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Ucl oct 2012

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  • 1. The City Knowledge Platform Intelligent Urban Agents for Smart CitiesUniversity College London Fabio CarreraCenter for Advanced Spatial Analysis October 19, 2012
  • 2. Fabio Carrera •  Associate Professor at WPI •  BSEE, MSCS (WPI) •  PhD in Urban Information Systems and Planning (MIT) •  Venice, Boston and Santa Fe Project Centers (WPI) •  Chair of Spencer Planning Board •  100’s of City Projects for past 25 yearsKey CK Papers:•  Scholar.google.com (Fabio Carrera)•  Carrera 2004 (MIT Dissertation)•  Carrera & Ferreira (2007)•  Carrera & Hewitt (2006)
  • 3. TODAY Part I: Cities and City KnowledgePart II: Cities as Complex Adaptive Systems Part III: Demonstrations of CK Platform
  • 4. TODAY Part I: Cities and City KnowledgePart II: Cities as Complex Adaptive Systems Part III: Demonstrations of CK Platform
  • 5. PART I: CITIES AND CITY KNOWLEDGE Urban Data Management City Knowledge Concepts
  • 6. URBAN DATA MANAGEMENT 1.0 Documentation (vs. Information) Silos and Stovepipes Redundancy and Discrepancies Staff, Vendors and Consultants Complicated Cross-Coordination
  • 7. CITY KNOWLEDGE CONCEPTS Foundations Premises Tenets Implementation
  • 8. DISSERTATION (MIT) - 2004City Knowledge: An Emergent InformationInfrastructure for Sustainable Urban Maintenance,Management and Planning http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/28790 (google: ”City Knowledge MIT”)
  • 9. DISSERTATION (MIT) - 2004An Emergent Information Infrastructure forSustainable Urban Maintenance, Management andPlanningInformation As the variety of geospatial information and data resources increases eachyear, the demand for understanding and building sustainable information andknowledge structures remains a critical research challenge for the geo-spatialinformation community.Shuler, 2003. Research Priority of the University Consortium of GeographicInformation Science.
  • 10. DISSERTATION (MIT) - 2004 An Emergent Information Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Maintenance, Management and Planning Information InfrastructureLike the water distribution system, the road network, the sewage system… (connected, efficient, maintained, funded, pervasive)
  • 11. DISSERTATION (MIT) - 2004 An Emergent Information Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Maintenance, Management and Planning Information Infrastructure EmergentNot centrally designed or imposed from the top, but gradually constructed fromself-serving departmental modules
  • 12. DISSERTATION (MIT) - 2004 An Emergent Information Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Maintenance, Management and Planning Information Infrastructure Emergent SustainableNot a single-purpose do-it-all system doomed for obsolescence, but continuallyfed with perpetual update mechanisms
  • 13. DISSERTATION (MIT) - 2004 An Emergent Information Infrastructure for Sustainable Urban Maintenance, Management and Planning Information Infrastructure Emergent Sustainable Maintenance, Management & PlanningUseful in multiple contexts, serving the operational (maintenance) needs of thetown first, while also feeding higher-order management and planning functions ofthe municipality.
  • 14. EVOLUTION OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Plan Demanded Data Plan Ready Information Plan Demanding Knowledge
  • 15. EVOLUTION OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Plan Demanded Data•  Plan Ready Information Data is collected for a “specific” reason when a plan or a process demands it.• It is typically acquired as documentation to support a decision/plan.• It is not used for anything else. Plan Demanding Knowledge•  It is often discarded (archived) after it is used once. Status Quo in Most Cities
  • 16. EVOLUTION OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Plan Demanded Data Plan Ready Information•  Plan Demanding Knowledge Plan-demanded data is acquired as information•  Where possible, richer data is collected to serve multiple purposes•  Data is preserved beyond its immediate use•  Up-to-date information is always available for plans/processes CK = Information at your fingertips (efficiency)
  • 17. EVOLUTION OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Plan Demanded Data Plan Ready Information Plan Demanding Knowledge•  Over time, patterns/issues emerge from an analysis of plan-ready information•  This knowledge triggers the demand for a plan to address issues CK+ = Unforeseen Benefits Emerge (Value-added bonus)
  • 18. GOAL OF CITY KNOWLEDGETo promote the transformation of Municipalities fromHunter-gatherers of urban data to Farmers ofmunicipal information
  • 19. PHILOSOPHY OF CITY KNOWLEDGEUrban Information should be: treated as any other City Infrastructure farmed not hunted atomized by urban element re-combined and re-used
  • 20. PREMISES OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Cities are “finite” City = Structures & Activities Municipal gov. controls urban change Past can be reconstructed (once) Future can be intercepted (daily)
  • 21. PREMISES OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Cities are “finite”•  Spatially (boundaries) City = Structures & Activities•  Temporally (past and future) Municipal gov. controls urban change Past is capturable (once) Future is also capturable (daily)
  • 22. PREMISES OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Cities are “finite” City = Structures & Activities The Fundamental problem is to decide what the form of a human settlementconsists of […] Municipal gov. controls urban change[…] the chosen ground is the spatiotemporalis capturable (once) Past distribution of human actionsand the physical things which are the context of those actions […] . Future is also capturable (daily) Kevin Lynch, Good City Form
  • 23. PREMISES OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Cities are “finite” City = Structures & ActivitiesMunicipal gov. controls urban change•  Like politics, all change isis capturable (once) Past local•  Change is brought about (primarily) by private sector Future is also capturable (daily)•  Change is filtered by municipalities
  • 24. PREMISES OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Cities are “finite” City = Structures & Activities Municipal gov. controls urban change Past can be reconstructed (once)•  Future can be intercepted (daily) There is a lot of “stuff” already out there•  But the amount is finite•  And it only needs to be captured once
  • 25. PREMISES OF CITY KNOWLEDGE•  Structures change slowly yet daily Cities are “finite” •  But Change is filtered by government City = Structures & Activities•  Activities change rapidly • Municipal gov. controls urban change But can be frozen periodically •  And Past can be reconstructed (once) not that frequently Future can be intercepted (daily)
  • 26. TENETS OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Space is “the glue” Activities are localizable Data stays where it is created Self-interest guides adoptionMiddle-out = bottom-up + top-down
  • 27. PRINCIPLES OF CITY KNOWLEDGE Espouse a Middle-out Approach Demarcate Informational Jurisdictions Relentlessly Accrue Fine-grained Data Implement Sustainable Update Mechanisms Share Information Selectively Coordinate Across Departments and AgenciesTreat Information as an Infrastructure!
