To gain an understanding of how to incorporate green building strategies .
Energy and Atmosphere
Materials and Resources
Indoor Environmental Quality
Why We Need to Change Our Building Habits 1804 – 1927 1 to 2 billion people 1996 – 2008 6 to 7 billion people 1.
“ . . . buildings are the biggest source of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions , which in turn impact the world’s climate changes.” Green Building: Essential Design Strategies for a Sustainable Future Barbara A. Nadel, FAIA, Architectural Record, November 2006
“ Global warming is not caused by natural forces beyond our control. . . . human beings are the cause of the problem. And so it is our responsibility to fix it.” An Inconvenient Truth Al Gore Total Energy Use
Oil Dependence The Middle East holds 61% of the world's proven oil reserves. North America has 5%.
Increasing Oil Demand Unless there is a dramatic effort to change our consumption, energy demand is expected to rise by nearly 20 percent by 2030 according to the Department of Energy. Source: Energy Information Administration
The amount of U.S. greenhouse gases flowing into the atmosphere , mainly carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels, increased last year by 1.4 percent after a decline in 2006. Source: U.S. Energy Department Associated Press, 12/03/08
“ Carbon emissions have been growing at 3.5% per year since 2000 , up sharply from the 0.9 percent per year in the 1990s.” 02/15/09 EBN 09/09
Climate Change Quickens, Seas Rise Global warming is happening faster than expected and at worst could raise sea levels by up to 6-1/2’ by 2100 according to a group of scientists. November 24, 3009
Heating and cooling are generally the major expenses (30%-35%) associated with the operation of a building.
Save Water and Energy Average Savings LEED Rating # of Bldgs. Water Efficiency Energy Optimization Certified 64 30.1% 29.4% Silver 49 30.4% 33.3% Gold 46 32.5% 40.0% Platinum 9 34.4% 55.0% Total 168 Environmental Design + Construction , December 2006
Provide bicycle racks for 5% or more of all building users during peak time
Reduce automobile use that contributes to air pollution
Reduce dependency on oil
Reduce impact of oil refining
Drive Less Walk, bike, carpool or take public transportation more often. You’ll save one lb of CO2 for every mile you don’t drive. Your car will emit as much CO2 in a year as your entire household = 12,000 lbs.
The use of dark, non-reflective surfaces for parking, roofs, walkways and other surfaces contributes to heat island effects. As a result of heat island effects, ambient temperatures in urban areas can be artificially elevated by more than 10 degrees when compared with surrounding suburban and undeveloped areas. This results in:
increased cooling loads in the summer;
larger HVAC equipment;
increased electrical demand;
more greenhouse gas + pollution; and
increased energy consumption .
Urban heat islands can maintain temperatures 6 – 8 degrees above that of surrounding rural land. EBN September ‘09
Paving materials with a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) > 29
USGBC Sustainable Site, Credit 7.1
Paving Materials’ SRI Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) is the measure of a material’s ability to reject solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise. Material Reflectance SRI New Gray Concrete 0.35 35 Weathered Gray Concrete 0.20 19 New White Concrete 0.70 86 Weathered White Concrete 0.40 45 New Asphalt 0.05 0 Weathered Asphalt 0.10 6
Use roofing materials having a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) equal to or greater than the values of the table below for a minimum of 75% of the roof surface.
USGBC Sustainable Site, Credit 7.2 Roof Type Slope SRI Low-Sloped Roof < 2:12 78 Steep-Sloped Roof > 2:12 29
Roofing Materials SRI Material Solar Reflectance Temperature Rise SRI Gray EPDM 0.23 68 21 Gray Asphalt Shingle 0.22 67 22 White Coating on Metal Roof 0.67 28 79 White EPDM 0.69 25 84 Rising temperatures lead to increased cooling requirements, requiring energy and causing associated emissions.
new roof, new color + drainage White EPDM SRI = 84 Gray EPDM SRI = 21
Less than 3 percent of the water on Earth is fresh;
much of that is unreachable in glaciers, ice-caps or deep in the earth.
2. Water Efficiency
Climate change will likely increase precipitation in some places while reducing it in others , particularly the West, where populations are growing the fastest. Environmental Building News, September 2008
“ Some experts say that water may be an even more challenging problem than energy in the coming decades . . . ” Environmental Building News, September 2008
Limit or eliminate the use of potable water for landscape irrigation.
“ The roughly 90 million lawnmowers, weed trimmers, leaf blowers, and other small-engine lawn and garden tools in the U.S. spew out approximately 5% of the nation’s air pollution , according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.”
