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Klehm Arboretum Trees and Woody Plants
 

Klehm Arboretum Trees and Woody Plants

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Partial list of over 300 labeled and measured woody plants at Klehm Arboretum & Botanic Garden. http://klehm.org

Partial list of over 300 labeled and measured woody plants at Klehm Arboretum & Botanic Garden. http://klehm.org

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    Klehm Arboretum Trees and Woody Plants Klehm Arboretum Trees and Woody Plants Presentation Transcript

    • Acer campestre, Hedge Maple • Also known as field maple • Fruit is a samara with two winged seeds. • Widely grown as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens. • The wood is white, hard and strong, and used for furniture, flooring, wood turning and musical instruments. • There are over 30 known cultivars of Acer campestre. 1
    • Acer griseum, Paperbark Maple • Species of maple native to central China • Fruit being a paired samara with two winged seeds • Admired for its decorative exfoliating bark • Spectacular autumn foliage which can include red, orange and pink tones 2
    • Acer pensylvanicum, Striped Maple (Moosewood) • The young bark is striped with green and white, and when a little older, brown. • Moosewood is an understory tree of cool, moist forests. • It is among the most shadetolerant of deciduous trees. • Its shade tolerance makes it difficult to control, as it is often present in great numbers in the understory. Moosewood growing at the edge of a forest with pine and hickory in the background (Zena, New York) 3
    • Acer triflorum, Three-flower Maple • Native to hills of northern China • The flowers are yellow, produced in small corymbs of three small flowers each, hence the name. • Even more than its relatives, three-flower maple has Spectacular fall color that may include brilliant orange, scarlet, purple and gold. • It is one of the few trees to develop good fall color in shade. 4
    • Acer circinatum, Oregon Vine Maple • Native to western North America • Always within 300 km of the Pacific Ocean coast • Most commonly grows as a large shrub growing to around 5-8 m tall, but it will occasionally form a small to medium-sized tree • Vine Maple trees can bend over easily. Sometimes, this can cause the top of the tree to grow into the ground and send out a new Vine Maple samara root system, creating a natural arch. Flower with reddish calyx and five short petals 5
    • Acer mandshuricum, Manchurian Maple • Native to China, Korea, and Russia • It is a slender deciduous tree that reaches a height of up to 30 m tall but is usually smaller. • Smooth, gray bark • Rarely seen in cultivation outside of arboreta • Spectacular fall color that includes pink and orange tones The leaves have a 7-10 cm petiole and three leaflets; the leaflets are shortstalked, oblong, 5-10 cm (2-4 inches) long and 1.5-3 cm broad, with serrated margins, the central leaflet the same size as or slightly larger than the two side leaflets. 6
    • Acer henryi, Henry Maple • Acer henryi is found in botanical gardens but otherwise is not widely grown as an ornamental in North America. • Outstanding fall color, ranging from deep purples to brilliant reds 7
    • Acer maximowiczianum, Nikko Maple • Widely distributed in China and Japan • It is a slender deciduous tree that reaches a height of 15–20 m but is usually smaller. • Dark gray to blackish bark • It is rarely seen in cultivation outside of arboreta. • Parthenocaptic tendencies, i.e. the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules. The fruit is therefore seedless. Foliage in autumn 8
    • Acer tegmentosum, White Tigress Snakebark Maple • Extremely bright white markings along the stems and branches • Upright growing and narrow when young, broadening with age. • Pale green 3-5 lobed leaves emerge early in spring and turn golden yellow in fall. 9
    • Acer japonicum, Japanese Maple • Native to Japan and southern Korea • It is a small deciduous tree growing to 5–10 m. • In autumn, the leaves turn bright orange to dark red. • In cultivation, it is often only a shrubby tree with multiple trunks joining at groundlevel. Autumn foliage of A. japonicum 'Acontifolium' 10
    • Amelanchier grandiflora ‘Autumn Brilliance’, Serviceberry • Common Name: apple serviceberry • Root suckers are common, and if not removed, will result in a shrubby growth habit for the plant. • Features 5petaled, showy, slightly fragrant, white flowers in drooping clusters • Edible berries are sweet, resembling blueberries in size and color, and are often used in jams, jellies and pies. 11
    • Xanthocyparis nootkatensis ‘Pendula’ Weeping Nootka Falsecypress • Goes by many common names including Nootka Cypress, Yellow Cypress, and Alaska Cypress • Nootka Cypress is native to the west coast of North America. • This species has been considered to be one of the finest timber trees in the world. • Due to its slow growth it is hard and, like other cypress woods it is durable. • One of the most desired sources of heat on the west coast, a dead tree can last up to 100 years for firewood. • Traditionally, paddles, masks, dish es, and bows were made from the wood. Cultivated Specimens at Morton Arboretum 12
    • Celtis occidentalis, Hackberry • The Common Hackberry is easily distinguished from elms and some other hackberries by its cork-like bark with wart-like protuberances. • The leaves are distinctly asymmetrical and coarsetextured. • Instead of sending out seeds in samaras like the elm, the hackberry produces its seeds as small berries, hackberries, that are eaten by a number of birds and mammals. • Hackberry's wood is soft and rots easily, making the wood undesirable commercially. 13
