Icon: Where the sound resembles in some shape or form what it is representing. This is a form of Primary Signification. Interesting to consider sampling Index: Where the sound points toward its meaning
The person or What theStimulus/Music people who meaning understand refers to its meaning Can Be „Designative‟ or Embodied‟ (Outside or Inside Music)
Mayer believes that once we become emotionally or intellectually aware of the implications of a musical stimulus – meaning arises. Regarding how listeners gain interest in music, Mayer distinguishes three types of „deviation‟, arguing that “the mind becomes aware of the possibility of alternative modes of continuation”- 1) The probable event is delayed 2) Ambiguity 3)The Unexpected
1. „Hypothetical Meaning‟ (What we expect to occur) “Greater freedom of choice, greater uncertainty, greater information go hand in hand .2. „Evident Meaning‟ (What has happened retrospectively) – Very Common! These two factors are interrelated by the former being re-evaluated in light of the latter. This can be considered part of the „hermeneutic circle‟.
Revision: Phil Tagg Communication Model Intended ‘adequate’‘message’ Emitter Music Receiver response (channel)
AO IOCM Analysis Interobjective Comparison Object Material PMFA PMFAParamusical Fields Paramusical Fields of Association of Association (relevant to AO) (relevant to IOCM)
“A musical synecdoche would therefore be a set of musical structures inside a given musical style that refer to another (different, foreign, alien) musical style by citing one or two elements supposed to be typical of that other style when heard in the context of the style into which those foreign elements are imported. By citing part of the other style, the citation then alludes not only to that other style in its entirety but also potentially refers to the complete genre of which that other musical style is a subset” (Tagg Towards a Sign Typology of Music ) Shakti Miles Davis
What examples can you think of in popular music where there is a „sign‟ that indicates a musical event is about to happen? Drum fills? Rallentaddo? Film Music examples: Jaws
Intrasubjective analysis: Personal account of ones own reactions to music. Intersubjective analysis: An account that takes numerous accounts of a piece of music into consideration. Intraobjective analysis: Personal account – but attempts to be objective!
Performance practices and techniques can give a song its „unique‟ character. Can impact both live music making and recorded music. Recording changes what may originally have been considered an improvised moment into something that can be analysed repeatedly. How does the musician communicate their musical persona in a recorded or live performance?- In a single take? Via overdubs? Are they being themselves or someone else? etc
Many musicians and producers have a sound that is associated with them: Hendrix guitar sound Phil Collins drum sound Duane Eddy guitar sound Phil Spector production All of these are sometimes a combination of performance style and recorded sound.
What occurs in terms of reception when musicians of different styles and traditions combine? For example:
Intentional: Meaning in the performance as the players have more freedom Extensional: Meaning in the notation Pink Floyd Rehearsal
Interesting to examine how the time and location of a recording influences the sound. Many artists have used specific „places‟ to influence a sound. For Example: Phil Spector – Gold Star Studios in Hollywood. Led Zeppelin (4th album) Headley Grange Buddy Holly: Norman Petty‟s studio Elvis Presley: Sun Studios Joe Meek: 304 Holloway Road Rolling Stones: Muscle Shoals Studio
Sometimes the peculiarities of a room may lead to a specific recording technique and therefore sound. Buddy Holly: (“Not Fade Away”) Studio too small for drums – used cardboard boxes Note how The Rolling Stones attempted to emulate this sound in the UK with their version of the song. .
Modern recordings are often compiled in a variety of locations and times.
Jimi Hendrix: Crash Landing The Beatles Anthology: John Lennon Nat King Cole and Natalie Cole: “Unforgettable” Patsy Cline-Jim Reeves: “I Fall to Pieces” (1982) Hank Williams Jr and Sr: “There‟s a Tear in my Beer”
A Certain Kind Of Freedom In todays digital age – unity of time and place is no longer a prerequisite for studio performance.
Les Paul Stevie Wonder Mike Oldfield Many modern dance music over the last 20 years or so is documented by a single „performer‟.
Techniques include: Compiling the best aspects of numerous takes, as opposed to going with a „single take‟. „Punching in‟ to redo specific aspects of a performance Digital enhanced tuning and timing Using a „sub mix‟ to (for example bass and drums) to bring about a specific type of performance (In this case, it may be a particularly „tight‟ relationship between the instruments) Other sub mixes could focus on the interaction between instruments.
Place examples of Episodic Markers on blog: plus -one of the following Sonic/Tactile/Kinetic Anaphones Genre Synecdoche Experiments with Time & Place