ACtion Photocatalytic Coating Information Manual OverviewTio2 Photoctalysis is internationally recognised as one of the most effective materials which can kill almost allkinds of bacteria including flu and SARS. It has been widely used in the sterilisation of hospitals, institutions,schools etc. The PROtect ACtion photocatalyst coating, kills almost all kinds of bacteria under the irradiation oflight, which can be maintained long enough to thoroughly decompose bacteria, its cell body and the residualexdotoxin. Meanwhile the photocatalyst can wipe out indoor allergen and reduce the incidence of respiratorydeseases. Sterilization Mechanisms of ACtion PhotocatalystTitanium Dioxide itself has no toxicity, its sterilization function activates after the irradiation of UV light.When exposed to light, the very strong oxidising power of Titanium Dioxide can destroy the bacteria’s’ cell walland membrane and react with the cell components inhibiting growth and ultimately killing and decomposingthe cell structure. Sterilization by Tio2 photocatalyst presents the following 2 biochemical mechanisms.Direct PhotocatalysisThe electron-hole can directly react with a cell wall cell membrane and cell component in the sterilizingprocess of mycrozymes and bacilli, the CoA inside the cell oxidizes which causes the respiration of the cell tostop and finally in its death. During this process, the electron shift between the dead cell and Tio2 is passed byCoA, therefore the content of CoA decreases and CoA dimer increases.Indirect Sterilization ReactionWhen and electron hole dissolves in water it generate Active Oxygen such as Hydroxile Radical. The electronicstructure of Titanium Dioxide is characterised by filled valence band(VB) and an empty conduction band (CB).The band gap energy is excited and an electron is promoted from the valence band (VB) to the conduction +band (CB) then and electron-hole pair is generated (electron e- and hole h ) the positive –hole of TitaniumDioxide breaks the water molecule apart to form hydrogen gas and hydroxyl radical -The negative-electron reacts with the Oxygen molecule to form a super oxide anion (0 2 ) Super oxide anion canreact with water molecules generating hydroxyl radical peroxide ( 00H ) and Hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2)Moreover, active Hydroxyl Radicals can combine to form Hydrogen Peroxide. This cycle continues when lightis available.The active Hydroxil radical, super oxide anion, peroxide hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide can react withbiomacromolecules such as protein enzyme and lipid, which will destroy the cell wall membrane and itscomponents. For example, the oxidation=reduction material is necessary in the formation of AdenosineTriphosphate insode the hela cell. After reacting with the active Oxygen, the hela cell ( T24)membrane is 2+oxidised by Titanium Dioxide and leaks, the positive ion Ca enters the cell and reacts with the inner proteinwhich cvauses the death of the cell
R R RC R C C OH CR R RH R Typical Redox Potential of Microbes and Cells (vs, SCE, PH=7) Microbe Cell Concentration RedoxTake OH for example , it can provide an unsaturated bond Cell / L Potential Nor take out its atom H as organic matter Microzyme 1 x 1011 0.74 Escherichia Coli 1 x 1011 0.72R3CH OH R3C H 2 O Lactobacillus 5 x 1011 0.68 Bacillus Subtilis 2 x 1011 0.68 Samonella 6 x 1011 0.70The new free radical will cause a chain reaction which will lead to Typhimuriumthe qualitative change of bacterial proteins and the total Cell Concentration Redox Component Cell / L Potentialdecomposition of lipids. The bacteria is decomposed and killed at Nonce. Microzyme - 0.65 Extravasate Thereforethe electron hole and OH , O2 , HO2 , H 2 O2 CoA Reductive co- 3.7 x 103 5.0 x 103 0.40 0.68formed on the surface of Titanium Dioxide can react with a enzymecell wall, membrane and its component to kill the cell. Cysteine 2.5 x 103 0.45 Protolasm - .65 Hela Cell - .65In the sunlight, the Titanium Dioxide particles are absorbed bythe surface of animalcule cells,( OH , O2 , HO2 , H 2 O2 ) will react directly with cytologic histologocal elements which improves the sterilization effect. The positive –hole of Titanium Dioxide irradiated by UV light is an extremelystrong oxidation agent, the reactive Oxygen is also extremely active. As a result, Titanium Dioxidecan effectively kill Escherichia Coli, Lactobacillus, Bacillus Subtilis, Hela and Cancer cells T24.Furthermore it can inhibit or prevent the growth of malignant cells and even kill green algae.As aresult of such effective sterilization, Titanium Dioxide can be used indoors as an antiseptic andsterilization agent for water treatment, water pollution and Photodynamiotherapy.Actually, photocatalytic sterilization remains constant when bacteria is exposed to Titanium Dioxide,as the active hydroxyl radical cannot exist and cannot enter a cell membrane to destroy the cellstructure, therefore the sterilization effect is the result of hydroxyl radical and other active oxygen( O2 , OOH , H 2 O2 ) since H 2 O2 can enter a cell wall it not only kills the bacteria but alsodecomposes lipoids such as Endotoxin released by its death. In addition it can remain stable for aslong time so H 2 O2 can be the most important reaction medium in photocatalytic sterilization. Ofcourse the reaction also includes other active oxygen and H 2 O2 is not the only reactant. The activehydroxyl radical performs strong oxidation inside the cell, which greatly improves its sterilizationeffect.