    • Prunus serotina, Black Cherry • This cherry is native to eastern North America • Its black bark has the appearance of very thick, burnt potato chips. • It can also quickly be identified by its long, shiny leaves resembling that of a Sourwood, and by an almond-like odor when a young twig is scratched and held close to the nose. • The fruit is suitable for making jam, cherry pies. • The timber is valuable, perhaps the premier cabinetry timber of the U.S., traded as "cherry". The grain is so smooth that pores can be detected only with a magnifying glass. Black knot infection 14
    • Abies cephalonica, Greek Fir • Native to the mountains of Greece • It is a medium-size evergreen coniferous tree growing to 25-35 m (rarely 40 m) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m. • The cones disintegrate when mature to release the seeds. • It is one of the first conifers to come to leaf in spring. 15
    • Euonymus europaeus, European Spindletree • Native to much of Europe from Ireland and southern Scandinavia in the north, to northern Spain and Sicily in the south, and as far east as Lithuania, Asia Minor and up to the Caucasus. • The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in late spring and are insect-pollinated. • The fruit is poisonous. • European Spindle wood is very hard, and can be cut to a very sharp point; it was used in the past for making spindles for spinning wool. 16
    • Carya ovata, Shagbark Hickory • Common hickory in the eastern United States and southeast Canada • Young specimens have smooth bark. • Nut is edible and has a very sweet taste. • The Shagbark hickory is monoecious (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). • Shagbark hickory wood is used for smoking meat and for making the bows of Native Americans of the northern area. • The lumber is heavy, hard, tough and has been employed for implements and tools that require strength. 17
    • Heptacodium miconioides, Seven-son Flower • It is endemic to China. • It has white flowers that attract butterflies. 18
    • Juniperus sabina ‘Von Ehron’, Von Ehron Juniper • Native to the mountains of central and southern Europe • It is a shrub, very variable in shape, reaching 1–4 m tall. • Juniperus sabina is a popular ornamental shrub in gardens and parks, with numerous named cultivars selected. • It is largely dioecious with separate male and female plants, but some individual plants produce both sexes. Foliage on a cultivated specimen 19
    • Thuja occidentalis, Arborvitae • Evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family • Also known as Eastern Arborvitae and Northern Whitecedar • Widely cultivated for use as an ornamental plant known as American Arbor Vitae • The bark is red-brown, furrowed and peels in narrow, longitudinal strips. • Deer find the soft evergreen foliage a very attractive winter food, and strip it rapidly. • White cedar is the preferred wood for the structural elements, such as ribs and planking, of birchbark canoes and the planking of wooden canoes. Thuja occidentalis foliage and cones 20
    • Aesculus parviflora, Bottlebrush Buckeye • Native to open wodlands of the SE United States • Upright sprays of yellow blossoms in May • Member of Horsechestnut family • 5-7 leaflets of a leaf come out from a single point of attachment called palmately compound 21
    • Aesculus hippocastanum ‘Baumanii’, European Horsechestnut • Large deciduous tree • The leaf scars left on twigs after the leaves have fallen have a distinctive horseshoe shape, complete with seven "nails". • The common name horsechestnut is reported as having originated from the erroneous belief that the tree was a kind of chestnut, together with the observation that eating them cured horses of chest complaints. A selection of fresh conkers from a horse-chestnut. 22
    • Aesculus x carnea ‘Briotii’, Red Horsechestnut • Aesculus × carnea is a hybrid between the Red Buckeye (A. pavia) and the Common Horse-chestnut (A. hippocastanum). • It is a popular tree in large gardens and parks, most commonly the selected cultivar 'Briotii' (named in 1858 to honor Pierre Louis Briot, the nurseryman at Trianon-Versailles near Paris, France), which has 10inch tall, deep rosy flowers and matures as a smaller tree. 23
    • Aesculus pavia, Red Buckeye • It has a number of local names, such as scarlet buckeye, woolly buckeye and firecracker plant. • The Red Buckeye is a large shrub or small tree. • The flowers are attractive to hummingbirds as well as bees. University of Maryland Arboretum & Botanical Garden on McKeldin Mall with Aesculus pavia A red flower stalk Red Buckeye flowers 24
    • Aesculus octandra, Yellow Buckeye • The flowers are produced in panicles in spring, yellow to yellow-green, each flower 2–3 cm long with the stamens shorter than the petals (unlike the related Ohio Buckeye, where the stamens are longer than the petals). • The fruit of the Yellow Buckeye is poisonous to humans but can be made edible through a leaching process. Fruit and leaves of Aesculus Octandra Leaf Spring bud break 25
    • Aesculus glabra, Ohio Buckeye • The tree species Aesculus glabra is commonly known as Ohio buckeye, American buckeye, or fetid buckeye. It derives its unflattering common name from the disagreeable odor generated from the flowers, crushed leaves, broken twigs, or bruised bark. • The fruits contain tannic acid, and are poisonous for cattle, and possibly humans. Native Americans would blanch them, extracting the tannic acid for use in leather. • The buckeye nuts can also be dried, turning dark as they harden with exposure to the air, and strung onto necklaces. These are particularly popular among Ohio State fans. • The Ohio buckeye is the state tree of Ohio Dried Buckeye Nuts Foliage and Fruit 26
