Musicology Presentation


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  • Musicology Presentation

    1. 1. Musicology
    2. 2. What is Musicology?
    3. 3. History of Musicology <ul><li>First used in Germany to describe the academic study of European Art Music. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly concerned with the analysis of autonomous, ‘great’ master works from a theoretical or historical perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Until the later years of the 20 th Century, musicologists did not really engage with popular music. This was for two reasons: </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>It was considered ‘inferior’, not having the ‘authenticity’ of ‘Art’ music or even ‘Folk’ music. </li></ul><ul><li>The vernacular/social foundations challenged the notion of an autonomous art form. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the last 20+ years, popular music based musicology has emerged, and is still developing. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why Musicology <ul><li>Enables us to decipher meaning from music, using theoretical knowledge, aural skills, and analytical principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables us to better understand the appeal of certain music forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables us to better understand how certain music functions . </li></ul><ul><li>Enables us to potentially apply research findings to our own music </li></ul>
    6. 6. Module Aims <ul><li>Introduce students to the study of various forms of popular music, including varying modes of communication such as recordings, performances, music videos, as texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop critical and analytical skills in reference to various theoretical and analytical approaches to the texts </li></ul><ul><li>Further develop students’ critical thinking, writing and presentational skills. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Assessment <ul><li>Written essay (70%) Due May 1 st 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>A Technologically Based Aural Presentation (30%) Due May 1 st 2009 </li></ul>
    8. 8. Written Essay (70%) <ul><li>Document a 2000 word essay that focuses on one of the following aspects of musicology: </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>A detailed theoretical analysis of a single piece of music of your choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion must center around the concepts discussed in class, and include composition , arrangement , production and performance paradigms. </li></ul><ul><li>Particular attention should be placed on the harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic factors of the music, and consideration must be displayed in terms of how they interrelate with the form, texture, tempo, metre, timbre, and dynamics. of the music. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential that Roman numeral analysis is incorporated in the harmonic discussion of the music, and the essay should display a clear understanding of horizontal and vertical chordal paradigms. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to clarify the discussion, a detailed form chart and CD copy of any relent recordings must be included. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of notated examples are not a requirement to pass this unit, but a distinct advantage for the higher classifications. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>A theoretical analysis that compares and contrasts two songs of your choice. This can involve either congruent or incongruent artists. </li></ul><ul><li>As with question 1, discussion must center around the concepts discussed in class, and include composition , arrangement , production and performance paradigms. </li></ul><ul><li>Particular attention should be placed on the harmonic , rhythmic , and melodic factors of the music, and consideration must be displayed in terms of how both pieces interrelate regarding form, texture, tempo, metre, timbre, and dynamics. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential that Roman numeral analysis is incorporated in the harmonic discussion of the musics, and the essay should display a clear understanding of horizontal and vertical chordal paradigms. Outline form charts for both pieces must be included, alongside any relevant recordings copied onto CD. </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of notated examples are not a requirement to pass this unit, but a distinct advantage for the higher classifications. </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Analyse a piece of music using Philip Tagg’s musicological methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the essay should draw upon concepts discussed in class such as harmonic, rhythmic and melodic analysis, musical form, instrumentation, meter, and Roman numeral analysis. Specific attention should be given to the use of how a single ‘Analysis Object’ can be analysed using the following vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis Object (AO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter Objective Comparison Material (IOCM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parameters of Musical Expression (PME) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items of Musical Code (IMC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra Musical Fields of Association (EMFA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothetical Substitution (HS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musemes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outline form charts for the Analysis Object, alongside any relevant recordings copied onto CD must be included. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of notated examples are not a requirement to pass this unit, but a distinct advantage for the higher classifications. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Present a contextual analysis of an artist of your choice. </li></ul><ul><li>The essay must include a rationale why you have chosen the artist (including the context of your research), a list of research questions, and a synopsis of how you intend to investigate these questions. </li></ul><ul><li>The main body of the essay should focus not just on musical factors, but contextual ones. </li></ul><ul><li>For example how do paradigms such as authenticity, gesture and tradition determine how the artist is conceptualised and received? </li></ul><ul><li>What philosophical approaches has the artist adopted, and how do they relate to other musicians, styles, genres, traditions, etc? </li></ul><ul><li>It would be particularly interesting to investigate how techniques have been employed outside of music (for example in art or literature). </li></ul><ul><li>The essay must include numerous transcription and/or recordings that substantiate your argument, and these must be clearly linked to your text and included in recorded form as an appendix (via a CD). </li></ul>