Comparison with Traditional AntisepticsTraditional antiseptics are divided into the following threecategories. Organic Antiseptic, Inorganic Antiseptic and NaturalAntiseptic. There are two types of Inorganic Antseptics, one witha strong oxidant property used to kill bacteria and fungus and theother with a metal ion that will kill germs, however, theantiseptics themselves like Chlorine and Chlorine oxide arepotentially bad for health. The metal antiseptics do not continueto decompose the germ body after killing so the germ body coatsthe metal ion, this greatly affects the antibacterial efficiency. Theorganic antiseptics compounded by scientific chemical methodskill germs quickly but the germ can adapt itself to organicantiseptics easily and the process involves the use of toxicsubstances. Type Advantages Disadvantages Typical ProductsInorganic Heat resistant, wide The silver antiseptics Silver-zeolite/ Phosphate range of sterilization and change colour easily and and silver silica gel. no need for light surfaces remain coated with germ bodies which reduce the effectOrganic Fast and wide range of Not heat resistant, Phenol sterilization, low price produces nasty toxins, and is a pollutantNatural High effect of Not heat resistant, Chitosan, Sorbic Acid sterilization, safer to use processing the material and non pollutant can be difficultPhotocatalyst Wide range of Light required Titanium Dioxide based sterilization, high and Photocatalysts everlasting effect, decomposition of germ bodies and their endotoxin, non pollutant, harmless to humans
Advanced Sterilization with ACtion NanocoatAnti-bacterial and anti virus treatment of public places and facilities such as hospitals, schools, hotels, offices,taxis and public transport.Anti-bacterial and anti virus treatment for face masks, air and water filters, clothes and textiles and domestichygiene.The ACtion nano-photocatalyst kills almost all kinds of bacteria and virus including SARS, H5N1etc and remainseffective for several years. It works by decomposing virus and their cell bodies and the residual endotoxin andthen continues to break down any new mutations of the bacteria. Because the bacteria cell structure iscompletely decomposed, the surface remains active and effective unlike standard disinfectants.The ongoing activity of the ACtion coating eliminates odours such as cigarette smoke, pets and reducesallergens present in the ambient micro environment. Benefits Broad spectrum sterilization feature, killing almost all kinds of bacteria and virus. Providing deodorization and anti allergen properties Long active life ( approx 5 years) depending on conditions Active photcatalytic decomposition of mould and fungus, self cleaning. Safe and environmentally responsible method of killing bacteria and virus with no toxins or residual pollutant ACtion Nanocoatng delivers excellent anti bacterial performance after coating in areas where hygiene is critical. Our product has been tested in a Hospital in high risk areas and the growth rate of bacteria measured. 8 critical areas of contamination where measured for bugs and 6 from the 8 were contaminated at a dangerous level. The areas were then coated with ACtion and then re-opened to normal operations for a period of 24 hours. After this period each area was re-tested and were either free from contamination or at a safe level.Data available on demand
Air PurificationACtion is a next generation air purification technology that will de-activate harmful pollutants in 85% of allharmful gases such as , Nitrogen Oxide, Formaldehyde,Benzene, VOC’s. ACtion nanocoat works by Photocatalysis, in the presenceof light, it produces hydroxyl radicals and holes ( h+). Thesereact with organic materials and harmful gases to produceWater and Carbon Dioxide.Through nano-particulate engineering and modifications inthe reology of the monolayer, the coating can be adaptedto operate in low light conditions without any detrimentaleffect to the overall performance. Pollutant Source Chemical Reaction End Product H2O CO2 N2, O2 NO3 2 Ammonia Urine, Sweat, Garbage, Smoke 2 NH 3 6OH N 2 6H 2 O Acetaldehyde Garbage, Smoke etc CH 3CHO 6OH O2 2CO2 4H 2 O Acetic Acid Garbage, Smoke etc CH 3COOH 4OH O2 2CO2 4H 2 O Methane Gas, Fuel, Organic CH 4 4OH O2 CO2 4H 2 O Decomposition Carbon Exhaust fumes, Monoxide Smoke CO 2OH CO2 H 2 O Nitrogen Exhaust fumes, Oxide Smoke " NO 4OH N 2 2O2 2H 2 O Formaldehyde Resin, Paints etc HCHO 4OH CO2 3H 2 OThe above table shows the chemical reactions initiated by the photocatalytic process and the resultingproducts produced in each case. The residual products are non pollutants and are completely harmless.
Self CleaningOverviewAction self cleaning nanocoat is a special photocatalytic coating that reacts with light to create a hydrophilicsurface or a surface that is super receptive to water.The washing proess is done by reducing the surface tension of the coated area so that it cannot repell waterbut accepts it to spread evenly over the surface. Surface tension is normally measured by establishing thecontact angle of a water droplet on the surface , the diagram shows the angle and how the coating alters theshape of the droplet.The coated area eventually becomes completely saturated by water, so that excess water begins to flow bygravity, “washing” the coated area.Before and during this washing process the photocatalytic coating has decomposed organic pollutants, lipidsand moulds that may have contaminated the surface, so the combination of the two processes ensures thatall dead and decomposed organic cells are washed free from the surface each time for the ACtion coatingscycle to continue.Before After