    • Larix decidua, European Larch • Native to the mountains of central Europe • The leaves are needlelike, light green, 2-4 cm long which turn bright yellow before they fall in the autumn, leaving the pale yellow-buff shoots bare European Larch until the next spring. in autumn color. • The wood is tough and durable, but also flexible in thin strips, and is particularly valued for yacht building. European Larch foliage and cones Young seed cones (red) and pollen cones (yellow). 27
    • Larix laricinda, Tamarack • Tamarack Larch, or Tamarack, or Hackmatack, or American Larch is a species of larch native to northern North America and Canada • The Larch is a deciduous conifer. The needles turn yellow in autumn. • Larch are commonly found in swamps, bogs, and other lowland areas. • The wood is tough and durable, but also flexible in thin strips, and was used by the Algonquian people for making snowshoes and other products where toughness was required. • Tamarack is very intolerant of shade. Tamarack Larch in fall colors, with Black Spruce Tamarack Larch foliage and cones. 28
    • Toxicodendron radicans, Poison Ivy • Toxicodendron radicans, better known as poison ivy (older synonyms are Rhus toxicodendron and Rhus radicans), is a poisonous North American plant. • Poison ivy can be found growing in any of the following three Ground-level poison ivy forms: “Leaves of 3, let is be!” – as a trailing vine that is 10–25 cm tall (4 to 10 inches) – as a shrub up to 1.2 m tall (4 feet) – as a climbing vine that grows on trees or some other support • The following three characteristics are sufficient to identify poison ivy in most situations: (a) clusters of three leaflets, (b) alternate leaf arrangement, and (c) lack of Poison ivy on a roadside thorns. Poison ivy vine with typical reddish "hairs" (like leaves, vines are extremely poisonous to humans) Toxicodendron radicans 29 or poison ivy
    • Juglans cineria, Butternut • Juglans cinerea, commonly known as Butternut or White Walnut, is a species of walnut native to the eastern United States and southeast Canada. • The nuts are eaten by humans and animals.The nuts are usually used in baking and making candies, having an oily texture and pleasant flavor. • Oiled, the grain of the wood usually shows much light. It is often used to make furniture, and is a favorite of woodcarvers. A mature Butternut tree 30
    • Platanus occidentalis, Sycamore • • • An American sycamore tree can often be easily distinguished from other trees by its mottled exfoliating bark, which flakes off in great irregular masses, leaving the surface mottled, and greenish-white, gray and brown, like a soldier’s camouflage uniform. The explanation is found in the rigid texture of the bark tissue, which lacks the elasticity of the bark of some other trees, so it is incapable of stretching to accommodate the growth of the wood underneath and the tree sloughs it off to expose the inner bark. The terms under which the New York Stock Exchange was formed is called the "Buttonwood Agreement", because it was signed under a buttonwood (sycamore) tree at 68 Wall Street, New York City, in 1792. Old sycamores can have massive trunks The characteristic bark of an American Sycamore A sycamore in winter. 31
    • • • • • • • Liriodendron tulipifera, Tuliptree Commonly known as the tulip tree, American tulip tree, tuliptree, tulip poplar or yellow poplar Liriodendron tulipifera is one of two species in the genus Liriodendron in the magnolia family. It is also called the tuliptree Magnolia, or sometimes confusingly, by the lumber industry, as the tulip poplar or yellow poplar, although it is unrelated to the poplars The flowers are large, brilliant, greenish yellow with dashes of red and orange, and their resemblance to a tulip very marked. Native Americans so habitually made their dugout canoes of its trunk that the early settlers west of the Appalachian Mountains called it Canoewood. This tree species is a major honey plant in the eastern United States, yielding a dark reddish, fairly strong honey which gets mixed reviews as a table honey but Liriodendron tulipifera flower is favorably regarded by bakers. 32
    • Phellodendrun amurense, Amur Corktree • It is a major source of huáng bò, one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. • The Ainu people used this plant, called shikerebeni, as a painkiller. • Amur cork tree is considered invasive in many parts of North America. The State of Massachusetts lists it as a noxious weed Autumn Foliage and Fruit 33
    • • • • • • • • Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo Known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The old popular name "Maidenhair tree" is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the Maidenhair fern. The tree is widely cultivated and introduced, since an early period in human history, and has various uses as a food and traditional medicine. The leaves are unique among seed plants. Ginkgos are dioecious, with separate sexes, some trees being female and others Ginkgo leaves in autumn being male. It is one of the best-known examples of a living fossil, because Ginkgoales other than Ginkgo tree in autumn G. biloba are not known from the fossil record after the Pliocene. Extreme examples of the Ginkgo's tenacity may be seen in Hiroshima, Japan, where six Ginkgo biloba trees growing between 1–2 km from the Eocene leaf 1945 atom bomb explosion were among the few living things in the area to survive 34 the blast .The trees are alive to this day.