    13. 13. Technological Presentation (30%) <ul><li>Organise and ‘virtually’ present a 5-minute presentation on one of the following subject areas: </li></ul><ul><li>A short contextual study of a musician or musical style of your choice. </li></ul><ul><li>A short account of one of the musicological approaches discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>A comparison of two of the approaches discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>An introductory musicological analysis of a song/composition of your choice. </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation will not be delivered by ‘traditional means, but by technological methods. One of the following two approaches must be adopted: </li></ul><ul><li>An aural podcast . </li></ul><ul><li>An aural/visual podcast using screen capture software </li></ul><ul><li>Details of the software requirements for this task will be posted on blackboard </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Care must be taken not to use the content from this task in the written essay. If in doubt, please check with your tutor. </li></ul><ul><li>NB: Although submitted at the same time as the main essay, it is suggested that you work on this assignment first – as a means of exploring fully what interests you. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Important Links <ul><li>Paul Carr Blog: </li></ul><ul><li>Music Academy You Tube </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    15. 15. What aspects of music can we analyse? <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>
    16. 16. Composition <ul><li>Dictionary definition of musical ingredients for a composition usually includes the following broad categories: </li></ul>Melody Harmony Rhythm
    17. 17. Question: <ul><li>Are these factors relevant when analysing Popular Music Composition today (why/why not)? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Additional Compositional Factors <ul><li>In addition to the above, consider how the following could be used as a starting point when analysing a piece of music: </li></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Tempo </li></ul><ul><li>Metre </li></ul><ul><li>Timbre </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics </li></ul>
    19. 19. Questions: <ul><li>How important to the ‘Song’ are these factors? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you use these as a starting point for analysis ? </li></ul>
    20. 20. Musical Form <ul><li>The vast majority of popular music has a specific structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Common terminologies we use in popular music include Introduction, Verse, Chorus, and Middle Section/Bridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular music consists of 2 or 4 bar phrases, so the sections are often divided into 8 or 16 bars. For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ain’t That A Shame”: Fats Domino: Verse 4: Chorus 8 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ticket To Ride”: The Beatles: Verse and Chorus 8 bars long </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clocks”: Coldplay: 4 bar sections </li></ul><ul><li>“ Valerie”: Amy Winehouse: All sections 8 bars long </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Listen out for music that does not fit with this structure. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yesterday” (7 bar Verse) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yellow”: Coldplay 6-7-7 bar Verses – 8 bar Chorus </li></ul><ul><li>“ Worried About Ray”: The Hoosiers: 8 bar Verse, 6 Bar Chorus </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Sections contrast with one another usually melodically, but also harmonically, texturally, lyrically, dynamically and rhythmically </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to examples below, how do the above factors change? </li></ul>Valerie Melodically Harmonically Texturally Lyrically Dynamically Rhythmically Worried About Ray Melodically Harmonically Texturally Lyrically Dynamically Rhythmically
    23. 23. Clues To Listen Out For <ul><li>Arrival of the title line (What the song is named after) </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of guitar/vocals, keys etc </li></ul><ul><li>A lyric that is one line only and repeated after another section is usually a chorus </li></ul><ul><li>Initial arrival of a vocal line – usually a verse. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrival of backing vocals – usually chorus, but at least a new section. </li></ul>For Example “ Valerie”: Amy Winehouse “ Bleeding Love”: Leona Lewis
    24. 24. How Rhythm Can Delineate Form <ul><li>“ Ain’t That A Shame” (Stop Time) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Long Tall Sally”: The Beatles (Stop Time) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Goodbye Mr A”: The Hoosiers </li></ul>
    25. 25. How Harmony Can Determine Form <ul><li>Look for changes of harmony between sections. Some songs use the same harmony between verse and chorus: </li></ul><ul><li>For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Valerie (has bridge between verse/chorus) </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding Love </li></ul><ul><li>And some use different harmonies: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hey Good Looking” (Modulation to sub-dominant) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Smoke On The Water”: Deep Purple </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yellow”: Coldplay </li></ul><ul><li>“ Worried About Ray”: The Hoosiers </li></ul><ul><li>General Factors: Verses start on Chord 1, Verses on 4 or 5 </li></ul>
    26. 26. How Melody Can Determine Form <ul><li>Fact: Choruses usually have slower melodies than verses. Listen to previous examples: </li></ul>
    27. 27. How Instrumentation/Texture Can Determine Form <ul><li>Valerie </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding Love </li></ul><ul><li>Sloop John B:The Beach Boys </li></ul><ul><li>Note how the last example consists of only one section, so variety of texture is vital) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Discussing Texture/Timbre <ul><li>Listen closely for the relationships between instruments in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency (High – Low) </li></ul><ul><li>Depth/Distance (amount of ambience) </li></ul><ul><li>Stereo Spectrum (Left – Right). Does it change. Do these changes help evoke the mood of the music? </li></ul><ul><li>General Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any double tracking? </li></ul><ul><li>Use of effects) (compression, delay, chorus, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of EQ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the texture homophonic, Polyphonic, instrumental, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the texture relate to the lyrics and the emotion of the piece How do the individual parts relate to the whole mix? </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul>
    29. 29. Clear Mix Angels: Robbie Williams Textural Wash God Only Knows The Beach Boys
    30. 30. Discussing Timbre <ul><li>Specific sounds can immediately inform the listener of who an artist is, and or what a style or tradition is. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Wheels of Steele: Saxon </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriella </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Try and examine the nature of the individual sound. </li></ul><ul><li>For example with distortion: </li></ul><ul><li>What type of distortion is it? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this relate to the style and authenticity of the artist. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Rainbow: “Since You Been Gone” </li></ul><ul><li>Saxon: “Wheels of Steele” </li></ul><ul><li>Mega death: “Holy Wars” </li></ul><ul><li>ZZ Top: “Tush” </li></ul><ul><li>The same type of factors can be discussed for other instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Note how sounds can allude toward: </li></ul><ul><li>A change of style: </li></ul><ul><li>A Time or Place </li></ul><ul><li>Consider other factors </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>They can can also allude to other styles (what Tagg calls a ‘Genre Synecdoche’) </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Distortion in Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>Violin in Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Harpsichord in Rock (The Beatles) </li></ul><ul><li>Electric instruments in Jazz or Folk </li></ul>
