Everyday Accessibility: Out of the Sandbox:

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Accessibility benefits everyone but how do you do it? Accessibility is not just for web designers and programmers. Each and every day, every document, every way, you can easily create accessible …

Accessibility benefits everyone but how do you do it? Accessibility is not just for web designers and programmers. Each and every day, every document, every way, you can easily create accessible course content. Do you want your students to be able to read material on portable devices (iPads or cell phones), students that use different browsers, public computers? Every day techniques will help improve accessibility of course content. Of course we will briefly touch on rules and trends. You'll be equipped with resources to take back to your institution leaders and IT departments. But this workshop is meant for everyone. Keeping accessibility in mind is our responsibility and it benefits everyone.
- Create accessible word, PowerPoint, pdf, epub documents
- web design concepts and why
- captioning multimeida

More in: Education , Technology , Design
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  • Examples of accommodation
  • http://stevebaskinmd.com/articles-about-adult-adhd.html90% (up to) can be undiagnosed – estimate only
  • http://www.hrto.ca/hrto/?q=en/node/23http://www.canadaemploymenthumanrightslaw.com/tags/accessibility/http://www.crein.ca/eng/jodhan-judgement Research Centre on Digital InclusionFrederick Moore on behalf of Jeffrey P. Moore v. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia as represented by the Ministry of Education, et al.. The case examined the duties of the British Columbia Ministry of Education and the School Board of District 44 to accommodate the needs of a student with disabilities. A British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal had determined that Jeffrey Moore had experienced discrimination when the School Board and the Ministry of Education failed to accommodate his needs in the delivery of educational services. IT lawyershttp://www.cba.org/cba/practicelink/CS/internetclientservices.aspxhttp://www.icdri.org/CynthiaW/is_%20yoursite_ada_compliant.htm
  • Study participants: 223 Canadian university and junior college students with various disabilities (74 males, 149 females), 58 campus disability service providers (15 males, 43 females), 28 professors (10 males, 18 females), 33 campus e-learning professionals (16 males, 17 females). Students had taken at least one course in last three years that used some form of e-learning. From 318 different institutions. Online questionnaire administered in the first half of 2006. Conducted 4-week retest reliability testing of close-ended questions and discarded those that had poor reliability. Included open-ended questions as well such as “What are three benefits of e-learning” “What are three problems of elearning and how they were resolved” Definition of e-learning used: referring to the range of information and communication technologies that professors use when teaching their courses entirely in the classroom, entirely online, or a combination of both. Accessibility was defined as incorporating usability concepts and referring to the ability of students, regardless of their disability, to easily and independently use e-learning.But how well do the ICTs used by professors in teaching postsecondary courses (i.e., e-learning) meet the needs ofstudents with different disabilities? How successfully do these ICTs interact with adaptive hardware and softwarethat some students with disabilities require? How accessible is the growing array of available e-learning on campus(Konur, 2007; Waddell, 2007)?82 students were enrolled in a Canadian junior/community college and 136 in university; 5 did not specify this information. 73 pursuing college certificate or diploma, 97 an undergraduate degree, 19 a university diploma, 26 graduate degree, and 5 other credentials. Mean age = 27Most commonly used technology – software that helps with writing followed by software that reads what is on the screen
  • From Fitchen study 2009Modern online teaching methodologies allow instructors to cater to a widevariety of learners with different learning styles, while findingnew ways to engage student learning. (Stewart et al. 2010)
  • Give example of non-text mediaDeveloped as part of CAF project
  • Word or PowerPoint 2010Select image > format picture > left side see Alt Text. Then 2 windows. The big ugly red x. makes it easier to add it. Until the end you get 2 areas so its important put the alt text in DescriptionIn Word – document structure – most people do this wrong
  • Requires a bit of thoughtAny editor, interface that allows you to place an image in your document will have an alt text area to fill in. Description of what image is doing on the page not what it is. It needs to relay context. (blogging, LMS, web designer, html editor) important put something in that description b/c screen readers read it. Many law suits of higher ed but commercial companies. The biggest complaint was alt text was missing so users were not able to make sense of site.