    • Acer nigrum, Black Maple • Species of maple closely related to A. saccharum (Sugar Maple), and treated as a subspecies of it by some authors • Identification can be confusing due to the tendency of the two species to form hybrids. • The simplest and most accurate method for distinguishing between the two trees is the three-lobed leaves of the Black Maple versus the five-lobed leaves of the Sugar Maple. • This species is used similarly to the A. saccharum, for timber and for maple syrup production. Acer nigrum 35
    • Acer rubrum, Red Maple • Acer rubrum (Red Maple, also known as Swamp or Soft Maple), is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern North America. • It is best known for its brilliant deep scarlet foliage in autumn. • The buds of red maple and other soft maples emerge much earlier in the spring than the sugar maple, and after sprouting chemical makeup of the sap changes, imparting an undesirable flavor to the syrup. Red maple can only be tapped for syrup before the buds emerge, making the season very short. Male flowers 36
    • Fagus monoecious, with grandifolia, American Beech • The tree is flowers of both sexes on the same tree. • Like the European Beech bark, the American Beech bark is an attraction for vandals who carve names, dates, gang symbols, and other material into it. • Beech nuts were one of the primary foods of the now-extinct passenger pigeon, and the clearing of beech and oak forests are pointed to as one of the major factors that may have contributed to the bird's extinction. The beech’s love for good soil signaled to the settlers that the land where it flourished was rich and fertile. So American Beeches were cleared away en masse to make room for farms. Foliage, Fagus grandifolia 37
    • Cercis canadensis, Redbud • In some parts of southern Appalachia, green twigs from the Eastern redbud are used as seasoning for wild game such as venison and opossum. Because of this, in these mountain areas the Eastern redbud is sometimes known as the spicewood tree. • The redbud is the state tree of Oklahoma. • Native Americans consumed redbud flowers Carpenter bee raw or boiled, and ate (Xylocopa virginica) roasted seeds. on redbud flowers. The flowers are pollinated by long-tongued bees such as blueberry bees and carpenter bees. Short-tongued bees apparently cannot reach the 38 nectaries.
    • Abies lasiocarpa ‘Glauca’, Blue Alpine Fir • It is commonly found at and immediately below the tree line. • The cones are erect, 6– 12 cm long, dark blackishpurple with fine yellowbrown pubescence, ripening brown and disintegrating to release the winged seeds in early fall. • The wood is used for general structural purposes and paper manufacture. It is also a popular Christmas tree. 39
    • Prunus serrulata, Japanese Flowering Cherry • Prunus serrulata or Japanese Cherry; also called Hill Cherry, Oriental Cherry or East Asian Cherry, is a species of cherry native to Japan, Korea and China. It is known for its spring cherry blossom displays and festivals. • The National Cherry Blossom Festival is a spring celebration in Washington, D.C., commemora ting the 1912 gift of Prunus serrulata Japanese cherry trees from Tokyo to the city of Washington. They are planted in the Tidal Basin Park. Leaf close up 40
    • Abies homolepis, Nikko Fir • Native to the mountains of central and southern Honshū and Shikoku, Japan • The leaves are needlelike, flattened, glossy green above, and with two white bands of stomata below, and rounded or slightly notched at the tip. • Nikko Fir wood is used for general structural timber. Outside of Japan, it is grown as an ornamental tree in northern Europe and North America. Foliage and cone 41
    • Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica, Rocky Mountain Fir • The Corkbark Fir Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica occurs in Arizona and New Mexico. It differs in thicker, corky bark and more strongly glaucous (frosted appearance) foliage • Cones on fir trees stand upright like candles (on other conifers the cones hang down) and they rapidly disintegrate. 42
    • Abies balsamea, Balsam Fir • The balsam fir (Abies balsamea) is a North American fir. • Both varieties of the species are very popular as Christmas trees, particularly in the northeastern United states. • The resin is used to produce Canada balsam, and was traditionally used as a cold remedy and as a glue for glasses, optical instrument components, and for preparing permanent mounts of microscope specimens. The wood is milled for framing lumber,siding,and pulped for paper manufacture. Balsam fir oil is an EPA approved nontoxic rodent repellent. Tree with cones Foliage 43
    • Chionanthus virginicus, White Fringetree • Chionanthus virginicus (White Fringetree) is a tree native to the eastern United States, from New Jersey south to Florida, and west to Oklahoma and Texas. • It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to as much as 10–11 m tall, though ordinarily less. • Said to be Thomas Jefferson’s favorite tree, it is covered by fleecy panicles of white blossoms in late May and early June. Female blossoms produce dark ege shaped fruit, called drupes, which are quite noticeable in August. • The dried roots and bark were used by Native Americans to treat skin inflammations. Flowers Foliage Fruits 44
    • Picea asperata, Dragon Spruce • Picea asperata (Dragon Spruce is a spruce native to western China • It is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 25-40 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m. • The species is currently not listed as threatened, but recently population numbers have been declining due to deforestation caused by the Chinese logging industry. • P. asperata is occasionally grown as an ornamental tree in Europe and North Immature Picea asperata growing in the America. Jiuzhaigou Valley, Sichuan, China 45