    34. 34. How Metre Can Determine Form <ul><li>“Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds”: The Beatles </li></ul>
    35. 35. Polyrhythm <ul><li>As well a metre being used diachronically, it can also be used synchronically. Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Kashmir” (Led Zeppelin) Drums in 4/4 </li></ul><ul><li>“ All I Need” (Radiohead) Drums in 4/4 </li></ul>
    36. 36. General Points About Sections <ul><li>Introduction : content usually used somewhere else in the song. Not always incorporated, but always introduces the song. </li></ul><ul><li>Verse : Recurrent harmonic pattern, but different text and texture etc. Usually occurs after the introduction, but sometimes chorus can occur before it (Example “I Shot the Sheriff”, “Rock and Roll Music”) </li></ul><ul><li>Chorus : Usually a recurrent harmonic and lyrical pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Refrain : Not a distinct section, but part of a verse or chorus. </li></ul><ul><li>Can end or start a section. Consists of a repeated subsection, often with same lyrics. For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Saw Her Standing There”: The Beatles (After Verse) </li></ul><ul><li>God Only Knows: The Beach Boys: (note how refrain repeats at end) </li></ul><ul><li>I “Want To Hold Your Hand”: The Beatles (After Verse) </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge : Connects two other sections. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally occurs once, if twice, usually has same text. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called the ‘Middle 8’. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges can be instrumental: “Nights in White Satin” </li></ul><ul><li>Outro : Content usually derives from elsewhere in the song. Always ends song. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Examples Of Common Forms – Simple Verse Form (AAA) <ul><li>Essentially consists of one section that is repeated. In its simplest form the same harmonic material is repeated several times (usually in 8,12, or 16 bar divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Blues and blues based music is probably its most pervasive exemplar, and was very popular in the 50’s. For example </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hound Dog”: Big Mamma Thornton </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mystery Train”: Elvis Presley </li></ul><ul><li>Also around in the 60,s: (although it did give way to more binary forms) For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Thrill Is Gone”: BB King </li></ul><ul><li>“ Black Magic Woman”: Fleetwood Mac </li></ul><ul><li>“ Long Tall Sally”: The Beatles (Note how it slips into ‘simple verse-chorus form’ at the end.) </li></ul>
    38. 38. <ul><li>Sometimes this form can be interspersed with a different introduction and ending. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rock Around the Clock”: Bill Haley and the Comets </li></ul><ul><li>“ Eight Miles High”: The Byrds </li></ul><ul><li>Shake Rattle and Roll: Bill Haley </li></ul><ul><li>“ Stand By Me”: (No Recording) </li></ul><ul><li>“ La Bamba”: Ritchie Valens (No Recording) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Louie Louie”: The Kingsmen </li></ul><ul><li>“ We Will Rock You”: Queen </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bleeding Love” (similar): </li></ul><ul><li>“ No One”: Alesha Keys </li></ul><ul><li>“ Welcome To The Good Life”: Kenya West </li></ul>
    39. 39. Contrasting Verse Chorus Form (AB) <ul><li>Similar to Simple Verse-Chorus, but the latter has a different harmonic progression. For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>“Penny Lane”: The Beatles </li></ul><ul><li>“Get Back”: The Beatles </li></ul><ul><li>“Hotel California”: The Eagles </li></ul><ul><li>“Smoke on the Water”: Deep Purple </li></ul>
    40. 40. Popular Song Form (AABA) <ul><li>Form emerged during 20’s and 30’s during the ‘Popular Song’ period. In its pure form, sections are 8 bars long. Examples from this period inc: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Got Rhythm” (George Gerswin) Intro AABA – AABA - End </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Love You” (Cole Porter) Intro – AABA – AABA – End </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Get A Kick Out Of You” (Cole Porter) Intro – AABA – BA - End </li></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>Form was still used post 1955. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hey Good Looking”: Hank Williams </li></ul><ul><li>“ Great Balls of Fire”: Jerry Lee Lewis?? </li></ul><ul><li>“ All I Have To Do Is Dream”: The Everly Bros.?? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Will You Still Love Me”: The Shirelles?? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hey Jude”: The Beatles (AABA – BA – End) </li></ul><ul><li>“ From Me To You”: The Beatles (Intro – AABA - ABA – End) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Want to Hold Your Hand”: The Beatles (Intro – AABA – B – A – End) Note the use of refrain </li></ul><ul><li>“ Worry About Ray” Intro AABA AABA B ETC </li></ul>
    42. 42. General Points About Form <ul><li>The Majority of these forms have been incorporated in popular music for many years. For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>AB: Camptown Races/Oh Suzanna (1850’s) </li></ul><ul><li>AABA: Body and Soul (1930) Misty (Mid 50’s) </li></ul>
    43. 43. Roman Numeral/Harmonic Analysis
    44. 44. Spot The Mistakes
    45. 45. <ul><li>Major 7th Chord I and V </li></ul><ul><li>Minor 7th Chords ii, iii, and vi. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant 7th Chord V </li></ul><ul><li>Minor 7th b5 Chord vi </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li> I iii IV V7 </li></ul><ul><li>Key C C Em F G7 </li></ul><ul><li>Key G G Bm C D7 </li></ul><ul><li>Key Bb Bb Dm Eb F7 </li></ul>
    47. 47. Non Diatonic Chords |I IV bVII I I bIII IV I ||
    48. 48. Spot The Mistakes | I iv V9 I im7 ivm7 V(#9) I ||
    49. 49. Example Diatonic Harmonic Patterns <ul><li>I vi IV V: “Stand By Me”, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why Do Fools Fall In Love” </li></ul><ul><li>“ All I Have To do Is Dream” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What A Wonderful World” </li></ul>
    50. 50. Phil Tagg: Milksap Video
    51. 51. Other Harmonic Examples <ul><li>I IV V IV: “Wild Thing” (Hendrix), “Got To Have Faith” (Michael), “My Girl” (Reading) </li></ul><ul><li>I V vi IV I V IV I: Let It Be (The Beatles) </li></ul><ul><li>I V IV I: Yellow: Coldplay </li></ul>
    52. 52. Non Diatonic Examples <ul><li>I bVII IV: C Bb F: “Sweet Home Alabama”: (Chorus) </li></ul><ul><li>bVII IV I: Bb F C: “With A Little Help From My Friends”: Chorus </li></ul><ul><li>bVI bIII bVII IV I: C G D A E: “Hey Joe” </li></ul>
    53. 53. Cycle Of 5ths <ul><li>Many chord progressions tend to resolve in 5ths: </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 1: Verse of “Yesterday”: </li></ul><ul><li>F |Em A7 |Dm |Gm C7 |F |Dm G |Bb F || </li></ul><ul><li>I vii III7 vi ii V7 I vi II IV I </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 2: A section of Autumn Leaves” </li></ul><ul><li>Am7 |D7 |Gma7 |Cma7 |F#m7(b5) B7 |Em7| </li></ul><ul><li>iv7 VII7 IIIma7 VIma7 iim7(b5) V7 I </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study 3: I Will Survive </li></ul><ul><li>Am7 Dm7 CM7 GM7 FM7 Bm7(b5) Esus E </li></ul>
