Plagiarism in Academic Medicine

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This presentation is one of three created for a professional development workshop designed for medical school faculty. Creating the workshop project was an assignment for a graduate level course in library sciences. (I got an A!) Please ask permission for re-use.

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  • "taking over the ideas, methods, or written words of another, without acknowledgment and with the intention that they be taken as the work of the deceiver." American Association of University Professors (September/October, 1989).http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/Plagiarism.html
  • Discussion. Write hot topics on white board/flip chart.
  • Facts source: http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_facts.htmlUS News poll: * U.S. News poll of 1,000 adults (including an oversample of 200 college students)conducted by Celinda Lake of Lake Snell Perry & Associates and Ed Goeas of theTarrance Group, Oct. 18-23, 1999. Margin of error: plus or minus 3.5 percent. http://www.hse.k12.in.us/staff/pgriffin/MGT/TheCheatingGame_USNews11-99.pdfPsychological Record study: Can Undergraduate Students Determine Whether Text Has Been Plagiarized?Journal article by Miguel Roig; The Psychological Record, Vol. 47, 1997
  • INTENTIONAL:Fear of failure, disappointing parents, teachersFeeling that excelling is the only way to succeed in school and get a good jobUnable to manage ones time and efforts to maximize academic effort toward progressPeers do it and get away with it
  • UNINTENTIONALParaphrasing inadequatelyFailure to cite properlyUnsure what is actual ‘general knowledge’Inability to identify original sources“lapses in integrity, even if seemingly minor, are by far the most serious type of problem because such misconduct runs contrary to the primary goal of the scientific enterprise, which is the search for truth. “ - Miguel Roig, Ph.D.
  • Self-plagiarism: reusing previously published works or given presentations in their entirety or in part with previously published or presented material.Plagiarism of ideas: Borrowing the ideas on which ones scholarly work is based without citing the source of the idea. The source or one source of the idea doesn’t have to be a published work; it can be something said to the author/creator in even a casual conversation (Gilchrist, 1979)Plagiarism of text: not placing in quotes and/or properly citing text copied word-for-word from another’s workUnintentional plagiarism: it is possible for someone to have an idea that is original to him or herself, that he had no knowledge that anyone had ever published or created work on that same idea.http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/Index.html
  • http://www.guardian.co.ukhttp://oralhistory.rutgers.edu/Docs/memoirs/schatz_albert/schatz_albert_memoir.htmlThe suit was settled out of court. Schatz won credit as co-discoverer but was ‘blacklisted’ by dozens of universities he applied to work for. He was shunned by many in the scientific community regarded as rebellious for having embarrassed his mentor. Many thought at the time, that a graduate student was an apprentice working for his teacher thus Selman A Waksmen indeed deserved the credit for the discovery. Waksmen received the Nobel Prize, alone, in 1952 and did not mention Schatz in his acceptance speech.In 1990 a British scholar went to Rutgers to study the history of streptomycin and began to learn about Schatz’s work. He met with Rutgers’ administrators and together they deemed Schatz as having been the primary contributor to the discovery of the antibiotic. Schatz was awarded the Rutgers Medal in 1994, the 50th anniversary of the discovery.
  • http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/323/5919/1293 Science 6 March 2009: Vol. 323. no. 5919, pp. 1293 - 1294http://www.utsouthwestern.edu/utsw/cda/dept353744/files/519817.htmlhttp://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aIVZfwbl0Fnc&refer=home“Hard Doctor Steps Down” in aftermath of this UT study
  • http://www.kieranhealy.org/blog/archives/2004/06/05/plagiarism/http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/sedu/academic-integrity/student/tutorial/plagiarism/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/3753065.stmGunn admitted to copying text from the internet and using it in his assignments.The case was settled out of court.How common is this ‘I didn’t know’ defense?Is there any truth to it?How do we know students read their handbooks?What formal training do we offer?How we can we reiterate and enforce policies?
  • TimesOnline UK News – Educationhttp://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/education/article1485294.eceMarch 8, 2007 Alexandra Frean, Education Editor
  • Faculty may have anecdotes to illustrate the lesson and provide clues to campus resources! Note ‘hot topics’ and tips on flip chart.INTRODUCE GROUP BREAKOUTSplagiarism in scientific writingplagiarism in medical school admissionsprofessional plagiarism academic plagiarism
  • How can we know what habits our students have developed over the years?How we can we inform them of our expectations?How can we enforce campus policies?Is the honor code enough?
  • GROUP BREAKOUTSplagiarism in scientific writingplagiarism in medical school admissionsprofessional plagiarism academic plagiarism
  • Plagiarism in Academic Medicine