    • Picea wilsonii, Wilson Spruce • Picea wilsonii is a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family. It is found only in China. • Symmetrical form which makes it desirable as a Christmas tree, but is slow growing so is rarely grown commercially 46
    • Betula pendula, European White Birch • Also known as silver birch • Silver Birch is often planted as a garden and ornamental tree, grown for its white bark and gracefully drooping shoots, sometimes even in warmer-thanoptimum places such as Los Angeles and Sydney. • Silver Birch is Finland's national tree. • Occasionally one uses leafy, fragrant boughs of Silver Birch to gently beat oneself in a sauna. Betula pendula 'Laciniata' 47
    • Betula nigra, River Birch • Betula nigra (River Birch; also occasionally called Water Birch) is a species of birch native to the eastern United States • It is commonly found in flood plains and/or swamps. • Its bark is quite distinctive, making it a favored ornamental tree for landscape use. • Native Americans used the boiled sap as a sweetener similar to maple syrup, and the inner bark as a survival food. Betula nigra bark 48
    • Picea meyeri, Meyers Spruce • It is occasionally planted as an ornamental tree; its popularity is increasing in the eastern United States, where it is being used to replace Blue Spruce, which is more disease-prone in the humid climate there. • It is virtually identical to the Colorado Blue Spruce. • It is closely related to the Dragon Spruce from western China. 49
    • Picea abies, Norway Spruce • Norway Spruce (Picea abies) is a species of spruce native to Europe. It is also commonly referred to as the European Spruce. • The Norway Spruce is one of the most widely planted spruces. • It is also widely planted for use as a Christmas tree. • Every Christmas, the Norwegian capital city, Oslo, provides the cities of New York, London, Edinburgh and Washington D.C. with a Norwegian spruce, which is placed at the most central square of each city. This is mainly a sign of gratitude for the aid these countries gave during the Second World War. • The cones are 9–17 cm long (the longest of any spruce). These cones are the models for cast-iron weights on cuckoo clocks. 50
    • Picea amorika, Serbian Spruce • Deer-resistant and very narrow, it achieves a two-tone look from the silvery undersides of its blue-green needles. • Best in rich, deep soil, this exceedingly slow-growing tree is very easy to care for. • Columnar and only needs a 10 or 12 foot square area. 51
    • Gleditsia triancanthos var. inermis, Thornless Honeylocust • Spread is usually equal to height. • Some trees become nearly flat-topped. • Use maybe should be tempered in light of past overuse and urban monoculture of honeylocust. • These plants do not produce thorns of their stems 52
    • Gymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffeetree • Europeans first encountered it in Kentucky. • When spring comes, it gives no apparent recognition of light and warmth until nearly every other tree is in full leaf. • Is considered a rare tree species • Native Americans and early Europeans used the beans from the pods as an inferior substitute for real coffee. Pods 53
    • Thuja occidentalis, White Cedar • Thuja occidentalis (Eastern Arborvitae, Northern Whitecedar) is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is widely cultivated for use as an ornamental plant known as American Arbor Vitae. • The foliage of Thuja occidentalis is rich in Vitamin C and is believed to be the annedda which cured the scurvy of Jacques Cartier and his party in the winter of 1535–1536. • White cedar is the preferred wood for the structural elements, such as ribs and planking, of birchbark canoes and the planking of wooden canoes. Thuja occidentalis foliage and cones 54
    • Parrotia persica, Persian Perrotia • Closely related to the genus Hamamelis (Witch-hazels) • It is native to northern Iran, where it is endemic in the Alborz mountains. • The bark is smooth, pinkishbrown flaking/peeling to leave cinnamon, pink, green, and pale yellow patches. • It is cultivated as an ornamental tree for its stunning autumn color and the smooth, patterned bark. The tree's many branches and distinctive colored bark 55
    • Hamamelis vernalis ‘Autumn Embers’, Vernal Witchhazel • It is a deciduous large shrub growing to 4 m tall, spreading by stoloniferous root sprouts. • The flowers are deep to bright red, rarely yellow and blooms in early spring (name comes from lingering autumn colors). • The fruit is a hard woody capsule 10–15 mm long, which splits explosively at the apex at maturity one year after pollination, ejecting the two shiny black seeds up to 10 m distant from the parent New foliage, spent flowers Flowers and old seed capsules 56
    • Hamamelis virginiana, Common Witchhazel • Hamamelis virginiana is a species of Witch-hazel native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota, and south to central Florida to eastern Texas. • It is a deciduous large shrub growing to 6 m (rarely to 10 m) tall, with a dense cluster of stems from the base. • The flowers are pale to bright yellow blooming in late fall. • The forked twigs of Witch Hazel are preferred as divining rods. Leaves and flowers leaf closeup 57
    • Liquidambar stryaciflua, American Sweetgum • • • • • It is recognizable from its combination of five-pointed starshaped leaves and spiked fruit. A popular ornamental tree in North America The earliest record of the tree appears to be in a Spanish work by F. Hernandez, published in 1651, in which he describes it as a large tree producing a fragrant gum resembling liquid amber, hence the name. The fruit, popularly nicknamed a "space bug", "monkey ball", "bommyknocker", "bir ball", "gumball", "conkleberry", "cuko o-bir" or "sticky ball", is a hard, dry, globose, compound fruit 2.5–4 cm in diameter and composed of numerous (40-60) capsules. The autumnal coloring is not simply a flame, it is a conflagration; in reds and yellows it equals the maples. 5-pointed star shaped leaves Mature "monkey ball“ after seed dispersal 58