    54. 54. Melodic Analysis – Horizontal Concepts <ul><li>Motif (M)- The smallest self contained unit that has recognisable shape, or contour. Not always relevant in some pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Question Phrase (QP)- A musical statement that requires completion – Often 2 or 4 bars long. Sometimes called the ‘question’. </li></ul><ul><li>Answering Phrase (AP) - The 2nd phrase of the ‘Sentence’. Although not a ‘rule’, often sounds like it is resolving. Sometimes called the ‘answer’. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence (s)- When the ‘Question Phrase’ and ‘Answering Phrase’ are connected they become a ‘Sentence’. Often 4 or 8 bars long. </li></ul>
    55. 55. <ul><li>Section (S)- Sentences are grouped together to form ‘Sections’. The most obvious examples being the A or B (Verse or Chorus) of a standard song. Often 8 or 16 bars long. Repetition in Macro form. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Form (SF)- IE ABA, AB, AABA. ‘Popular Song Form’ is often 32 bars long. </li></ul><ul><li>Compositional Form (CF) </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>When examining a piece diachronically, there is a need to compare these factors, to ascertain how they develop. </li></ul><ul><li>For example – how does the ‘Answer Phrase’ compare to the ‘Question Phrase’? </li></ul><ul><li>Or how does ‘Sentence 1’ compare to ‘Sentence 2’? </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques could include: </li></ul>
    57. 57. Rhythmic Sequence (RS) <ul><li>Mozart: Theme from 40 th Symphony </li></ul><ul><li>Marley: Chorus from “No Woman No Cry” </li></ul><ul><li>ABBA: Chorus from ‘Waterloo” </li></ul>
    58. 59. <ul><li>Sometimes these rhythmic sequences are are not exact, and can be labelled a “Near Rhythmic Sequence” (NRS). </li></ul><ul><li>Wonder: Verse of “You Are The Sunshine Of My Life” </li></ul>
    59. 60. Tonal Sequence (TS) <ul><li>The rhythm and melody of a phrase is identical to earlier material, but up or down a predetermined pitch . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>“How High The Moon” </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘old’ “Star Trek Theme” (system 3) </li></ul>
    60. 63. Direct Repetition <ul><li>When the melody and rhythm of an answer phrase is identical to the ‘question’. </li></ul><ul><li>For example the first two phrases of the Blues </li></ul>
    61. 64. Rhythmic Displacement <ul><li>What the answering phrase is identical to the question, but commences on a different beat. </li></ul><ul><li>See example below </li></ul>
    62. 66. Contextual Placement (CP) <ul><li>When the melody is identical but the harmony changes. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>First 8 bars of most blues songs: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Thrill Is Gone”: BB King </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hound Dog”: Big Mamma Thornton </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mystery Train”: Elvis Presley </li></ul><ul><li>“ One Note Samba” </li></ul><ul><li>Middle section of “Rock Around The Clock” </li></ul>
    63. 67. New Material <ul><li>Where the answering phrase consists of entirely new material </li></ul><ul><li>The Beatles: Hey Jude” </li></ul>
    64. 68. Variation (V) <ul><li>Where a phrase is loosely based on earlier material. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Jailhouse Rock” </li></ul>
    65. 69. Task Analysis (Unforgetable and Ain’t Misbehavin’
    66. 71. Melodic Analysis – Vertical Concepts <ul><li>Chord Tones (CT) - short or long duration,. Essentially notes in the chord </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Tones (ct) ( most common 7th, 9 th , 11 th , 13 th , Sharp 11 th ) Usually long in duration </li></ul><ul><li>Passing tones (APT/UPT) (Always short) (Consist of ‘ accented’ – on the beat, and ‘ unaccented’ – off the beat) </li></ul><ul><li>Tension/Release </li></ul><ul><li>Colour tones and to a lesser extent accented/unaccented passing notes provide Tension . </li></ul><ul><li>Chord tones provide the Release . The secret is to provide interest by mixing the two areas. </li></ul>
    67. 73. General Points About Melodic Analysis <ul><li>There are often more than one way of analysing a melody. Don’t get caught up in minor details, but be consistent. </li></ul><ul><li>When considering phrase length – think of ‘ melodic motion’ and ‘ melodic rest’ </li></ul>
    68. 74. ‘Melodic Motion’ and ‘Melodic Rest’ <ul><li>Melodic Motion : The duration from the start of a phrase to its last note. </li></ul><ul><li>Melodic Rest : A period of rhythmic inactivity, (often associated with cadences). Lasts from the end of one phrase to the beginning of another, and is often a longer note (vocally people have to breath!!). </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting to examine the ratio between these two factors. </li></ul>
    69. 75. Example Ratios (Melody:Rest) <ul><li>“ Daisy” 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Oh Susanna” 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Over The Rainbow” 3:1 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Penny Lane” (Chorus): 1:1 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hotel California” (Chorus): 1:1 </li></ul>
    70. 76. Performance Analysis <ul><li>Performance practices and techniques can give a song its ‘unique’ character </li></ul><ul><li>Although also associated with live music making, we are more concerned with its impact on recorded music. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording changes what may originally have been considered an improvised moment into something that can be analysed repeatedly. </li></ul><ul><li>How does the musician communicate their musical persona in a recorded performance: </li></ul><ul><li>In a single take? </li></ul><ul><li>Via overdubs? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they being themselves? </li></ul>
    71. 77. Authenticity <ul><li>Many musicians have a sound that is associated with them : </li></ul><ul><li>Hendrix guitar sound </li></ul><ul><li>Phil Collins drum sound </li></ul><ul><li>Duane Eddy guitar sound </li></ul><ul><li>Beach Boys style harmonies </li></ul><ul><li>All of these are a combination of performance style and recorded sound. </li></ul>
    72. 78. <ul><li>What occurs in terms of reception when musicians of different styles and traditions combine? </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul>
    73. 79. Shakti and RunDMC/Aerosmith
    74. 80. Genre Synecdoche <ul><li>“ The second main category of musical signs is the genre synecdoche. In verbal language, a synecdoche denotes a figure of speech in which a part substitutes the whole, as in the expression 'all hands on deck', implying, at least from the captain's view, that the sailors' brawn is worth more than their brain. A musical synecdoche would therefore be a set of musical structures inside a given musical |376| style that refer to another (different, 'foreign', 'alien') musical style by citing one or two elements supposed to be typical of that 'other' style when heard in the context of the style into which those 'foreign' elements are imported. By citing part of the other style, the citation then alludes not only to that other style in its entirety but also potentially refers to the complete genre of which that other musical style is a subset” (Tagg Towards a Sign Typology of Music ) </li></ul>
    75. 81. ‘Intentional and ‘Extensional aspects of performance. <ul><li>Intentional: Meaning in the performance as the players have more freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Extensional: Meaning in the notation </li></ul>