  • PowerPoint – over use of it. It wasn’t designed as an online tool but its used all the time 
  • Learning objectives example. May want to categorize them according to the skill that you want students to be developing such as critical thinking skills, psychomotor, writing, etc.

Transcript

  • 1. Everyday AccessibilityCarrie AntonAssistive TechnologistAthabasca University Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 2. Identify ways to make content AccessibleAgenda Accessibility Issues Assistive Technology used by people with a disability Create Accessible Content Resources (all videos in this presentation will open a browser window) Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 3.  At the most basic level, Accessibility is about people being able to get & use content.  Practice of making online content & applications usable by everyone  Appropriate design ensures that all users have equal access to information & functionality Is not about digitizing or virtualizing campus Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 4.  Libraries Facilities Ensuring access to… Forms  Information Labs  Spaces/Places Advertising  Websites Tele/Web Confernence  LMS & Assessments Exams  Documents  Communications  Course Material  Multimedia  Activities Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 5.  The right thing to do - Equal Opportunity to education Good for business – helps everyone not just people with disabilities. Can’t afford not to be accessible. Accessible content works on mobile devices & computers The LawInstitutional Responsibility not just DSS office Partnerships > High level support > Advocate Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 6.  Canadian Legislation  Duty to Accommodate from The Human Rights, Citizenship & Multiculturalism Act, The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and Canadian Human Rights Act  Copyright Act & Free Dealing Bill  Alberta Human Rights Act  Court Litigation  US ADA & Section 508, Tech & Communication Bill  Ontario: Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act  Quebec Accessibility Laws Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 7.  4.4 million people in Canada claimed to have a disability in 2006 (URL) A good proportion of people with some disabilities such as ADHD are undiagnosed (90% of people with ADHD do not have docs) Others may be reluctant to identify themselves due to stigma (psychological or psychiatric disabilities) Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 8. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 9. Disability/Impairment Percentage of studentsLearning disability 41%Mobility impairment/wheelchair user 23%ADD/ADHD 21%Psychological/psychiatric disability 17%Health/medically related impairment 16%Deaf/hard of hearing 13%Difficulty using hands and/or arms 12%Visual impairment: low vision 11%Neurological impairment 11%Speech or communication impairment 3%Totally blind 2%Other 1% Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 10. Problem category % participants reporting problemInaccessibility of websites/LMS 20% students with disabilities 37% disability service providers 24% professorsInaccessibility of course notes/materials 9% students with disabilities 12% disability service providers 0% professorsInaccessibility of audio/video materials 8% students with disabilities 7% disability service providers 10% professorsTime limits of online 6% students with disabilitiesexams/assignments 11% disability service providers 17% professorsFrom Table 3 in Fitchen et al. (2009) Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 11.  Ensure no discriminatory effect Ensure proactive prevention of undue hardship on students Facilitate equal access to education  Assistive technology  Accommodations – extended time, private room  Alternate format course material Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 12.  Not lower academic standards Not relieve students of their responsibility Not place undue hardship on an institution or other students Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 13. Assistive Technologies assist students to access & use content includingfacilitation of the learning process. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 14. Screen Readers Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012Screen Readers Kurzweil 3000 reading softwareor text-to-speech (Academic Impressions)are used by manypeople: blind low visionReadingcomprehension,fluency,retention, recall attention deficitESLchronic pain
  • 15. Magnification & Colour Contrast Enhances Text Minimizesdistraction Easily viewed Less eye strainMay retain focusOSX Zoom &High Contrastvideo (AcademicImpressions) Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 16. Keyboard & Mouse Dragon Dictate video filling out a form withVoice Recognition assists keyboard knowledge (Academic impressions)with: Typing Writing Expressing ideas• using a mouse or keyboardRequires user: writing skills consistent voice pattern patience to train it quiet environment computer knowledge Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 17. Keyboard & MouseSome peoplerequiremouse functionfrom thekeyboardKeyboardfunction from themouse using on-screen keyboards& auto clicksoftware Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 18. Customizing Appearance Text Only Slow internet speed Mobile devices Certain technologies Only see certaincolours or contrastLess DistractingSet their viewingpreferences inbrowsers, documents,mouse larger, changecolor, remove images,large font Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 19. Making Accessible Education Content Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 20. ItemText alternatives should be available for all non-text contentAlternatives should be provided for time-based mediaContent should be presented in an understandable way without losing information ororganizationUsers should find it easy to see and hear contentAll interactive components should be accessible from the keyboardUsers should be given adequate time to read and use contentContent should be designed in a way that reduces the possibility of seizuresUsers should always be able to navigate, locate content and determine where theyare on a sitePublisher resources should offer accessible alternatives and versionsStudents should be informed about who to contact if they need assistance Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 21. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 22.  Meaningful & important to content Right Click > Format Picture > Alt Text panel Description Field is most important Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 23. This graphic combines several disability-related images into a single collage. Braille dots, an eye chart, finger spelled "508", and a side view outline of a persons head with a glowing spot for the brain make up the top portion of the collage. Several symbols/icons are superimposed in a strip over the lower part of the collage to represent the following disabilities and/or assistive measures:  sign language interpretation  assistive listening devices  sound  wheelchair (for accessible entrances, etc.)  vision, no or low vision  brain/cognition.Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 24. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 25.  They are whimsical What is the intent? Distracting Inconsistent Do not label Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 26. The wrong wayto emphasizetext is to changethe font & itsattributes Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 27.  The correct way is to add formatting using styles, its FAST Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 28.  The wrong way is to create text boxes &word art for your content  Solely presenting content visually Someone using a screen reader can’t read it Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 29. The right way is toAdd Slide in stylelayoutsEnsures Proper:- Headings- Reading order Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 30.  If you use it, go into Format Picture > Alt Text and give it the appropriate label Is it necessary? Consider linking out to original Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 31.  Alt text is found in Size (Word). Size & Position (PPT) If its decorative don’t label it Use Description not Title field This is a bad alt text (file path is default) Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 32.  Data tables need table headings otherwise don’t use a table Create real links with meaningful text  Right click > Hyperlink > give title good content Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 33.  Do not convey information solely by the use of color.  don’t over use color  Use alternative method of emphasis (italic, underline) It applies to text and graphics. Seen in comparisons – red & blue, instead use hash marks effect (dots, lines, squares) someone may not see color, has a monochrome display, poor lighting, mobile device, browser settings change Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 34.  Creating an Accessible Word Document video  Styles, Images, Tables (YouTube: ATI Faculty Development Center, Fullerton) WebAIM Resources: free web & document accessibility Karen McCall free & purchasable, Creating Accessible Documents Microsoft: Creating Accessible Documents Resources Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 35.  Usually Word, PowerPoint, or a scanner by using styles in your original document  Documents are semantically correct  Accurately transfer to pdf, html & epub  Headings, links, table headers & alt text are maintained Styled headings create a Table of Contents Efficient & consistent formatting Saves Time! Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 36. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 37.  Tools > Document Processing > Optimize Scanned PDF Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 38.  Adobe Reader: Student Comment ability Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 39.  Tags Tree View, Edit OCR suspects, Tab Order Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 40.  Adobe Accessibility Resources Center for PDFs, flash, Adobe Connect web conferencing & forms Adobe Acrobat Pro X – Commenting & more accessible tools tutorial for students Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 41. WebAim.org Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 42.  Keep navigation elements consistent across pages Skip to main Content links jump keyboard focus to the main content Access keys are shortcuts to sections of a page Use intuitive headings that are meaningful Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 43.  Alt Text for Images Multimedia  Captions/Transcripts for videos  Descriptions/Transcripts for action Proper code W3C validated Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 44.  Web is very different than print Web users scan Attention is 30 seconds to 1 minute Our technology helps us scroll quickly Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 45.  