    • • • • • • • Tilia spp, Basswood or Linden Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees. They are generally called lime in Britain and linden or basswood in North America. The leaves of all the Tilia species are heart-shaped and most are asymmetrical, and the tiny fruit, looking like peas, always hang attached to a curious, ribbonlike, greenish yellow bract, whose use seems to be to launch the ripened seed-clusters just a little beyond the parent tree. One way to identify a basswood is the presence of “sisters” around the base of the tree. It is a popular wood for model building and intricate carving. Basswoods are very important honey plants for beekeepers, producing a very pale but richly flavored monofloral honey, perhaps the best flavored honey in the Midwest. Tilia tomentosa Tilia leaf Flowers 59
    • Acer ginnala, Amur Maple • Acer ginnala is a deciduous spreading shrub or small tree growing to 3-10 m tall, with a short trunk up to 20-40 cm diameter and slender branches. • Amur Maple is closely related to Acer tataricum (Tatar Maple), and some botanists treat it as a subspecies A. tataricum subsp. Ginnala. • Acer ginnala is grown as an ornamental plant in northern regions of Europe and North America, where it is the most cold-tolerant maple, hardy to zone 2. • It is a nonnative invasive species in parts of northern America. • It is also valued in Japan and elsewhere as a species suitable for bonsai. Amur Maple foliage 60
    • Quercus alba, White Oak • White oak is our Illinois state tree. • It is one of the pre-eminent hardwoods of eastern North America. • It is identified by the strong branches that grow at right angles to the trunk and the distinctive lobed leaves that do not have Being the subject of a bristles at the end. The autumn legend as old as the leaves, although brown, are often colony itself, the retained throughout the winter, so Charter Oak of Hartford, if you see a tree in winter in Connecticut is one of the northern Illinois that still has leaves on it, it is likely an oak. most famous white oaks in America. The tree now • The bark is usually light grey. makes up the reverse • It was a signature wood used in side of the Connecticut mission style oak furniture by Gustav Stickley in the Craftsman state quarter. style in the Arts and Crafts Bark on a large trunk. movement. 61
    • Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak • Often simply called "red oak", northern red oak is formally so named to distinguish it from southern red oak (Q. falcata), also known as the Spanish oak. • Northern red oak is easy to recognize by its bark, which feature bark ridges that appear to have shiny stripes down the center, and is the only oak with the striping all the way down the trunk. • The northern red oak is one of the most important oaks for timber production in North America. The wood is of high value. • Red oak wood grain is so open that smoke can be blown through it from end-grain to end-grain on a flat-sawn board. Detail of mature bark 62
    • Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak • A medium-sized tree of the north central and northeastern mixed forests. It has a very large range, and can survive in a variety of habitats. • It is not found where flooding is permanent, although it is usually found in broad stream valleys, low-lying fields, and the margins of lakes, ponds, or sloughs. • It is one of the more important white oaks for lumber production. • In recent years, the swamp white oak has become a popular landscaping tree, partly due to its relative ease of transplanting. Morton Arboretum acc. 71-69-2 Swamp White Oak leaves 63
    • Quercus imbricaria, Shingle Oak • It is distinguished from most other oaks by its leaves, which are shaped like laurel leaves. • In the past, the wood was important for making shingles, from which the name derives. 64
    • Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac • The Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina, synonym: R. hirta) is a deciduous shrub to small tree in the Cashew family, native to eastern North America. • Staghorn sumac is dioecious, and large clumps can form with either male or female plants. • The fruit of staghorn sumac is one of the most identifiable characteristics, forming dense clusters of small red drupes at the terminal end of the branches. This fruit was picked and crushed in water by Native Americans to make “Indian tea”, which some say resembles cranberry juice. • The leaves and berries of staghorn sumac have been mixed with tobacco and other herbs and smoked by Native American tribes. This practice continues to a small degree to this 65
    • Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac • One of the easiest shrubs to identify throughout the year (unless mistaken for Rhus vernix, poison sumac, in the absence of mature fruit) smooth sumac has a spreading, open-growing shrub growing up to 3 m tall, rarely to 5 m. • The flowers are tiny, green, produced in dense erect panicles 10-25 cm tall, in the spring, later followed by large panicles of edible crimson berries that remain throughout the winter. Rhus glabra fruit 66
    • Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Dawn Redwood • A fast-growing, critically endangered deciduous conifer tree • Although shortest of the redwoods, it grows to at least 200 ft (61 m) in height. • Thought to be extinct, it was rediscovered in the 1940’s in China. Mature female cones Dawn Redwood foliage- note opposite arrangement 67
