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The Copenhagen Accord Contents
 

The Copenhagen Accord Contents

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Delivered at a FAO informal meeting, this presentation highlights the opportunities and challenges in climate change mitigation, adaptation and finance for African and non-African countries.

Delivered at a FAO informal meeting, this presentation highlights the opportunities and challenges in climate change mitigation, adaptation and finance for African and non-African countries.

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    The Copenhagen Accord Contents The Copenhagen Accord Contents Presentation Transcript

    • The contents of the Copenhagen Accord on climate change Valentino Piana Rome, 23nd March 2010
    • Contents 1. The climate debate 2. The Copenhagen Accord: the components and the positive elements 3. Adaptation to climate change - the African NAPAs 4. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions 5. Finance 6. Next steps www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 1. The climate debate Climate Sustainability change Development World Food financial security architecture www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 2. The Copenhagen Accord: the components The Accord is constituted by: 1. The list of countries that associate themselves with it 107 until now, of which 2. Twelve articles about 28 African countries * A shared vision of the future Below +2o Degrees Mostly * Adaptation deve- loped * Annex I countries commitments about reduction of greenhouse gases emissions coun- * Non-Annex I countries Nationally appropriate mitigation actions tries Mostly * Deforestation and forest degradation actions (e.g.developing EU, * Incentives to low emitting economies countries USA, * New and additional, predictable and adequated funding with improved access Japan, …) * A High Level Panel to study the sources of funds * The Copenhagen Green Climate Fund * A country-driven Technology Mechanism * The next steps, including the assessment of the implementation of the Accord 3. An appendix containing the commitments of Annex I countries 4. An appendix containing the mitigation actions by non-Annex I countries 5. A Registry of the mitigation actions seeking international support www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 2. The Copenhagen Accord: the positive elements The Accord will test the effectiveness of an approach focused on immediate actions and verification of commitments, through alternative moves from all countries (bottom-up approach). It can fail and under-deliver but it is worth trying. In particular, CA is characterized by the following elements: 1. All major GHG emitting countries involved, generating specific pledges from 73 countries that together account for more than 80 per cent of global emissions from energy use 2. “Operational immediately” 3. 30 billion dollars committed by developed countries for the first three years (of which 2.4 billion euros committed by EU countries yearly 2010-2012) 4. A steep rising pathway of funding up to 100 US billions in 2020, where the sources will be studied by a High Level Panel (co-chairs and members already chosen) 5. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions by non-Annex I countries both unilateral and conditional on obtaining international support in terms of technology, funding and capacity-building (art. 5) 6. Technology Mechanism selected, linked to NAMAs (art. 11) 7. Annex I Kyoto Protocol parties “further strengthen” their commitments (art. 4) www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 3. Adaptation to climate change - the African NAPAsArt. 3 of the Copenhagen Accord:“Adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change and the potential impacts of response measures is a challenge faced by all countries. Enhanced action and international cooperation on adaptation is urgently required to ensure the implementation of the [UNFCCC] Convention by enabling and supporting the implementation of adaptation actions aimed at reducing vulnerability and building resilience in developing countries, especially in those that are particularly vulnerable, especially least developed countries, small island developing States and Africa.We agree that developed countries shall provide adequate, predictable and sustainable financial resources, technology and capacity-building to support the implementation of adaptation action in developing countries.” www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 3. Adaptation to climate change - the African NAPAsWell in advance to Copenhagen conference, most Least Developed Countries prepared programs for adaptation, the so-called National Adaptation Programmes of Actions.Their cumulative cost is about 1 .7 billion US dollars.32 African countries have so far presented NAPAs, for a total of about1.350 billion US dollars (about the 80% of the total).The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) required long procedures to access the funds as well as large co-financing.Until recently, GEF has disboursed only about 60 millions dollars. www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 4. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs): an overview NAMAs are schematic texts submitted to UNFCCC Secretariat by national focal points, to be collected in Appendix II of CA and in a special Registry (if looking for support). The 32 countries that have presented official NAMAs before 7th March 2010 have interpreted “Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions” in a wide range of ways: * carbon-neutrality declaration; * economy-wide commitments of reducing emissions in percentage with respect to a baseline of Business-as-Usual trajectory; * absolute reductions of CO2-eq emissions; * sectoral preferential directions of development; * specific goals and actions; * localized projects with specified technical parametres. www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 4. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs): an overview The geographical distribution of NAMAs 14 12 10 Africa 8 Asia 6 Latin America Europe 4 Oceania 2 0 N. countries www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 4. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs): an overview The sectoral distribution of NAMAs 25 Forestry 20 Transport 15 Renewable energies 10 Agriculture 5 Waste Building 0 N. countries www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 4. NAMAs in national planning UNFCCC, MEF/G8/G20 Low-emission development strategy (art.2 CA) Climate Action Plans (BAP six pillars: Shared Vision, Mitigation, Adaptation, Technology, Finance, Capacity building), e.g. National Adaptation Strategy Local NAMAs NAPAs Adaptation …. Plans www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 4. The process of devising NAMAs and obtaining international support In the country International interface Abroad Analysis of existing and forthcoming laws Existing funds and policies Copenhagen Green Climate Fund Mitigation potential Submission of NAMAs and international to UNFCCC Inter-governmental organizations best practices Private investors Economic mechanisms Detail design of activation of measures Technology / Solution providers Research centres Matching mechanism, National stakeholders dynamics and events NGOs Localisation and Local stakeholders implementation www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 4. An evaluation of the existing NAMAs Positive features Negative features  Not clear the kind and features of the  Wide variety international support looked for  Usually reflecting the national  No economic mechanism of activation circumstances, existing laws and  Not mobilizing the private investors policies  No legal guarantees for investors  Fairly aware of international best  No appeal to research centres and NGOs practices  Unexplored connection with the  Many sectors mentioned (e.g. Technology Mechanism energy, transport, building,  Often lacking CO2 reduction agriculture, forestry, tourism,…) quantification  Concise documents  Always lacking estimated costs, thus  Better than CDM as for broader also the cost per avoided ton of CO2eq transformational potential  Transformational effects (e.g. green jobs, competitiveness, tax revenue,...) not expressed www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 5. Finance How much is raised 10 billions a year in 2010-2012 up to 100 billions in 2020 Who pays and What to fund by which source Balanced allocation High level panel between adaptation and will make a proposal mitigation How and who manage (for the first 30 billions) the funds Existing institutions + Copenhagen Green Climate Fund www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting
    • 6. Next steps UNECA G8/G20 in High Level UNFCCC UNFCCC Toronto - launch UNFCCC G8/G20 in COP16 joint session in Korea in Cancún panel on session session on session in of the finance - 9th-11th May-June Copenhagen Sept/Oct ? (November) (Mexico) with first finance April (Bonn) Green Climate meeting ministries (Bonn) Fund? 29th March in Malawi Further NAMAs and NAPAs submissions, updated communications, matching events Raising the international support of inter-governmental organizations, multilateral and bilateral donors, research centres, NGOs, etc. www.economicswebinstitute.org Cutting-edge research & implementation consulting