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  • Christopher Hood

Umds presentation Umds presentation Presentation Transcript

  • The Premises of City Knowledge A Middle-out Approach Toward Sustainable Municipal Data Management MIT/WPI Adrian Hewitt Fabio Carrera London Borough of Merton Aalborg, May 17, 2006
    • Merton Carbon Reduction Targets (5’)
    • City Knowledge (5’)
    • The Premises of CK (10’)
    • CK Implementations in Merton (10’)
    • Questions and Answers (during and after)
    Presentation Outline Implementing City Knowledge in London
  • Merton Council has set a target of cutting CO 2 emissions by 15% by 2015 Population 200,000 90,000 homes How do we cut CO 2 and how do we know if we are on target? London Borough of Merton
  • The Merton Approach
    • Reduce CO 2 footprint of Buildings
    • Regulate Energy Use
    • Promote low CO 2 Solutions
  • The Merton Approach
    • Reduce CO 2 footprint of Buildings
    • Regulate Energy Use
    • Promote low CO 2 Solutions
  • The 10% Policy Merton UDP policy PE13 – Adopted Oct 2003 “ All new non-residential development above a threshold of 1,000 sqm will be expected to incorporate renewable energy production equipment to provide at least 10% of predicted energy requirements.”
  • Monitoring the 10% Policy
    • Are we achieving 10%?
      • Monitoring requirement
      • Resource intensive data-gathering
  • The Merton Approach
    • Reduce CO 2 footprint of Buildings
    • Regulate Energy Use
    • Promote low CO 2 Solutions
  • The Merton Approach
    • Reduce CO 2 footprint of Buildings
    • Regulate Energy Use
    • Promote low CO 2 Solutions
  • District Heat and Power
    • Decentralized generation of Energy
      • Electricity +
      • Hot Water +
      • Cooling
    100% fuel input Only 20% energy wasted 40% electricity 40% heat CHP 100% fuel input 60% energy wasted 40% electricity Standard power station
  • Implementing CHP
    • What size powerplant and where?
      • Identify Potential Customers
      • Obtain Energy Demand Figures
    • The Ideal Customer…
      • is a consistent high energy user
      • who can sign a long-term contract
    • Energy demand figures can
      • be obtained from bills (cooperation)
      • be estimated (hunting and gathering)
  • The Mitcham Target Area Municipal Buildings Swimming Pool Civic Center Supermarket Industry Pyrolysis CHP Gas CHP Gas CHP Gas CHP
  • Implementation in Mitcham
    • Get bills for municipal buildings
      • harder than imagined
      • scattered records
    • Get bills from businesses
      • close to impossible
      • where and what size businesses?
    • Estimate energy demand
      • use building characteristics
      • hire consultants
      • expensive!
  • Next: Colliers Wood
    • Repeat process all over again
    • Spend more money on consultants
    • Why is it so hard, when…
      • municipal bills are paid by borough…
      • buildings are permitted by borough…
      • businesses are taxed by borough…
    THERE MUST BE A BETTER WAY! ?
  • City Knowledge The Solution
  • In 2005, the London Borough of Merton was the first municipality to embrace City Knowledge as part of its strategic plan CK and Merton
  • City Knowledge An emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning. “ As the variety of geospatial information and data resources increases each year, the demand for understanding and building sustainable information and knowledge structures remains a critical research challenge for the geo-spatial information community.” Shuler, 2003. Research Priority of the University Consortium of Geographic Information Science .
    • Information
    City Knowledge An emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning.
  • City Knowledge An emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning. Like the water distribution system, the road network, the sewage system… (connected, efficient, maintained, funded, pervasive)
    • Information
    • Infrastructure
  • City Knowledge An emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning. Not centrally designed or imposed from the top, but gradually constructed from self-serving departmental modules
    • Information
    • Infrastructure
    • Emergent
  • City Knowledge An emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning.
    • Information
    • Infrastructure
    • Emergent
    • Sustainable
    Not a single-purpose do-it-all system doomed for obsolescence, but continually fed with perpetual update mechanisms
  • City Knowledge An emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning.
    • Information
    • Infrastructure
    • Emergent
    • Sustainable
    • Maintenance, Management and Planning
    www.wpi.edu/~carrera/MIT/dissertation.html Useful in multiple contexts, serving the operational (maintenance) needs of the town first, while feeding higher-order management and planning functions of the municipality.