    • Pinus aristata, Bristlecone Pine • Pinus aristata, the Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pine, is a very slow growing (1” in diameter in 100 years) species of pine native to the United States. • There is a living tree in Arizona which is documented as being a seedling back when the Egyptians were building the pyramids! • It is usually found at very high altitudes • It has highly characteristic small white resin flecks appearing on the needles which look a bit like 'dandruff' on the needles, is diagnostic of Pinus aristata; no other pine Needles with the typical resin flecks shows it. 68
    • Pinus sylvestris, Scotch Pine • Pinus sylvestris is an evergreen coniferous tree • It is the national tree of Scotland, and it formed much of the Caledonian Forest which once covered much of the Scottish Highlands. • It has been widely used in the United States for the Christmas tree trade, and was one of the most popular Christmas trees from the 1950s through the 1980s. It remains popular for that usage, though it has been eclipsed in popularity, by such species as Fraser Fir, Douglasfir, and others. Leaves (‘needles’) and cones 69
    • Pinus resinosa, Red Pine • In the Upper Midwest of the United States it is sometimes known as the Norway Pine tree. • Red Pine is an evergreen tree characterized by tall, straight growth in a variety of habitats. • The bark is thick and gray-brown at the base of the tree, but thin, flaky and bright orange-red in the upper crown; the tree's name derives from this distinctive character. • Some red color may be seen in the fissures of the bark. Red Pine is self pruning; there tend not to be dead branches on the trees, and older trees may have very long lengths of branchless trunk below the canopy. Cone (scale in cm) Pollen cones of Pinus resinosa in spring 70
    • Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine • It is occasionally known as simply White Pine, Northern White Pine, or Soft Pine. • The leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five (rarely 3 or 4), with a deciduous sheath. • White pine forests originally covered much of northeastern North America. • The eastern white pine has the distinction of being the tallest tree in eastern North America. • Because the tree is somewhat resistant to fire, mature survivors are able to re-seed burned areas. In pure stands mature trees usually have no branches on the lower half of the trunk. • During the age of sail, tall white pines with high quality wood were known as mast pines. Native white pine, Sylvania Wilderness, Michigan Closeup of Bark P. strobus cone 71
    • Viburnum prunifolium, Blackhaw • Viburnum prunifolium (known as blackhaw, Blackhaw Viburnum, sweet haw, or Stag Bush), is a species of Viburnum native to southeastern North America. • It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 15 feet tall and 8 to 12 feet wide (2–9 m tall) with a short crooked trunk and stout spreading branches. • For centuries, black haw has been used for medical purposes, mainly for gynecological conditions. The bark is the part of the plant used in treatments. Foliage Flowers 72
    • Virburnum rufidulum, Southern Blackhaw • Viburnum rufidulum, also known as the Rusty Blackhaw, is a flowering species of shrub or small tree that is common in parts of the Eastern and Central United States. Rusty hairs on the leaf underside are a diagnostic characteristic of this species. 73
    • Viburnum lentago, Nannyberry • Also known as Sheepberry, or Sweet Viburnum • It is a large shrub or small tree growing upwards to 30 ft (9 m) tall with a trunk up to ~10 inches (25 cm) diameter and a short trunk, round-topped head, pendulous, flexible branches. • Like all viburnums, the leaves are arranged in opposite pairs on the twigs. • As suggested by the alternative name Sweet Viburnum, the fruit is (unlike that of many Viburnums) edible. 74
    • Quercus palustris, Pin Oak • Also known as the Swamp Spanish oak. The specific name palustris means "of swamps". • When older, some upper branches become quite large and the central leader is lost, while the lower branches gradually droop downwards. • A characteristic shared by a few other oak species, and also some beeches and hornbeams, is the retention of leaves through the winter on juvenile tissue. • The name "pin oak" is possibly due to the many small, slender twigs, but may also be from the historical use of the hard wood for pins in wooden building construction. 75
    • Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera’, Threadleaf Sawara Falsecypress • Species of false cypress, native to central and southern Japan • The bark is red-brown, vertically fissured and with a stringy texture. • It is grown for its timber in Japan, where it is used as a material for building palaces, temples, shrines and baths, and making coffins. • It is also a popular ornamental tree in parks and gardens. • It has a scaley, golden foliage that is string-like in form. The latter trait is the reason for the designation, "Filifera," which is Latin for "thread-bearing"; so in all this confusion of names, "threadleaf," at least, should be easy to 76
    • Pinus nigra, Austrian Pine • Also known as the European Black Pine • The bark is grey to yellowbrown, and is widely split by flaking fissures into scaly plates, becoming increasingly fissured with age. • In the United States European Black Pine is planted as a street tree, and as an ornamental tree in gardens and parks. Its value as a street tree is largely due to its resistance to salt spray (from road deicing salt). Foliage and cone of subsp. nigra Bark closeup 77
    • Picea pungens, Colorado Blue Spruce • Native and widely occurring in the montane zone of the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Commonly planted as an ornamental. • The blue spruce is the State Tree of Utah and Colorado. Mature cone Immature cone 78
    • Juniperus communis, Common Juniper • It has the largest range of any woody plant. • Juniperus communis is a shrub or small tree, very variable and often a low spreading shrub, but occasionally reaching 10 m tall. • The cones are used to flavor gin. In fact, the word 'gin' is derived from the French word for juniper berry, genièvre, which is the name for gin in France. • Juniper berries have long been used as medicine by many cultures. Native Americans used them as a herbal remedy for urinary tract infections. Juniperus communis subsp. communis in the Netherlands Foliage and berries 79