    76. 82. Time and Place in performance <ul><li>Interesting to examine how the time and location of a recording influences the sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Many artists have used specific ‘places’ to influence a sound. For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Phil Spector – Gold Star Studios in Hollywood. </li></ul><ul><li>Led Zeppelin (4 th album) Headley Grange </li></ul><ul><li>Buddy Holly: Norman Petty’s studio </li></ul><ul><li>Elvis Presley: Sun Studios </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling Stones: Muscle Shoals Studio </li></ul>
    77. 83. Muscle Shoals Studio
    78. 84. Sun Studios
    79. 85. <ul><li>Sometimes the peculiarities of a room may lead to a specific recording technique and therefore sound. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: Louis Armstrong early ‘Hot Five’ recordings (positioning of drums) </li></ul><ul><li>Buddy Holly : (“Not Fade Away”) Studio too small for drums – used cardboard boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Note how The Rolling Stones attempted to emulate this sound in the UK with their version of the song. </li></ul><ul><li>Stax Studios : Size of room, and the fact that musicians played together without headphones, sometimes led to vocal performances being ahead of the beat. </li></ul>
    80. 86. Rolling Stones Version
    81. 87. <ul><li>Modern recordings are often compiled in a variety of locations and times. </li></ul>
    82. 88. Posthumous Duets <ul><li>Jimi Hendrix: Crash Landing </li></ul><ul><li>The Beatles Anthology : John Lennon </li></ul><ul><li>Patsy Cline-Jim Reeves: “I Fall to Pieces” </li></ul><ul><li>Hank Williams Jr and Sr: “There’s a Tear in my Beer” </li></ul><ul><li>Nat King Cole and Natalie Cole: “Unforgettable” </li></ul>
    83. 89. Personal example: Sarah Jane Morris <ul><li>A Certain Kind Of Freedom (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>In today's digital age – unity of time and place is no longer a prerequisite for studio performance. </li></ul>
    84. 90. One Artist – Multiple Overdubs <ul><li>Les Paul </li></ul><ul><li>Stevie Wonder </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Oldfield </li></ul><ul><li>ETC </li></ul><ul><li>Many modern dance music over the last 20 years or so are documented by a single ‘performer’. </li></ul>
    85. 91. Studio based ‘Virtual Performances’ <ul><li>Techniques include: </li></ul><ul><li>Compiling the best aspects of numerous takes, as opposed to going with a ‘single take’. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Punching in’ to redo specific aspects of a performance </li></ul><ul><li>Digital enhanced tuning and timing </li></ul><ul><li>Using a ‘sub mix’ to (for example bass and drums) to bring about a specific type of performance (In this case, it may be a particularly ‘tight’ relationship between the instruments) </li></ul><ul><li>Other sub mixes could focus on the interaction between instruments. </li></ul>
    86. 92. Phil Tagg’s Musicological Model <ul><li>Examine Videos </li></ul>
    87. 93. Music (channel) Emitter Receiver Intended ‘message’ ‘ adequate’ response s t o r e o f s y m b o l s s o c i o c u l t u r a l n o r m s ‘ inadequate’ response ‘ inadequate’ response shared by Emitter and Receiver shared by Emitter and Receiver receiver only receiver only emitter only emitter only codal incompetence codal interference ‘ inadequate’ encoding ‘ inadequate’ encoding Communication Model
    88. 94. 1) The ‘Analysis Object’ <ul><li>AO: Analysis Object . Tagg believes that it makes sense for the ‘AO’ to be intended for and received by large numbers of people. </li></ul><ul><li>This enables us to study what is generally “ communicable” . </li></ul><ul><li>Also states that the music to be analysed should have clear ‘ Extra Musical Fields of Association’ </li></ul><ul><li>These are labelled as ‘Para Musical Fields Of Association’ in his theory. </li></ul>
    89. 95. 2) Para Musical Fields of Association (PMFA) <ul><li>These are essentially agreed (generic) emotional/expressive responses to the music being analysed. </li></ul><ul><li>As discussed later, this methodology is interested in ascertaining exactly what makes the music happy, sad, invigorating, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Also – what other associations does the music have from a lyrical, image, movements, social groups, historical periods, cultural identities, etc. </li></ul>
    90. 96. 3) ‘Parameters of Musical Expression’ (PME) <ul><li>Already discussed many of these in previous sessions. These are the microcosmic factors that carry the meaning of the music. Tagg recommends: </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of Time </li></ul><ul><li>Melodic Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestral Aspects (Timbre) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustical Aspects (See below) </li></ul><ul><li>Electro Musical and mechanical aspects (See below) </li></ul><ul><li>Some factors will be present throughout, some occasionally, and some omitted. </li></ul>
    91. 97. Parameters of musical expression (1) <ul><li>instrumentational </li></ul><ul><li>timbral (timbre) </li></ul><ul><li>number/type of voices/instruments </li></ul><ul><li>mechanical devices : mutes, pedals, stops, plectrum, string types, reed types, mouthpieces, bows, sticks, brushes, &c... </li></ul><ul><li>electro-acoustic devices : microphone types & techniques, loudspeakers, echo, reverb, delay, panning, filtering, mixers, amplifiers, equalisers, phasing, flanging, chorus, compression, distortion, vocoding, dubs, &c... </li></ul><ul><li>performance techniques : vibrato, tremolo, tremolando, glissando, portamento, pizzicato, sul ponte, picking, strum, &c... </li></ul><ul><li>vocal : booming, breathy, clean, clear, cracked, crying, deep, gravelly, harsh, hoarse, howling, growling, guttural, husky, light, melismatic, muffled, piercing, plaintive, raucous, rich, screeching, shouting, shrill, sonorous, soothing, squeaky, squawking, strident, syllabics, thin, warbling, warm, wheezing, whooping, &c... </li></ul><ul><li>instrumental : as for vocal + blaring, bubbling, buzzing, chiming, clanking, clattering, crashing, grating, hissing, humming, jarring, muted, ringing, rumbling, scraping, stuttering, throbbing, tinkling, whirring, whistling, &c... </li></ul>
    92. 98. Parameters of musical expression (2) <ul><li>temporal parameters </li></ul><ul><li>duration : [1] of piece and relationship of this duration to other connected aspects of communication (film, rite, sports event, dancing); [2] of sections within the piece </li></ul><ul><li>internal order/treatment of musical events : intros, cadences, bridges, continuations, interruptions, recurrences (reiterations, repeats, recaps), sequences &c… </li></ul><ul><li>pulse, tempo : [1] base rate; [2] surface rate. </li></ul><ul><li>rhythmic texture : polyrhythm, </li></ul><ul><li>metre (rhythmic grouping of pulse, time signature, etc.), e.g. simple, compound, symmetric, asymmetric, additive, divisive, &c... </li></ul><ul><li>accentuation , e.g. upbeat, downbeat, syncopation, regular,. </li></ul>
    93. 99. Parameters of musical expression (3) <ul><li>tonal parameters </li></ul><ul><li>tuning system : how octave is divided, retuning, detuning, &c. </li></ul><ul><li>pitch range : average and total for each voice/part; ambitus, tessitura, &c. </li></ul><ul><li>tonal vocabulary : scale, mode, motifs, number and type of different pitches/notes </li></ul><ul><li>motivic/melodic contour : rising, falling, oscillating, arched, V-shaped, centric, wavy, terraced, tumbling strain, &c... </li></ul><ul><li>harmonic parameters </li></ul><ul><li>tonal centre (if any) </li></ul><ul><li>type of tonality: droned, modal, diatonic, tertial, quartal, bebop, impressionist, late romantic, twelve-tone, &c… </li></ul><ul><li>harmonic change as long and short term phenomenon, harmonic rhythm. </li></ul><ul><li>dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>loud  soft </li></ul><ul><li>sudden  gradual </li></ul><ul><li>constant  variable </li></ul>