    1. 1. Plagiarism<br />In academic medicine<br />Carrie L Saarinen April 2009<br />
    2. 2. Plagiarism<br />What image flashes in your mind?<br />What groups are generally associated?<br />What are your concerns?<br />What do you know about plagiarism?<br />
    3. 3. That’s great you applied to med school!<br />Plagiarism<br />I did everything I could to ensure my grades are good enough.<br />A study by The Center for Academic Integrity found that almost 80% of college students admit to cheating at least once.<br />According to a survey by the Psychological Record 36% of undergraduates have admitted to plagiarizing written material.<br />A poll conducted by US News and World Reports found that 90% of students believe that cheaters are either never caught or have never been appropriately disciplined.<br />Facts source: http://www.plagiarism.org/plag_facts.html<br />
    4. 4. Plagiarism<br /><ul><li>Fear of failure
    5. 5. Pressure to succeed
    6. 6. Overwhelmed with school work
    7. 7. Encouragement from peers
    8. 8. Grades</li></li></ul><li>Plagiarism<br />Paraphrasing inadequately<br />Failure to cite properly<br />Unsure what is actual ‘general knowledge’<br />Inability to identify original sources<br />
    9. 9. Plagiarism<br />Professional ethics<br />Self-plagiarism<br />Plagiarism of ideas<br />Plagiarism of text<br />Unintentional plagiarism<br />
    10. 10. Case: Albert Schatz, PhD<br />Albert Schatz was formally recognized as discoverer of streptomycin, 50 years and decades after Selman A. Waksman was awarded a Nobel Prize for the discovery.<br />
    11. 11. News: Peer review process<br />UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers recently published findings from a study involving the use of a computer program which compared abstracts, looking for commonalities in citations.<br />Out of millions of abstracts analyzed, 72,000 were suspicious and, out of those, 207 pairs were considered possible cases of plagiarism.<br />The study resulted in 83 internal investigations by journal editors and dozens of retractions.<br />(Science 6 March 2009: Vol. 323. no. 5919) <br />
    12. 12. Case: Michael Gunn<br />In 2004, Michael Gunn, a student at University of Kent (UK) sued the university after being caught for, and admitting to, plagiarism. He claimed that he had been cheating for three years and had never been informed or confronted about it, therefore he did not know it was wrong.<br />The case was settled out of court.<br />
    13. 13. Case: Admissions essays<br />In 2007 admissions committee members in the UK read:<br />370 essays which included the exact phrase “a fascination for how the human body works . . .”<br />234 essays including an anecdote about ‘burnt pyjamas’<br />175 which alluded to a relationship with an “elderly or infirm grandfather”<br />Source: TimesOnline UK News – Education<br />http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/education/article1485294.ece<br />March 8, 2007 Alexandra Frean, Education Editor<br />
    14. 14. Plagiarism<br />What opportunities exist for a student to cheat in medical school?<br />Do you know of any instances?<br />How were those instances handled?<br />Would you feel comfortable confronting a student?<br />
    15. 15. Plagiarism<br />What is the educator’s role?<br />Identifying cases of plagiarism <br />Preventing plagiarism<br />Educating students on avoiding unintentional plagiarism<br />
    16. 16. Plagiarism<br />How is plagiarism identified?<br />How can we prevent plagiarism?<br />How can we educate students about plagiarism?<br />How do we confront plagiarism?<br />Is the honor code enough?<br />
    17. 17. Plagiarism<br />Educational Tips http://www.plagiarism.org/learning_center/home.html<br />OWL (Purdue) Avoiding Plagiarism http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/<br />Avoiding plagiarism, self-plagiarism… http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~roigm/plagiarism/Index.html<br />“The Applicants Who All Had Burnt Pyjamas” Alexandra Frean, TimesOnline UK News March 8 2007, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/education/article1485294.ece<br />PersonalStatement101.com Plagiarism http://www.personalstatement101.com/plagiarism.php<br />Admissionsessays.com – medical School Essays http://www.admissionsessays.com/medical_school/essay_development.html<br />
    18. 18. All images used in this presentation are from the Microsoft Clipart Library for PowerPoint 2007. <br />Carrie L Saarinen April 2009<br />

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