    • Juniperus chinensis ‘Pfitzerana’, Pfitzerana Juniper • J. chinensis is a popular ornamental tree or shrub in gardens and parks, with over 100 named cultivars selected for various characters. • The hybrid between Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus sabina, known as Juniperus × pfitzeriana (Pfitzer Juniper, synonym J. × media), is also very common as a cultivated plant. It is only ever a shrub, never a tree, making it suitable for smaller 80
    • Gleditsia triacanthos, Common Honeylocust • Honey locusts commonly have thorns 3–10 cm long growing out of the branches. These thorns are thought to have evolved to protect the trees from browsing Pleistocene megafauna. • The fruit of the Honey locust is a flat legume (pod) that matures in early autumn. The name derives from the sweet taste of the legume pulp, which was used for food by Native American people, and can also be fermented to make beer. A honey locust in Washington state show its fall color. Unripe honey locust pods 81
    • Quercus velutina, Black Oak • The eastern black oak or more commonly known as simply black oak, is an oak in the red oak group of oaks. • It is a common tree in the Indiana Dunes and other sandy dunal ecosystems along the southern shores of Lake Michigan. • Black oak is well known to readily hybridize with other members of the red oak (Quercus sect. Lobatae) group of oaks being one parent in at least a dozen different named hybrids. • Has bristles at the ends of the leaf lobes 82
    • Fraxinus holotricha, Moraine Ash • Native to the Balkans • Its craggy bark is distinctive. • Has winged seeds, like maples, called samaras • The wood of ash is prized for its suppleness and flexibility, and is used in the manufacture of furniture, sports equipment, and tool handles. 83
    • Prunus sargentii, Sargent Cherry • Prunus sargentii, commonly known as Sargent's cherry, North Japanese hill cherry, Ezo mountain cherry or Big mountain cherry in Japan, is a species of cherry native to Japan, Korea, and Sakhalin (Russia). • The tree one of the hardiest cherries and can be easily transplanted. This makes the tree suitable for use as a street tree. • Its bark is a rich polished reddish to chesnut brown. Sargent's cherry in Rendeux (Belgium). 84
    • Fagus sylvatica, European Beech • The European Beech or Common Beech, is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae. • It is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 49 m (160 ft) tall and 3 m (10 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (80– 115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (5 ft) trunk diameter. • It is frequently kept clipped to make attractive hedges. European Beech shoot with nut cupules 85
    • Magnolia acuminata, Cucumbertree Magnolia • The cucumber magnolia or blue magnolia, is one of the largest magnolias, and one of the cold-hardiest. • Unlike most magnolias, the flowers are not showy. They are typically small, yellowgreen, and borne high in the tree in April through June. Up to 10” long leaves • The name Cucumber tree comes from the unripe fruit, which is green and The fruit of Magnolia acuminata often shaped like a small cucumber. 86
    • Magnolia tripetala, Umbrella Magnolia • Magnolia tripetala, commonly called Umbrella magnolia or simply Umbrella-tree, is a deciduous tree native to the southeastern United States in the Appalachian Mountains region. • These trees are attractive and easy to grow. The leaves turn yellow in the autumn. The Cultivated specimen leaves can be up to 20” long. at Morton Arboretum • The flowers are large, 15-25 cm diameter, with six to nine creamy-white petals and a large red style, which later develops into a red fruit 10 cm long, containing several red seeds. Immature fruit. Immature fruit and leaf details. 87
    • Cornus alternifolia, Pagoda Dogwood • Also known as alternateleaved Dogwood, is a species of dogwood native to eastern North America. • The branches develop characteristic horizontal layers separated by gaps, with a flattopped crown. • The tree is regarded as attractive because of its wide spreading shelving branches and flat-topped head, and is often used in ornamental plantings. • Daggers were made from the hard wood so the name daggerwood eventually became dogwood. Flowers Fruits 88
    • Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood • Flowering dogwood is a small deciduous tree growing to 10 m (33 ft) high, often wider than it is tall when mature, with a trunk diameter of up to 30 cm (1 ft). A 10-year-old tree will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. • Other old names now rarely used include American Dogwood, Florida Dogwood, Indian Arrowwood, Cornelian Tree, White Cornel, False Box, and False Boxwood. • The hard, dense wood has been used for products such as golf club heads, mallets, wooden rake teeth, tool handles, jeweler’s boxes and butcher’s blocks. Flowering Dogwood with white blossoms Flowering Dogwood in fall with fruit 89
    • • Quercus macrocarpa, the Bur Oak, sometimes Bur Oak spelled Burr Oak, is a species of oak in the white oak section Quercus sect. This plant is also called Mossycup oak and Mossycup white oak. The acorns are the largest of any North American oak • One of the most massive oaks with a trunk diameter of up to 3 m (10 ft); It is also a fireresistant tree. • Heavy nut crops are borne only every few years. In this strategy, known as Winter form showing masting, the large seed crop characteristic spreading every few years overwhelms branches the ability of seed predators to eat the acorns, thus ensuring the survival of some seeds. Acorns 90