    • plan-demanded data
    • plan-ready information
    • plan-demanding knowledge
    Evolutionary Phases
    • plan-demanded data
    • plan-ready information
    • plan-demanding knowledge
    Evolutionary Phases The status-quo – to be harnessed
    • plan-demanded data
    • plan-ready information
    • plan-demanding knowledge
    Evolutionary Phases After CK -> Information at our fingertips (Efficiency)
    • plan-demanded data
    • plan-ready information
    • plan-demanding knowledge
    Evolutionary Phases Data demands a plan - Unforeseen Benefits (Value Added Bonus)
  • Promotes the transformation of municipalities from hunter-gatherers of urban data to farmers of municipal information City Knowledge
    • Cities produce/consume lots of information
    • Good data are limited to regulation and taxation
    • Documentation prevails over Information
    • Data are collected as needed ( plan-demanded )
    • Opportunities for informational returns are missed
    • Technology for Municipalities is underdeveloped
    • Inefficiency and redundancy are common
    • Information is in disconnected silos
    • Hunting-and-gathering prevails
    Merton=any city
    • Municipalities are the locus of change
    • Cities = Structures + Activities
    • Reality = Backlog + Future Change
    • Space Is the Glue
    • Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up
    • Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation
    The Premises of CK
    • Municipalities are the locus of change
    • Cities = Structures + Activities
    • Reality = Backlog + Future Change
    • Space Is the Glue
    • Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up
    • Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation
    The Premises of CK
      • Like politics, “all change is local”
      • Change is filtered by municipalities
      • Documentation is collected single-mindedly
      • No “real” accumulation of knowledge
      • Intra- and Inter-departmental sharing is minimal
      • Spatial attributes are mishandled
    • Merton directly controls its own buildings
    • Merton controls change to building stock
    • Merton licenses and taxes businesses
    Our locus : the borough
  • Data Farming
  •  
    • Municipalities are the locus of change
    • Cities = Structures + Activities
    • Reality = Backlog + Future Change
    • Space Is the Glue
    • Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up
    • Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation
    The Premises of CK
      • “ The Fundamental problem is to decide what the form of a human settlement consists of […]
      • […] the chosen ground is the spatiotemporal distribution of human actions and the physical things which are the context of those actions […]”.
    Lynch, Good City Form , p. 48
    • Building ( structures ) characteristics are not enough
    • Efficient buildings may have high energy demand
    • Inefficient (abandoned) buildings may not
    • It depends on the “use” = activity
    Structures and Activities in Merton
    • Municipalities are the locus of change
    • Cities = Structures + Activities
    • Reality = Backlog + Future Change
    • Space Is the Glue
    • Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up
    • Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation
    The Premises of CK
      • There is a lot of “reality” already out there…
        • But the amount of information is finite
      • Urban change is rather slow
        • Structural change is already somewhat filtered
        • Most activities do not need frequent updates
      • Consultants are hired to “rummage” through backlog
      • Municipal efforts rarely close the loop!
    • Move to PLAN-READY information at fingertips
    • Leverage web-GIS and on-line web forms
    • Organize data in backend SQL databases
    • Organize utility bills and extract energy information
      • On-line forms (more later) -> single database backend
    • Grow a buildings database (through permits etc.)
      • Intercept permits with on-line forms (single database)
      • Ask about “existing” information with “new”
    • Grow a business database (licenses & Taxes etc.)
      • Ditto
    Closing the loop in Merton
    • Municipalities are the locus of change
    • Cities = Structures + Activities
    • Reality = Backlog + Future Change
    • Space Is the Glue
    • Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up
    • Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation
    The Premises of CK
      • Space is underrated and underutilized
      • Addresses are imperfect identifiers
      • GIS = Geographic Indexing Systems
      • Overlaps/synergies are mostly spatial
    • Maps -> GIS department, Ordnance Survey
    • Data -> IT department = SILOS
    • Addresses -> Gazetteer, UPRNs, TOIDs…
    • CK Solution -> LOUIS (Local Online Urban Information System)
    Geo-indexing in Merton
  • LOUIS
    • ‘ LOUIS V’ based on MassGIS’s OLIVER
    • Open source software
    • Developed at CITY LAB (WPI)
    • Platform for Municipal Information Mgmt.
