Session 2 melodic analysis – horizontal concepts
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Session 2 melodic analysis – horizontal concepts



Powerpoint of lecture on horizontal melody analysis

Powerpoint of lecture on horizontal melody analysis



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Session 2 melodic analysis – horizontal concepts Session 2 melodic analysis – horizontal concepts Presentation Transcript

  • Motif (M)- The smallest self contained unit that has recognisable shape, or contour. Not always relevant in some pieces.  Question Phrase (QP)- A musical statement – Often 2 or 4 bars long – that usually requires completion.  Answer Phrase (AP) - The 2nd phrase of the ‘Sentence’. Although not a ‘rule’, often sounds like it is resolving. Sometimes called the ‘answer’.  Sentence (s)- When the ‘Question Phrase’ and ‘Answering Phrase’ are connected they become a ‘Sentence’. Often 4 or 8 bars long.
  •     Section (S)- Sentences are grouped together to form ‘Sections’. The most obvious examples being the A or B (Verse or Chorus) of a standard song. Often 8 or 16 bars long. Repetition in Macro form. Structural Form (SF)- IE ABA, AB, AABA. ‘Popular Song Form’ is often 32 bars long. Compositional Form (CF) Enables us to analyse how repetition is used and how interest is forged in the song.
  •      The Lyric The Harmony Texture (Between Sections) Melodic Contour/Shape Rhythmic Variations and Repetitions between Question – Answer etc
  •         When examining a piece diachronically (through time), there is a need to compare these factors, to ascertain how they develop and interrelate. For example – How does the ‘Answer Phrase 1’ compare to the ‘Question Phrase 1’? How does ‘Answer Phase 2’ relate to ‘Question Phase 2’? How does Question Phrase 1 compare to Question Phrase 2 How does ‘Sentence 1’ compare to ‘Sentence 2’? How Does Section 1 compare to Section 2, etc. Techniques could include:
  •      Where the melody is different but the rhythm is the same. This can be between question – answer phrases or sentences. For Example ‘Good Stuff’ Donald Fagen Black Chandelier: Buffy Clyro Whitney Houston ‘Run to You’ (Chorus) 1:00 Note: Sometimes these repetitions are not exact – if not you can label ‘near’ before the name. IE ‘Near Rhythmic Sequence’.
  •        The rhythm and melody between question -answer phrases or sentences are identical to earlier material, but up or down a predetermined pitch. Example: This occurs at the level of the Sentence in – Mozart: Theme from 40th Symphony! The Kinks ‘You Really Got Me’ Antonio Carlos Jobim ‘Girl From Ipanema’ (Chorus) 0:38 Elbow ‘One Day Like This’
  •      When the melody and rhythm of an answer phrase is identical to the ‘question’, or between sentences. For example the first two phrases of the Blues ‘Lotus Flower’ Radiohead. (‘Near’ – in verse) 0:50 ‘My Man Called Me’ Big Mamma Thornton ‘Off The Wall’ Lee Ranaldo
  •     What the answering phrase is identical to the question, but commences on a different beat. This is a more advanced technique and is not particularly common in popular music See examples below Cannonball Adderly ‘Straight No Chaser’ and ‘Fascinating Rhythm’
  • Compare this…. To this Or This To This
  •        When the melody is identical but the harmony changes. For example: The First 8 bars of most blues songs – ‘Hound Dog’ Big Mamma Thornton Antonio Carlos Jobim: ‘One Note Samba’ Antonia Carlos Jobim: ‘Girl From Ipanema’ (Verse) The Police ‘Every Breath You Take’ Thin Lizzy ‘Whisky in the Jar’
  •            Where the answering phrase consists of entirely new material The Beatles: ‘Hey Jude’ Bobby Vinton: ‘Blue Velvet’ Suzanne Vega ‘Luka’ Take That ‘A Million Love Songs’ No Audio – but also Joe Cocker ‘With a Little Help From My Friends’ Patsy Cline ‘Crazy’ Feist ‘The Water’ Whitney Houston ‘Run to You’ (Verse) Sting ‘Dead Man’s Boots’
  • First Half of Hey Jude QP1-AP1:New Material: Sentence 1 QP2 – AP2: New Material: Sentence 2 (Section 1/Verse1) QP3-AP3:New Material: Sentence 3 QP4 – AP2: New Material: Sentence 4 (Section 2/Verse2) QP5-AP5:New Material: Sentence 5 QP6 – AP6: New Material: Sentence 6 (Section 3/Bridge) QP7-AP7:New Material: Sentence 7 QP8 – AP8: New Material: Sentence 8 (Section 4/Verse3) QP9-AP9:New Material: Sentence 9 QP10 – AP10: New Material: Sentence 10 (Section 5/Verse4) QP11-AP11:New Material: Sentence 11 QP12 – AP12: New Material: Sentence 12 (Section 3/Bridge)
  • S1 QP1--------------------------AP1----------------------------s1---------------------------------------------------------------------------- A QP2--------------------------AP2-----------------------------s2-------------------------------------------------------------------------S2 QP3--------------------------- AP3---------------------------------------------- QP4------------------------------------------------Compositional Form???? B
  •     Present examples on my web site of indicative techniques I have suggested (One Song Only) Can you suggest any others Techniques that I have not considered? Download music software from http://variations.sourceforge. net/vat/ You may also be interested in downloading Sonic Visualiserhttp://www.sonicvi from