One important idea in a paragraph Have more paragraphs One sentence paragraph is ok Bullets & lists are your friends ▪ easy to emphasize ▪ More meaning ▪ use numbered list for hierarchies ▪ If not use bullets Only left justify Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 46. System concept descriptions provide: System concept descriptions provide:• The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the Functional requirements system • The missions, features, capabilities and functions of the• Major system components and interactions system• Operational environment including manual procedures • Major system components and interactions required • Operational environment including manual procedures• Operational modes such as production, backup and required maintenance • Operational modes such as production, backup and• Interfaces with other systems maintenance• Required performance characteristics such as response time, • Interfaces with other systems throughput and data volumes Non-functional requirements• Quality attributes such as availability, reliability and usability • Required performance characteristics such as response time,• Other considerations such as security, audit, safety and throughput and data volumes failure modes in emergency situations • Quality attributes such as availability, reliability and usability• Deployment considerations such as acquisition of business • Other considerations such as security, audit, safety and data to support the system including data cleansing and failure modes in emergency situations loading Deployment and Operational Requirements• The classes of users that will interact with the system • Deployment considerations such as acquisition of business• Requirements for support of the system such as maintenance data to support the system including data cleansing and organization and help desk. loading • The classes of users that will interact with the system • Requirements for support of the system such as maintenance organization and help desk. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 47.  Simple declarative sentences No jargon or cumbersome sentences Who are you writing for? ▪ ESL students: If they are copying/pasting into translator the chances of success are few I and you – instead of instructor & student – keep it conversational, that’s the web Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 48. Accessibility & Usability ToolbarsFirefox Web Developer ExtensionFirefox Accessibility ExtensionFirefox WAVE Accessibility ToolbarInternet Explorer Web Accessibility ToolbarAccessibility EvaluatorsManual testing and human confirmation is necessary as accessibility evaluators arenot able to determine meaning and appropriateness. An image may have alt textand pass the test but the label could be not appropriate.WAVEATRC Accessibility checker WCAG 2.0World Space (Deque) FireEyes for FireBugFunctional Accessibility EvaluatorJuicy Studio Luminosity & Contrast Analyzer & Firefox ToolbarJuicy Studio Colour Toolbar for FirefoxFujitsu Colour Selector application for use on any filesFlicker TestTests the flicker rate & aids creation of objects that decrease the chance of seizures. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 49. Alternatives for multimedia Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 50.  Most players allow playing of captions Feature if media is captioned Magpie FREE program PowerPoint Narration/Timing Settings YouTube Edit Video Web Conferencing - most have captioning modules, shortcut keys to various modules  Whiteboards are still not accessible  Elluminate, Adobe Connect Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 51.  Students on Captioning URL - Australia LD – use of video and audio along with captions boosted student & writing comprehension, vocabulary and learning motivation. Students with learning disabilities appeared to learn better from captioned videos than from print materials on similar topic. How captioning helps Motivation – students are motivated to find and read books on topics covered in captioned videos ESL – students who were shown captioned programs performed better on word recognition. Reinforces language learning. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 52. Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 53.  History described video (URL) Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 54. Using Scientific Notebook or MathType videoAccessing Higher Ground, 2011 Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 55.  an XML-based markup language to encode mathematical expressions  AssistiveTechAU YouTube Channel video of MathML AU’s Math 265 Design Science made a free Math player Allows navigation of equations, magnification, text-to-speech Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 56.  Keyboard functionality (not solely mouse driven Document Structure Customizable font, color Visually identify focus of keyboard & mouse Predictable behavior Consistent operation/look Understandable controls & content (text, buttons, images, form labels) Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 57. Keyboard functionality is key toaccessibility principles.If you are not able to navigate controlsvia the keyboard in predictable ways(tab and arrow keys) you content is notusable/controllable by someoneYouTube video player keyboard control Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 58.  Pick the Low hanging fruit – things that everyone can achieve Small Steps, Change doesn’t happen at once. Support of someone in the upper levels & create partnerships = designers, faculty, IT, students & DSS Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 59.  Word Documents Be Mindful of potential  PowerPoint challenges in content  PDF (OCR) Take it Slow – a small  Captioning change is easy  Descriptions Retrofit is expensive &  Transcripts challenging  Try It  Alt Text  Keyboard function  IT Implementations:  Colour Use  Font size Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012
  • 60. Contact me for info, explanations & presentations:Carrie AntonAssistive TechnologistAccess to Students with DisabilitiesAthabasca University1200, 10011 109 Street, Edmonton, AB T5G 3J2Ph: 780-421-2548E-mail: AT@athabascau.ca Carrie Anton, Athabasca University, ASSC 2012