CK_Long_tail

406 views

Published on

Describes the essential elements of City Knowledge

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
406
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Christopher Hood
  • CK_Long_tail

    1. 1. Knowledge Farming City Knowledge and the Long Tail of Small Cities Fabio Carrera UCL-CASA, March 2, 2007
    2. 2. <ul><li>Born in Venice, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>BSEE and MSCS @ WPI </li></ul><ul><li>PhD @ MIT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Information Systems and Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching @ WPI and MIT </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Venice and Boston Project Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Founder and Director of City Lab (WPI) </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Board in Spencer, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant to municipalities </li></ul>Bio Fabio Carrera
    3. 3. <ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Farming </li></ul><ul><li>The Long Tail of Small Cities </li></ul>Presentation Outline
    4. 4. <ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Farming </li></ul><ul><li>The Long Tail of Small Cities </li></ul>Presentation Outline
    5. 5. Promotes the transformation of municipalities from hunter-gatherers of urban data to farmers of municipal information City Knowledge
    6. 6. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 6 tools for implementation and data collection </li></ul>The Premises of CK
    7. 7. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>Like politics, “all change is local” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change is filtered/allowed by municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with CK: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City departments implement information strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban information is farmed-in at a fine grain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation becomes Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intra- and Inter-departmental sharing is commonplace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional patterns (SDI) emerge upon municipal foundations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>“ The Fundamental problem is to decide what the form of a human settlement consists of […] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[…] the chosen ground is the spatiotemporal distribution of human actions and the physical things which are the context of those actions […]”. </li></ul></ul>Lynch, Good City Form , p. 48 <ul><ul><li>Structures are more stable and permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural change can be captured as it occurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities are more dynamic and fickle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities can be frozen in time and space (snapshots) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with CK: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about structures is routinely updated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities are “spatialized” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities are periodically frozen </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>There is a lot of “reality” already out there… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But the amount of information is finite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with CK the backlog can be completely captured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban change is rather slow so, with CK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all Structural change is captured at the source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>snapshots of activities are creatively obtained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with CK, municipal information is “farmed” daily </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>within CK: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space plays a key role in municipal information farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses are no longer primary spatial identifiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIS means Geographic Indexing Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space indexes our datasets </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>Top-down is rigorous and structured… … but is received as an “imposition” and resisted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up is passionate and self-interested… … but unstructured, unscalable and unsustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with CK: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure top-down and bottom-up approaches disappear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-out combines the positive traits of both </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 6 tools for implementation (and information gathering) </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>Ownership & Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education & Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigation & Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with CK: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities consciously & creatively combine the 6 tools for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information Farming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy/Plan Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Farming </li></ul><ul><li>The Long Tail of Small Cities </li></ul>Presentation Outline
    14. 14. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov.’t applied to Data Farming
    15. 15. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov.’t <ul><ul><li>whereby municipalities… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt internal mechanisms to farm THEIR OWN data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize Information in Standard Operating Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extract Informational Returns from all internal processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change “job descriptions” for personnel to include information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catch up with their own “backlog” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intercept all future internal change as it happens </li></ul></ul></ul>applied to Data Farming
    16. 16. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov.’t applied to Data Farming <ul><ul><li>whereby municipalities… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make informational Returns part of their regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force outside entities to provide information (for free) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change submission requirements (permits, plans…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modify maintenance and management contracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institute yearly renewals for data updates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply regulations to capture backlog as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invent creative ways to acquire datasets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Become “validators” instead of “collectors” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov.’t applied to Data Farming <ul><ul><li>whereby municipalities… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routinely entice outside entities into providing information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change submission fee structures (permits, plans…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make “old ways” costly (disincentives) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make it cheaper to do the right thing (incentives) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide benefits for data updates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invent bonuses for data backlog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reward and enforce collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Validate incoming data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov.’t applied to Data Farming <ul><ul><li>whereby municipalities… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly educate citizens about the use of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are always transparent about motives for data collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explore potential for volunteer citizen input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incite “peer-production” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make educational institutions partners in the process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge and Reward collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include this aspect in ALL their initiatives </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov.’t applied to Data Farming <ul><ul><li>Requires “real” creativity but is very powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More useful for implementation, to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade-up “as-of” rights in exchange for desired outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the end municipalities can… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include informational returns any time rights are renegotiated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase “as-of” rights in exchange for data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov.’t applied to Data Farming <ul><ul><li>More useful for implementation, to… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigate negative consequences of initiatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove final obstacles to implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with this tool municipalities could… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accumulate complaints and suggestions from affected parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide online tools for quantifying and logging problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Farming </li></ul><ul><li>The Long Tail of Small Cities </li></ul>Presentation Outline
    22. 22. Birth Certificates <ul><ul><li>Municipalities treat their assets as newborn babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities identify “parent” dept’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dept’s produce a “birth certificate” for each asset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent dept. assigns “name” (and code) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death and Adoption certificates are treated similarly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other dept’s refer to assets by their given name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A municipal spatial data infrastructure emerges </li></ul></ul>the concept
    23. 24. <ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Farming </li></ul><ul><li>The Long Tail of Small Cities </li></ul>Presentation Outline
    24. 25. Data Farming
    25. 26. <ul><li>Municipal Spatial Data Infrastructures emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Towns have “plan-ready” information </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities stop hunting-and-gathering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is farmed instead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change is captured at the source (for free) </li></ul><ul><li>Open-source web-GIS dominate </li></ul><ul><li>New business models emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Profits come from “changers” and “users” </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector contributes fine-grained data </li></ul><ul><li>Web services are the means/currency </li></ul>Data Farming With the farming of City Knowledge:
    26. 27. Web-services <ul><ul><li>Open-source web-GIS are the platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light clients or AJAX apps replace standalone apps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems are upgraded regularly on server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities get data and applications for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web services are available as tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept’s mash-up web-services to suit needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata is reliably available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 techniques are commonplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation Management, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Information Systems exploit the Long Tail </li></ul></ul>and City Knowledge
    27. 28. MERTON BUILDINGS INFORMATION SYSTEM Standalone Applications DB DB DB Ordnance Survey DTI ONS Online Datasets Permits Plans Notifications Ownership Use Construction Energy City Knowledge Mastermap Energy Use Demographics Schools Estates Analysis… New Edit Uses… buildings roads parks schools churches industries orthos hydrology boundaries Energy… Maintenance… Leases… Repairs… Notifications… Contracts… Permits… Inspections… public buildings council estates businesses orthophotos roads CHP plants 50 m LOUIS – The CITY LAB “Local On-line Urban Information System” data data Buildings CKDB data data data
    28. 29. <ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Farming </li></ul><ul><li>The Long Tail of Small Cities </li></ul>Presentation Outline
    29. 30. The Long Tail 163,547 towns (local gov.t) in the world 163,239 < 1 Million pop. 159,349 < 100,000 pop. 130,206 < 10,000 pop. 64,307 < 1,000 pop.
    30. 31. The Long Tail and City Knowledge Size of Cities Large Cities Small Cities The total population that lives in small and medium cities is greater than the population in megacities. Small towns (“tail”) represent a huge market opportunity. ANY TOWN
    31. 32. The Long Tail Change managed by various Departments Planning, Buildings, DPW Other Departments The Long Tail is Fractal. within a Municipality Target main departments ANY DEPARTMENT The Long Tail is Fractal. Starting with the “head” makes sense, but all departments ought to eventually adopt the CK approach.
    32. 33. The Long Tail
    33. 34. The Long Tail
    34. 35. The Long Tail
    35. 36. The Long Tail
    36. 37. The Long Tail From RedfishGroup (redfish.com) – Santa Fe
    37. 38. The Long Tail Amount of Change by different “agents” specific developers, contractors, staff Other agents Again, the “head” will yield instant benefits, although the change generated by agents in the tail may be quantitatively just as large. Target all agents eventually major agents within a Department ANY AGENT
    38. 39. The Long Tail Change produced via various processes subdivision approvals, construction permits, contracts Other Processes Processes in the head are major vehicles of change. Minor processes in the tail still add up to major change. Eventually all processes will be addressed by CK. within an administrative process Low-hanging fruits ANY PROCESS
    39. 40. The Long Tail Change produced over time BACKLOG Future Change The backlog may be huge but it is finite and worth catching up with. Focusing on the long tail of future piecemeal change will close the loop forever. past and future
    40. 41. <ul><li>Municipal Spatial Data Infrastructures flourish </li></ul><ul><li>Departments farm their “data plots” </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 tools make data farming perpetual/free </li></ul><ul><li>Fine-grain is achieved routinely </li></ul><ul><li>Backlog is completely captured </li></ul><ul><li>Change is intercepted as it happens </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies automate/facilitate data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services enable intra-/inter-dept. sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Information is treated like an infrastructure </li></ul>In Summary
    41. 42. More about CK <ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.wpi.edu/~carrera/Publications/Publications.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.wpi.edu/~carrera/MIT/dissertation.html </li></ul></ul>

    ×