): banned slavery in the new territory and established a division (Ohio River) between free and slave territories that would be the critical national political question until the Civil War
as the country expanded, sectional divisions widened, and the question of slavery repeatedly came to the fore of public debate
various compromises at the federal level only put off the day when the question of American slavery was to be decided
slavery has been described as the original sin of the United States of America
Fugitive Slave Laws
Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 : arose out of a dispute between the states of Pennsylvania and Virginia, the law essentially deprived Black Americans of constitutional rights; the underground railroad was developed in response to the act
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 : passed as part of the Compromise of 1850; act fined any Federal Marshal or other official who did not seize fugitive slaves, thus establishing a duty to do so
Missouri Compromise (1820): prohibited the expansion of slavery into the Great Plains (Louisiana Territory north of 36°30') while permitting slavery in the Missouri and Arkansas territories.
The Compromise of 1850
California admitted to the Union as a free state
New Mexico and Utah territories were to decide the question of slavery within their territorial boundaries by the doctrine of “popular sovereignty”
Texas ceded the New Mexico territory for a Congressional appropriation of $10 million USD
Slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
Nebraska Territory was to be divided into Kansas and Nebraska
question of slavery was to be decided by popular sovereignty
Effects of Kansas-Nebraska Act
The reopening of the slavery question in the territories with almost immediate tragic results in "Bleeding Kansas"
The president's (Millard Fillmore) hope for reelection dashed
The complete realignment of the major political parties
The Democrats lost influence in the North and were to become the regional pro-slavery party of the South
The Whig Party, which had opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, died in the South and was weakened in the North
A new Republican Party emerged as an immediate political force, drawing in anti-Nebraska Whigs and Democrats
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1856) : ruled African Americans could not claim US citizenship and, therefore, had no legal standing (jurisdiction) in federal courts Dred Scott (1799-1858) Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (1777-1864)
In 1858 Senator James Henry Hammond of South Carolina replied to Senator William H. Seward of New York:
"Without the firing of a gun, without drawing a sword, should they [Northerners] make war upon us [Southerners], we could bring the whole world to our feet. What would happen if no cotton was furnished for three years? . . England would topple headlong and carry the whole civilized world with her. No, you dare not make war on cotton! No power on earth dares make war upon it. Cotton is King."
phrase used to emphasize importance of cotton to the southern US economy
Southern plantations produced three-fourths of the world’s cotton
following the invention of the cotton gin, tobacco was outstripped by cotton production
Cotton Diplomacy: refusal by the US South to export cotton to Europe in the hope of generating European support for and intervention on behalf of the Confederacy
The SACHEM of TAMMANY Kicking Out a WOOD(en) Imitation of Democracy.
"KING COTTON." "Oh ! isn't that a Dainty Dish to set before the King ?"
Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America
abolishes and continues to prohibit slavery
prohibits, with limited exceptions (those convicted of a crime), involuntary servitude
Jim Crow System System of state and local laws, ordinances, and other restrictions enacted primarily in the American South and border states between 1876 (end of Reconstruction) and 1965 (Voting Rights Act). The intention was to maintain a legal system of racial apartheid.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
The Plessy decision upheld the doctrine of separate, but equal, thus promulgating de jure (legal) segregation in the United States.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)
Overturning the decision in Plessy v. Ferguson , the United States Supreme Court ruled that the doctrine of separate, but equal was inherently unequal and, therefore, unconstitutional. The Brown v. Board of Education decision paved the way for desegregation of American society .
De jure segregation: in law; segregation resulting by legal code
De facto segregation: in fact; segregation resulting from social behavior and socio-economic patterns
Affirmative Action: attempts to remedy the effects of patterns of historical racism and segregation by affirmative policies that favor the disadvantaged group
Reverse Discrimination: when laws or policies enacted to rectify historical racial abuses adversely affect majority group members
Select Reports of Noose Sightings in the United States (2006-2007)