Toilet flushing is the largest single use of water in most buildings.
Zurn’s EcoVantage uses one pint, or 0.125 or 1/8 gallon of water per flush. They are all sensor-controlled (battery or hard-wired) and have a manual button override.
1.28 gallons of water per flush
Four independent, real-world studies . . . have all shown that sensor-activated faucets increase water use by anywhere from 30% to 100% . Sensor-activated flushes on toilets and urinals also increase water use, due mainly to “phantom flushes ”. Environmental Building News – April 2009
Financial Incentives for Renewable Energy Comparison Chart State Rebates Grants Loans California 7 state 38 utility 3 local 1 state 2 state 1 utility 4 local Illinois 1 state 3 state 1 private 1 state Indiana 4 utility 1 state 1 utility U.S. Totals 307 65 150
The cost of fuel and electricity will soar , despite swift growth in alternative sources of energy, such as solar, geothermal, and wind power.
New regs will add 20% or so to electricity rates by 2020 . . . and that’s over and above any increases anticipated from changes in supply and demand.
The average electricity cost for residential, commercial and industrial users may be 50% higher than today . . . more in areas such as the Midwest and Southeast, where coal fired power dominates. There . . . a 100% hike.
Kiplinger Connection, AIArchitect This Week, 09/25/09
Solar Power Proposal Financial Analysis Installation – Year Costs Average Monthly Utility Savings (over 25-yr. system life) $278 Gross System Cost ($7.05/watt DC, $8.30/watt AC) $100,096 Utility Savings Over System Life $83,352 Installer Contract Cost $100,096 Total Life-Cycle Payback (Cash Flow compared to Net Cost) 132% Incentives/Taxes ($50,048 + $1,485 installer rebate) $51,533 Rate of Return on Cash Invested +2.6% Net Cost $48,563 Levelized Cost of Solar Energy $0.09 / kWh Net Cost per Watt $34.5/watt DC $4.03/watt AC
424 tons of CO2 Reduction in Green House Gas Emissions
3% of Electric Usage Supplied by Solar
66 photovoltaic panels, 8,100 sq. ft. of roof area
Window films from companies such as V-Kool and 3M are an excellent retrofit measure for reducing solar heat-gain
Films can filter out half the heat of sunlight while allowing most of the visible light through.
One-third or more of a building’s electrical consumption may go to lighting, and energy saved in lighting also reduces cooling loads. EBN April 2009 Replacing lamps, ballasts, luminaires, or all three, can lead to significant energy savings
Use colors of the same family to create tonal harmonies.
Changing a Light? Replacing one light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb will save 150 pounds of carbon dioxide a year The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 will phase out conventional incandescent lamps by 2014.
Replacing a 60 watt incandescent bulb with a 60 watt compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) results in a 75% energy savings. Reducing energy usage also reduces greenhouse gases from power plants. By using CFL you are having a positive impact on climate change.
Incandescent = 1,000 hours, 60 watts of energy used
Recycle, Reuse, Reduce Recycling 2 lbs saves 130 lbs of CO2 from the air. www.rcpworksmarter.com Rubbermaid Commercial
About 80% of what Americans throw away is recyclable, yet our recycling rate is only 28 percent. DoSomething.org 39% of waste in the average American household is paper. Paper made from virgin materials contributes to deforestation and global warming, and often ends up in a landfill. GreenAmericatoday.org
Reduces environmental impact of new buildings as they relate to materials manufacturing and transport
Maintain Existing Walls & Roof 2005 dollars 4,640 square feet Canopy $17k Tuckpointing + Cleaning $25k Doors + Windows $57k Site Work $54k Landscaping $7k Total Cost $160k
Recycle Construction Waste USGBC December 2008
Buildings use 40% of raw materials globally.
The EPA estimates that 136 million tons of building-related construction and demolition debris was generated in the U.S. in a single year. Compare that to 209.7 million tons of municipal solid waste generated in the same year.
A LEED project can divert 85% of on-site generated construction waste from a landfill.
Increase demand for building materials and products that are extracted and manufactured within 500 miles of the project site, thereby supporting the use of indigenous resources and reducing the environmental impacts resulting from transportation.
www.aia.org/walkthewalk Web Videos: #1 Water Conservation #2 Smart Controls #3 Radiant Heating and Cooling #4 Vegetation for Sun Control #5 Whole Building Approach #6 Green Tags #7 Energy Modeling #8 Green Roofs #9 Daylighting #10 Choosing Green Materials #11 Carbon Offsets #12 Deconstruction