    • Common basic functionalities
    • Customized applications
    Local On-line Urban Information System
  • Analysis… New Edit Uses… buildings roads parks schools churches industries Energy… Maintenance… Leases… Repairs… Notifications… Contracts… Permits… Inspections… public buildings council estates businesses orthophotos CHP plants 50 m LOUIS – The CITY LAB “Local On-line Urban Information System”
  • MERTON BUILDINGS INFORMATION SYSTEM Standalone Applications DB DB DB Ordnance Survey DTI ONS Online Datasets Permits Plans Notifications Ownership Use Construction Energy City Knowledge Mastermap Energy Use Demographics Schools Estates Analysis… New Edit Uses… buildings roads parks schools churches industries orthos hydrology boundaries Energy… Maintenance… Leases… Repairs… Notifications… Contracts… Permits… Inspections… public buildings council estates businesses orthophotos roads CHP plants 50 m LOUIS – The CITY LAB “Local On-line Urban Information System” data data Buildings CKDB data data data
  • dept dept dept CK CK CK Web-GIS dept dept dept Legacy silos DB DB DB Census RE sales Economic Indicators Standardization Middleware Stubborn Error Correction Online Datasets CAMA Traffic Water FACADES Report Report Report Report Application Application Application Dept. Water DPW Parks
    • Municipalities are the locus of change
    • Cities = Structures + Activities
    • Reality = Backlog + Future Change
    • Space Is the Glue
    • Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up
    • Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation
    The Premises of CK
      • Top-down and bottom-up approaches don’t work
      • Top-down is rigorous and structured… … but is received as an “imposition” and resisted
      • Bottom-up is passionate and self-interested… … but unstructured, unscalable and unsustainable
      • Middle-out combines the positive traits of both
    • Start with ONE department and spread out
      • Environment & Regeneration department
    • Structure and rigor of top-down
      • Expand datasets to support multiple divisions
      • Enforce coding standards (UPRN)
    • Self-interest and passion of bottom-up
      • Each division manages its own data
      • “ Birth Certificates” are issued for structures
      • Activities are captured through admin. acts + occasional surveys
    Middling-out in Merton
    • Municipalities are the locus of change
    • Cities = Structures + Activities
    • Reality = Backlog + Future Change
    • Space Is the Glue
    • Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up
    • Government only has 6 tools for implementation (and information gathering)
    The Premises of CK
      • Ownership & Operation
      • Regulation
      • Incentives/Disincentives
      • Education & Information
      • Rights
      • (Mitigation & Compensation)?
      • Best if used in combination
      • Implementation (“effectors”)
      • Information Farming (“detectors”)
  • Applying the 6 Tools  the Merton experiment
    • Accrue urban information gradually & systematically
    • Leverage “Space” as the “glue” to connect datasets
    • Develop department-level solutions
    • Go after “low-hanging fruits” first
    • Invent creative ways to acquire data
    • Catch up with the backlog
    • Intercept future change
    • Enable sharing and re-utilization of information
    • Instill an information-aware mindset in towns
    The CK Approach Treat Information as an Infrastructure
    • Utilize a “middle-out” approach
    • Demarcate Informational Jurisdictions
    • Systematically accumulate fine-grained data
    • Implement sustainable update mechanisms
    • Share information selectively
    • Coordinate across departments and agencies
    The Principles of CK Treat Information as an Infrastructure
    • Atomize
    • Codify and Index through Space
    • Represent “literally”
    • Capture permanently
    • Acquire at the finest practical grain
    • Parameterize teleologically
    • Spatialize dynamic activities
    • Maximize informational returns
    The Lessons Treat Information as an Infrastructure
    • Fine-grain is now achievable inexpensively
    • Backlog is finite
    • Change is interceptable
    • Technologies can automate data collection
    • Application of the 6 tools can do the rest
    • Internet-based information facilitates sharing
    • Departments are in charge
    • Regional patterns will emerge
    The Essence of CK Treat Information as an Infrastructure
  • Fabio Carrera
      • [email_address]
      • http://www.wpi.edu/~carrera
    Adrian Hewitt
      • [email_address]