Session  3‘the elements of music’
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Session 3‘the elements of music’



A musicology presenation that focuses on the relationship between the elements of music and musical form.

A musicology presenation that focuses on the relationship between the elements of music and musical form.



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Session  3‘the elements of music’ Session 3‘the elements of music’ Presentation Transcript

    • Fridays after lecture – say 1-5?
    • Groups? – I will place on Blackboard
    • Elements of Music
    • Song – Arrangement – Track
    • Stan Hawkins Article
    • The vast majority of popular music has a specific structure.
    • Common terminologies we use in popular music include Introduction, Verse, Chorus, and Middle Section/Bridge.
    • Most popular music consists of 2 or 4 bar phrases, so the sections are often divided into 8 or 16 bars. For Example:
    • For Example:
    • Sections usually contrast with one another melodically to sustain interest, but also harmonically, texturally, lyrically, dynamically and rhythmically (or any other ‘element’).
    • Listen to examples below, how do the above factors change?
    Bleeding Love Melodically Harmonically Texturally Lyrically Dynamically Rhythmically War Of My Life Melodically Harmonically Texturally Lyrically Dynamically Rhythmically
    • “ Jail House Rock” Elvis Presley (Stop Time)
    • “ The Pretender” Foo Fighters
    • Look for changes of harmony between sections. Although most use different harmonies between verse and chorus, others use the same. For example:
    • “ Stand By Me” Ben E King
    • “ CandyLion” Gruff Rhys
    • Self Evident
    • “ Sloop John B”:The Beach Boys
    • Note how this consists of only one section, so variety of texture is vital)
    • Listen closely for the relationships between instruments in terms of:
    • Frequency (High – Low)
    • Depth/Distance (amount of ambience)
    • Stereo Spectrum (Left – Right). Does it change? Do these changes help evoke the mood of the music?
    • General Volume
    • Is there any double tracking?
    • Use of effects) (compression, delay, chorus, etc)
    • Use of EQ?
    • Is the texture homophonic or Polyphonic?
    • How does the texture relate to the lyrics and the emotion of the piece (Texture can be ‘physical’ and ‘rhetorical’)?
    • How do the individual parts relate to the whole mix?
    • Annie Lennox: ‘Walking On Broken Glass’
    • Feist: ‘The Water’
    • Specific sounds can immediately inform the listener of who an artist is, and or what a style or tradition is.
    • For example:
    • Phil Spector
    • Jimi Hendrix
    • Try and examine the nature of the individual sound.
    • For example with distortion:
    • What type of distortion is it?
    • How is it manufactured?
    • How does this relate to the style and authenticity of the artist?
    • For example:
    • Rainbow: “Since You Been Gone”
    • Saxon: “Wheels of Steele”
    • Mega death: “Holy Wars”
    • The same type of factors can be discussed for other instruments
    • A change of style: Compare “In God’s Country” ( The Joshua Tree ) to “Zoo Station” ( Achtung Baby ) U2
    • “ That’s All Right” Elvis Presley
    • Specific Live Albums
    • They can can also allude to other styles (what Tagg calls a ‘Genre Synecdoche’)
    • For example: Distortion in Jazz
    • Violin in Rock
    • Harpsichord in Rock (The Beatles)
    • Electric instruments in Jazz or Folk
    • ‘ Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds’: The Beatles
    • ‘ Burnished’: White Denim.
    • As well a metre being used diachronically, it can also be used synchronically. Example:
    • “ Kashmir” (Led Zeppelin)
    • “ All I Need” (Radiohead
    • Introduction : content usually used somewhere else in the song. Not always incorporated, but always introduces the song.
    • Verse : Recurrent harmonic pattern, but different text and texture etc. Usually occurs after the introduction, but sometimes chorus can occur before it (Example “I Shot the Sheriff”, “Rock and Roll Music”)
    • Chorus : Usually a recurrent harmonic and lyrical pattern.
    • Refrain : Not a distinct section, but part of a verse or chorus.
    • Can end or start a section. Consists of a repeated subsection, often with same lyrics. For Example:
    • “ I Saw Her Standing There”: The Beatles (After Verse)
    • God Only Knows: The Beach Boys: (note how refrain repeats at end)
    • I “Want To Hold Your Hand”: The Beatles (After Verse)
    • Bridge : Connects two other sections.
    • Normally occurs once, if twice, usually has same text.
    • Sometimes called the ‘Middle 8’.
    • Bridges can be instrumental: “Nights in White Satin”
    • Outro : Content usually derives from elsewhere in the song. Always ends song.
    • Place at least 4 examples of the following info on my blog
    • Examples of pieces with unusual bar numbers in sections
    • Examples of how rhythm delineates form
    • Examples of verse and chorus with same chords
    • Examples of artist specific sounds
    • Examples of texture/instrumentation delineating form
    • Examples of how metre delineates form.
    • Examples of how sounds allude toward change of style
    • Examples of how sounds indicate a place or time.
    • Examples of textures that outline the lyrics and or Title
    • With all of these questions you need to also ask ‘how’?
    • Read Analysis on Korn (On Blackboard)