  • 28. ADOPTING CITY KNOWLEDGE Adopt an information-aware m.o.Extract informational returns systematically Connect datasets through “space” Develop department-level solutions Start with “low-hanging” fruits
  • 29. The Lessonsn  Atomizen  Codify and Index through Spacen  Represent literallyn  Capture permanentlyn  Acquire at the finest practical grainn  Parameterize teleologicallyn  Spatialize dynamic activitiesn  Maximize informational returnsTreat Information as an Infrastructure
  • 30. The Essence of CKn  Fine-grain is now achievable inexpensivelyn  Backlog is finiten  Change is interceptablen  Technologies can automate data collectionn  Application of the 6 tools can do the restn  Internet-based information facilitates sharingn  Departments are in chargen  Regional patterns will emerge Treat Information as an Infrastructure
  • 31. IMPLEMENTING CITY KNOWLEDGE Connecting Legacy Systems Collecting Backlog Data Capturing Future Change Facilitating Interagency Coordination Identifying Self-funding Mechanisms
  • 32. TODAY Part I: Cities and City KnowledgePart II: Cities as Complex Adaptive Systems Part III: Demonstrations of CK Platform
  • 33. PART II: COMPLEXITY AND CITIES Complexity Principles Urban Agents The City Knowledge Platform
  • 34. PART II: COMPLEXITY AND CITIES Complexity Principles CK + ABM = Urban Agents The City Knowledge Platform
  • 35. COMPLEXITY PRINCIPLES Santa Fe Complex Adaptive Systems Agents Models Complexity and Cities
  • 36. COMPLEXITY AND SANTA FE Santa Fe Institute Redfish Santa Fe Complex WPI Santa Fe Project Center
  • 37. Santa Fe Institute
  • 38. COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS Self-Organizing Structures Lightning, Tornadoes and Whirlpools Complex Animal Behaviors Swarming & Foraging Attraction/Repulsion & Stigmergy
  • 39. Swarm BehaviorBoids josh@stigmergic.net
  • 40. A Simple Agent
  • 41. Repel
  • 42. Attract Repel
  • 43. Stigmergic Behaviordual gradients in ant foraging algorithm Antz
  • 44. AGENTS Simple Autonomous BehaviorNot guided by overarching control Find & Remove Gradients Monitor & Change Space
  • 45. AGENT BASED MODELING Modeling of Activities Thin AgentsComplex Distributed Behavior No Central “Brain”
  • 46. 2D Crowd Evacuations (90’s)
  • 47. 2.5D Evacuation w/ Interaction
  • 48. Text   Multi-model Applications play “CerroGordo_15seconds.mov” here please insert all movies at full frame48
  • 49. Pedestrians and Changing Space (‘06)
  • 50. COMPLEXITY AND CITIES Cities are Self-Organizing Structures City Government softens Gradients USA: Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness Rome: Humanitas, Libertas et FelicitasThe CK Platform as applied Complexity (1)  Agents and Stigmergy (2)  City Gradients and City Processes
  • 51. PART II: COMPLEXITY AND CITIES Complexity Principles CK + ABM = Urban Agents The City Knowledge Platform
  • 52. URBAN AGENTSUrban Agents (for Structures and Activities) Birth Certificates Intelligent Urban Assets
  • 53. Example: Venice Public Art Coats of Arms Confraternity Crosses Fragments Decorations Symbols Sculptures Inscriptions Patere Street Altars Reliefs Keystones Bells Church Floors Lunette Portals• Flagstaff Pedestals Fountains Wellheads Monuments
  • 54. UNESCO Public Art App
  • 55. PART II: COMPLEXITY AND CITIES Complexity Principles Urban Agents The City Knowledge Platform
  • 56. THE CITY KNOWLEDGE PLATFORM Urban Data Farming Interagency Coordination
  • 57. URBAN DATA FARMING Legacy Data Automatic sensors Mobile Apps
  • 58. LEGACY DATA Integrated, not supplanted Instant updatesBi-directional synchronization The CK Console The CK Chrome Extension
  • 59. CK Console
  • 60. CK Chrome Extension
  • 61. AUTOMATIC SENSORS Data Loggers Surveillance CamerasExisting underutilized sensor networks
  • 62. Energence
  • 63. Boston Street Lights
  • 64. Subscribing to Camera Pixels
  • 65. MOBILE APPS InputApp.com VeniceNoise.org StreetBump.orgPreserVenice.org
  • 66. InputApp
  • 67. Venicenoise.org
  • 68. StreetBump.org
  • 69. PreserVenice.org
  • 70. INTERAGENCY COORDINATION Privacy and Security Private and/or Public Data Sharing with GroupsInteractive collaborative Environments
  • 71. play firefighters.m4v here
  • 72. THANKS!carrera@wpi.edufabiocarrera.comcarrera.fabio@gmail.com

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