Soil classification

26,545 views
25,875 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
26,545
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
490
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Soil classification

  1. 1. Soil Classification
  2. 2. 2 Soil Texture
  3. 3. 3 Soil Texture The texture of a soil is its appearance or “feel” and it depends on the relative sizes and shapes of the particles as well as the range or distribution of those sizes. Coarse-grained soils: Gravel Sand Fine-grained soils: Silt Clay 0.075 mm (USCS) 0.06 mm (BS) (Hong Kong) Sieve analysis Hydrometer analysis
  4. 4. 4 1.2 Characteristics (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981)
  5. 5. 5 Grain Size and Grain Size Distribution
  6. 6. Take note!!! The sizes of particles that make up soil vary over a wide range. Soils are generally called gravel, sand, silt, or clay, depending on the predominant size of particles within the soil. To describe soils by their particle size, several organizations have developed particle-size classifications.
  7. 7. Particle Size Distribution boulders > 60mm 60mm > gravel > 2mm 2mm > sand > 60 m 60 m > silt > 2 m 2 m > clay Each class may is sub-divided into coarse, medium and fine. for sand: 2mm > coarse sand > 600 m 600 m > medium sand > 200 m 200 m > fine sand > 60 m Classification boundaries either begin with a '2' or a '6'.
  8. 8. Soil-Particle Size Classification
  9. 9. 9 Grain Size 4.75 Unit: mm (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981) USCS BS 0.075 2.0 0.06 0.002 USCS: Unified Soil Classification BS: British Standard
  10. 10. • Data often presented as Particle Size Distribution Curves with logarithmic scale on X-axis Particle Size Distribution (continued) • S - shaped - but some conventions of curves going left to right, others, the opposite way around sand siltclay
  11. 11. A Problem • clay is used both as a classifier of size as above, and also to define particular types of material. • clays exhibit a property known as cohesion (the "stickiness" associated with clays). General Properties • Gravels ----- permeability is of the order of mm s-1. • Clays ----- it is 10-7 mm/s or less. • Compressibility of the soil increases as the particle size decreases. • Permeability of the soil decreases as the particle size decreases. Particle Size Distribution (continued)
  12. 12. 12 Sieve Sizes (Das, 1998) (Head, 1992)
  13. 13. 13 Grain Size Distribution (Cont.) Coarse-grained soils: Gravel Sand Fine-grained soils: Silt Clay 0.075 mm (USCS) 0.06 mm (BS) (Hong Kong) •Experiment Sieve analysis Hydrometer analysis (Head, 1992)
  14. 14. 14 Grain Size Distribution (Cont.) Log scale (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981) Effective size D10: 0.02 mm D30: D60:
  15. 15. 15 Grain Size Distribution (Cont.) • Describe the shape Example: well graded •Criteria •Question What is the Cu for a soil with only one grain size? 2 )9)(02.0( )6.0( )D)(D( )D( C curvatureoftCoefficien 450 02.0 9 D D C uniformityoftCoefficien 2 6010 2 30 c 10 60 u   mm9D mm6.0D )sizeeffective(mm02.0D 60 30 10    )sandsfor( 6Cand3C1 )gravelsfor( 4Cand3C1 soilgradedWell uc uc   
  16. 16. 16 Answer •Question What is the Cu for a soil with only one grain size? D Finer 1 D D C uniformityoftCoefficien 10 60 u  Grain size distribution
  17. 17. SAMPLE PROBLEM 1. For a soil with D60 =0.42mm, and D30 =0.21mm, and D10 =0.16, calculate and the coefficient of gradation. Sol’n; CU =D60 /D10 =0.42mm/0.16mm=2.625 CC = (D30 )2 /(D10 )(D60) =(0.21)2 / (0.16)(0.42)=0.66
  18. 18. 2. The following are the results of a sieve analysis: US Sieve No. Mass of Soil Retained on Each Sieve (g) Opening Commulative Mass % Passing 4 10 20 40 60 100 200 PAN 0 18.5 53.2 90.5 81.8 92.2 58.5 26.5 4.75 2.0 .850 .425 .250 .150 .075 0 18.5 71.5 162.2 244 336.2 394.1 421.2 100 95.608 82.977 61.491 42.070 20.180 6.434 0 a.) Determine the percent finer than each sieve size and plot a grain- size distribution curve. b.) Determine D10 , D30 and D60 from the grain-size distribution curve. c.) Calculate the uniformity coefficient, Cu. d.) Calculate the coefficient of graduation, Cc.
  19. 19. Grain-size distribution curve 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0.01 0.1 1 10
  20. 20. Solution c.) Cu = D60 /D10 =0.4/0.12= 3.33 d.) CC = (D)2/(D60)(D10) =1.01
  21. 21. 3.The particle-size characteristics of a soil are given in the table. Sieve no. Opening % Passing 4 10 20 40 80 200 4.75 2.00 0.850 0.425 0.180 0.075 100 90 64 38 18 13 Calculate the uniformity coefficient ( Cu) and coefficient of gradation ( Cc).
  22. 22. Sol’n: Cu= D60/ D10= 0.73/0.019= 38.421 Cc = (0.29)2 / (0.73)(.019)=0.063
  23. 23. 23 Grain Size Distribution (Cont.) • Engineering applications  It will help us “feel” the soil texture (what the soil is) and it will also be used for the soil classification (next topic).  It can be used to define the grading specification of a drainage filter (clogging).  It can be a criterion for selecting fill materials of embankments and earth dams, road sub-base materials, and concrete aggregates.  It can be used to estimate the results of grouting and chemical injection, and dynamic compaction.  Effective Size, D10, can be correlated with the hydraulic conductivity (describing the permeability of soils). (Hazen’s Equation).(Note: controlled by small particles) The grain size distribution is more important to coarse-grained soils.
  24. 24. 24 Particle Shape  Important for granular soils  Angular soil particle  higher friction  Round soil particle  lower friction  Note that clay particles are sheet-like. Rounded Subrounde d Subangular Angular (Holtz and Kovacs, 1981) Coarse- grained soils
  25. 25. Thank you!!!

×