    94. 100. 4) Inter Objective Comparison Material (IOCM) <ul><li>‘ Inter Objective Comparison Material’ (IOCM) is the range of music you compare the AO to. </li></ul><ul><li>The main problem a musicologist faces is how to describe what is essentially a non verbal art form. </li></ul><ul><li>The next step of the analysis is to decide on which of the following models to adopt: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Inter Subjective Analysis’ : The analysis of a single piece, but not drawing comparisons to others </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Inter Objective Analysis’ : Establishes similarities between the Analysis Object and other music. </li></ul>
    95. 101. 5) Items of Musical Code (IMC) <ul><li>These factors are often very short – entitled ‘Musemes’. </li></ul><ul><li>Could also be harmonic, textural, melodic etc in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that make the music what it is. </li></ul>
    96. 102. Synopsis Of Process <ul><li>Find suitable ‘Analysis Object’ </li></ul><ul><li>Search for relevant ‘Parameters of Musical Expression’ in ‘AO’ (PME) and document in ‘Form Chart’ and/or notated transcription. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ‘Items of Musical Code’ (IMC) (‘Musemes’ - (Minimal Units of Musical Meaning) in ‘AO’. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ‘Inter Objective Comparison Materials’ (IOCM) that have similar ‘IMC’ </li></ul><ul><li>Search for ‘Para Musical Fields of Association’ (PMFA) in ‘AO’ and ‘IOCM’ </li></ul>
    97. 103. PMFC Paramusical Fields of Connotation (relevant to IOCM) PMFC Paramusical Fields of Connotation (relevant to AO) AO Analysis Object IOCM Interobjective Comparison Material
    98. 104. ‘Hypothetical Substitution’ <ul><li>If a piece of music conveys an emotion, this is a useful technique to determine how. </li></ul><ul><li>This is achieved by progressively altering specific ‘Parameters of Musical Expression’ to ascertain what carries the emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>For example how do the following influence the reception of the music?: </li></ul><ul><li>Key, melodic contour, tempo, lyrics, time signature, dynamics, texture, timbre, phrasing </li></ul>
    99. 105. Authenticity <ul><li>What is conceived as real or genuine? </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion often centred around: </li></ul>
    100. 106. Historical continuity <ul><li>Examine: Videos </li></ul>
    101. 107. Artistic Expression/Sincerity <ul><li>Examine Videos: </li></ul>
    102. 108. Commercial imperatives <ul><li>For Example Major verses Independent record labels. </li></ul><ul><li>Rock music verses Pop music </li></ul>
    103. 109. Culture/Class of band and audience <ul><li>For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Much of early ‘Prog Rock’ was middle class. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Heavy Metal was working class. </li></ul><ul><li>Oasis/Blur </li></ul><ul><li>Punk </li></ul><ul><li>Why do musicians like Dylan and Nigel Kennedy change their voice? </li></ul>
    104. 110. Technology and Production <ul><li>For Example more/less technology can indicate greater or lesser authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Use of analogue vs. digital domains </li></ul>
    105. 111. THE RECORD - An authentic means of production and performance <ul><li>Walter Benjamin (The Work Of Art In The Age Of Mechanical Reproduction) argued as early as 1936 that technology was transforming the artistic nature of photography, film, and music. </li></ul><ul><li>Described traditional notions of ‘authenticity’ as “The artworks presence in time and space, its unique existence at the place where it happens to be” (Zac 18). </li></ul><ul><li>Described this ‘unique’ presence as the ‘Aura’. </li></ul>
    106. 112. <ul><li>Stated that in the age of mechanical reproduction – the ‘Aura’ withered . </li></ul><ul><li>In other words the artwork was dependant on the direct perception of a unique physical presence . – mechanically reproduced art could not have an ‘Aura’ of its own!! </li></ul><ul><li>Many popular music based musicologists (such as Zac: (2001) consider the importance placed on analysing a record as a ‘ transferral‘ , not a withering of the Aura. </li></ul>
    107. 113. <ul><li>According to Zac - Even though the physical presence of the author may not be present – the record represents a transferral and translation of the artist’s Aura (p.19). </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity therefore is judged not on a unique instance , but a unique “arrangement of elements” (production techniques, song structure, background of the artists, etc), which make up The Record. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore - All instances of a modern work intended for reproduction are ‘ original’ . </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Stoller’s “We did not write songs, we wrote records” (Zac: 21) statement depicts this conceptual change in notions of authenticity. </li></ul>
    108. 114. <ul><li>Although records may have originally been conceived as a means of reproduction – they are now realities in themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare an early recording to a post 55 one. How is the recording process different? </li></ul><ul><li>Listen: Hot Fives (1926): How is the recording different conceptually? </li></ul>
    109. 115. Autographic/ Allographic <ul><li>A ‘genuine’ painting posits the brush strokes of the artist – the physical traces of its making – a fusion of idea and action . </li></ul><ul><li>This is an excellent example of an autographic artwork – it cannot be copied without loosing some of its meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Allographic – determined by a set of relationships involving some form of notation (for example a score or a book), through which the ‘original’ can be recovered any number of times </li></ul>
    110. 116. <ul><li>Question : If we examined a lead sheet and the recording of one of the tracks from Radiohead’s new album (both documented by the band) – which one would it be ‘Autographic’ or ‘Allographic’ in nature? </li></ul><ul><li>Modern records are autographic in nature, and therefore should be a primary aspect of musicological analysis </li></ul>
    111. 117. The discrete layers of a record – Song, Arrangement, and Track <ul><li>Song : Includes basic harmony (chords), melody, lyrics, and some degree of formal design. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical Arrangement : A specific setting of the song. Includes instrumentation, specific parts, groove, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Track : The recording itself, but includes both song and arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>Song and Arrangement can be altered at any point. This is not true for The Track, as it is a fixed set of relationships that is an autographic representation of its makers. </li></ul><ul><li>Compositional process can be simultaneous (all three parameters occurring at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Or linear – Song – Arrangement – Track </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting to analyse how songwriters and producers develop their ideas </li></ul>
    112. 118. The Song <ul><li>Can can be modified and changed (arranged), without altering the songs basic character. </li></ul><ul><li>Songs can therefore easily be differentiated from particular recorded versions – because they do not involve any precise SOUND. </li></ul><ul><li>Songs are the most recognisable of the three parameters, and songwriters always get principal credit on a record , even if they have had nothing to do with its construction. </li></ul>
    113. 119. <ul><li>Songwriters have historically held a privileged position in Popular Music. </li></ul><ul><li>It is only recently that musicians (often important factors in forging a musical work) have gained royalties through the PPL (in the UK). </li></ul><ul><li>Tin Pan Alley – songwriters were usually separated from the artists who performed their songs. The songs therefore had an independent life – not related to their recorded versions. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Blues artists were forerunners of the modern day singer/songwriter. </li></ul><ul><li>Post Rock & Roll – songs became linked to specific recordings (Tracks) to a unprecedented degree. </li></ul>
    114. 120. Example 1 <ul><li>Listen: Tutti Fruti – Little Richard and then Pat Boone. What is ‘wrong’ about the latter? </li></ul><ul><li>THE SOUND!!! </li></ul>
    115. 121. Example 2 <ul><li>Listen again to early Stones cover of Buddy Holly track – ‘Not Fade Away’ and compare to original. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to both tracks: </li></ul><ul><li>They are not only copying the song but the arrangement and the sounds (What we will later come to know as ‘The Track’). </li></ul><ul><li>Where as Tin Pan Alley songs were often presented on lead sheets or played to publishers on piano, modern popular music needs the added detail of Arrangement and certainly Track to depict its potential. </li></ul>
    116. 122. The Arrangement <ul><li>More detailed than the song. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes aspects such as – instrumentation, style or groove, texture, timbre etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In the context of modern record making, electronic processing forms part of ‘arranging’ technique, thus overlapping with The Track. </li></ul><ul><li>Bands can sometimes aim to obtain a ‘live’ sound, or alternatively experiment with arranging techniques that are impossible to recreate live. </li></ul>
    117. 123. Example 1 – Yesterday (1966) <ul><li>Listen to Song. </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged for voice, guitar, and string quartet. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement has a clear identity which was not conceptualised as part of the Track, and could be reproduced live or notated (The string parts were). </li></ul><ul><li>However the process of recording inadvertently captured both of McCartney's attempts at singing the song. </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that the strings were overdubbed at a different ‘time’ makes this work different from a recording of a live performance. </li></ul><ul><li>This soundscape is specific to recorded sound , even though it sounds like it could be played live – the details dictate otherwise . </li></ul>
    118. 124. Example 2 – Strawberry Fields <ul><li>Originally presented to band as gentle guitar/voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged by band into typical guitar/bass/drum format (apart from mellotron and flute). </li></ul><ul><li>George Martin then rearranges entire piece to include trumpets and cellos, in addition to some percussion and reversed tape effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Lennon decided he liked the beginning of the first version and the end of the 2 nd (even though they were in different keys) – asked Martin to join them together. </li></ul><ul><li>Martin sped one up, slowed the other down, and spliced them around one minute into the song (the word “going”). </li></ul><ul><li>This arrangement therefore brings together head arrangement, studio manipulation, and orchestration into a collection of compositional modes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is of course – impossible to play live! </li></ul>
    119. 125. The Track <ul><li>The recording itself. </li></ul><ul><li>It therefore includes the other two parameters. </li></ul>
    120. 126. <ul><li>When we hear the record, we experience both Song and Arrangement through the Track. </li></ul><ul><li>Very important to realise that Song and Arrangement retain ontological independence (we can analyse both). </li></ul><ul><li>They potentially have specific modes of representation (lead sheet, performance, etc) outside of the Record. </li></ul><ul><li>These modes of representation can change over time – IE one may decide to alter the form of the song, or the instrumentation of the arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>This is not the case for the Track – this is a fixed set of relationships, a mix of action and intent – AUTOGRAPHIC! </li></ul><ul><li>It is interesting to consider how these three parameters can potentially interrelate in the compositional process, and more importantly how the Song and Arrangement are influenced by the Autographic process. </li></ul>
    121. 127. <ul><li>When song writing and recording originally came together they were sequential processes – often due to financial implications (Studios were expensive) </li></ul><ul><li>With the advent of the home studio, the process has become more symbiotic and interchangeable. </li></ul><ul><li>For this reason, it is essential to consider the whole Record (Song, Arrangement, and Track) as the focus of musicological analysis. </li></ul>
    122. 128. Musical Traditions <ul><li>Echard differentiates between the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Clichés – Strongly associated with tradition. Even when heard outside with features related to another tradition, it still serves as a reference to its own. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Do-Wop vocals </li></ul><ul><li>Chuck Berry guitar licks </li></ul><ul><li>Particular types of clothing </li></ul><ul><li>A particular riff or harmonic progression (1 6 2 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Features – an integral aspect of the tradition, but not unique. They connote a tradition, but not exclusively. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>A dominant acoustic guitar could be associated with Blues, Country, Folk. </li></ul>
    123. 129. <ul><li>The acoustic guitar in rock therefore has a range of associations. </li></ul><ul><li>Clichés are more specific , and therefore can leave less space for further distinctive elaborations. More shallow! </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Features – less definite, and therefore deeper. More potential associations . </li></ul><ul><li>Echard believes that clichés make it more difficult for an artist to be considered unique, as the paradigms come with so many identifiable associations. </li></ul>
    124. 130. Style,Genre and Tradition <ul><li>Important to realise that the type of activity has much to do with how one can describe a musical paradigm as a style, genre, or tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Style – a conventional or familiar musical pattern of structural organisation interpreted as the distinctive mark of specific productive contexts – </li></ul><ul><li>These ‘productive contexts’ could be: </li></ul><ul><li>Individual artists/bands (Queen, Led Zeppelin, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>A particular movement (Punk, Heavy Metal, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>An historical or geographical location (For example ‘Harlam Stride’, ‘Bebop’, Hip Hop, Manchester etc). </li></ul><ul><li>It is essentially the ability to recognise consistent tendencies in musical structural organisation, and to link them to points of origin (Echard: 59 ) </li></ul>
    125. 131. <ul><li>Genre – The work is grouped and discussed according to its emotional, social and/or cultural function . </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition – Individuals people, places, times, social groups, and correlates them to styles and genres. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, an aspect such as the riff form “Smoke On The Water”, could be potentially described as all three: </li></ul><ul><li>1) A distorted riff, played in parallel 5ths, which was to become an archetypical cliché of the Heavy Metal movement. (A style) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Dark sounding, often performed by white musicians from a working class background. (genre) </li></ul><ul><li>3) A song which helped establish Black Sabbath as pioneers of Heavy Metal, influencing the music profoundly over the last 30+ years (Tradition). </li></ul>
    126. 132. <ul><li>Important to realise that a term such as ‘Rock’ can indicate a style, genre or tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Also important to realise that the boundaries between these categories are permeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Walser describes genre as an “horizon of expectations” (27) – never static fulfilments of conventional norms. </li></ul><ul><li>This dialogic perspective of style, genre, and tradition enables you to undergo a similar process to how the categories were established in the first place. </li></ul><ul><li>The personality of any piece of music, is in part due to its relationship with people, places, times, and ideas. </li></ul>
    127. 133. <ul><li>Each piece of music has numerous textural strands that potentially have their own persona. The piece can be regarded as a dialogue between these voices. </li></ul><ul><li>The music can be regarded as intermusical, referring to other music, social practices, emotional meaning in a discursive rather than absolute way. </li></ul><ul><li>A dialogic perspective takes away the dilemma of discussing either the text or its social function. It enables us to discuss both. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical ideas can therefore come to life by relating them to circumstances through which they were forged – this is ‘ Post Structuralism . </li></ul>
    128. 134. Starting points/food for thought <ul><li>Ask yourself - is the style:- </li></ul><ul><li>Regressive: IE – Indie, Trad Jazz revival. Post Modern. </li></ul><ul><li>Formative: A piece that is influential in forming a new style of music. </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidatory : Simply a piece that consolidates the style. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovatory : New Music! </li></ul>
    129. 135. <ul><li>This argument could be extended by examining how Innovation (Originality?) becomes Convention (Authentic). </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity : To engage with the unforeseen, but not the unforeseeable? </li></ul><ul><li>Originality : To engage with the unforeseen and the unforeseeable? </li></ul>
    130. 136. <ul><li>Nattiez considers 3 levels of musicological analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Immanent – What actually occurs in the music </li></ul><ul><li>2) Poietic – How music appears from the vantage point of those producing it </li></ul><ul><li>3) Esthetic – How music appears from the vantage point of listener. </li></ul><ul><li>Most essays consider factors 1 & 3. How are they different? </li></ul>
    131. 137. Moore’s vertical ‘layers’ of Rock <ul><li>‘ High Frequency Melody’ (Voice or melodic instrument) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Harmonic Filler’ (Piano/Guitar) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Explicit Rhythmic Layer’ (Drums/Percussion) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Low Register Melody’ (Bass) </li></ul><ul><li>Could also consider music in terms of ‘foreground’ and ‘background’ material. </li></ul>
    132. 138. Identifying Repetition <ul><li>Middleton identifies two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Discursive – Phrase or longer </li></ul><ul><li>Musematic – Small cells </li></ul><ul><li>This terminology can be elaborated to include: </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase – Answering Phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Motif </li></ul>
    133. 139. Basic musicological questions to ask: <ul><li>How does instrumentation interrelate to form a style – i.e. how do bass and drums work together? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the feel shuffle or straight? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the nature of specific sounds? For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1 - how is a guitar sound produced? Is it clean/distorted, acoustic/electric, effected/unaffected, valve/transistor? </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2 - How is a vocal sound produced? Trained/Untrained, Black/White, English/American, Head/Chest, Pure/Vibrato, On the beat/Off the beat, natural/falsetto? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how important specific elements are. For example is the harmonic structure incidental or important, is the bass line an integral aspect of the song? </li></ul>
    134. 140. <ul><li>How do you think the piece has been composed and on what instrument? – listen for ergonomic clichés. </li></ul><ul><li>What flexibility do the musicians have? Is the meaning of the music ‘ Intentional ’ - (enabling some freedom within an overall framework), or ‘ Extentional ’ (Pure notated music) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the 3 dimensions of sound: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency (vertical pitch) </li></ul><ul><li>Position (horizontal positioning) </li></ul><ul><li>Depth/Distance </li></ul>
    135. 141. Some final Thoughts <ul><li>Remember that interpretation of music is semantic and very personal. Adorno identifies 6 types of listener. The following are relevant regarding analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Expert ’ – able to comprehend the full musicological complexity of a piece of music </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Emotional ’ – uses music as a trigger for personal emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Entertainer ’ – listens to music as background. </li></ul>
    136. 142. <ul><li>It is important to realise that many ‘styles’ are informed as much by extraneous factors as they are musicological. I.e. </li></ul><ul><li>Interface with ‘Tradition’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dress Codes (Be-Bop, Punk) </li></ul><ul><li>Production Techniques (Indie, Motown) </li></ul>
    137. 143. <ul><li>This multidimensionality makes music difficult to analyse. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Musicology determines the meaning of music to be ‘internal’ (The ‘text’), whist sociologists believe it to be external (The ‘Context’). Modern techniques bring these factors together, as in reality they both inform each other. </li></ul><ul><li>David Bracket labels these contexts ‘Primary Signification’ and ‘Secondary Signification’. </li></ul>
    138. 144. Reminder of Models <ul><li>Diachronic Analysis – Time based. For example comparing a single piece as it progresses or comparing a re arrangement of a work written 20 years earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronic Analysis – Without reference to historical context. This could be analysing a single piece without reference to anything else, or examining a ‘snapshop’ of a mix – without reference to time. </li></ul><ul><li>Emic – Consider the piece in relation to other music within the genre </li></ul><ul><li>Etic – Consider the piece individually. </li></ul>